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					    Survey and safe control of varroa mite, Varroa jacobsoni infesting
             honeybee colonies at Menoufia district, Egypt

S.M.Abo-Taka1, H.A. Sharaf El-Din1, A. El-Nabawi1, M.A. El-Samni1
                      and R.E.S.Ibrahim2
1
  Economic Ent. and Agricultural Zoology Department, Faculty of Agriculture,
  Menoufia, University , Egypt
2
  Apiculture Research Division, Agric. Res. Center, Giza, Egypt

                               ABSTRACT
      An extensive survey for varroa mite has been conducted during two
successive years in an private apiary at Shebin El-Kom locality of
Menoufia governorate, Delta, Egypt. The efficiency of some control
agents against varroa mite infesting honeybee colonies was studied. The
results concluded that sealed and adult drones were highly susceptible to
the infection by varroa mite than sealed and adult workers at the colonies
under investigation during two successive years of study. There were
significant differences between infestation of drones and workers. Data
stated that varroa mite had 6 and 8 peaks on sealed worker cells for the
first and second years, respectively while only 6 peaks on sealed drone
cells for both of two years. Results of varroa mite control showed that
clove-oil gave the best result (92.27%) followed by mixed wheat and
kerfa (88.75%) , Di-stop solution (81.31%) , Camphor tablets (60.71%) ,
Formic acid (58.83%).Applying clove-oil three times/year (during
February , July and November) gave the best results in the control of
varroa mite.

Key Words: Honeybees, varroa mite, survey, safe control

                           INTRODUCTION
      The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa jacobsoni Oud. causes dangerous
effects on the commercial apiaries through feeding on the heamolymph of
the larvae, nymphs, and adults of honeybees, in addition it causes loss in
the weight of pupae and workers (De Jong et al., 1982).
      The infestation by Varroa jacobsoni in honeybee colonies was
recorded for the first time in Egypt in 1987 (Wienands and Madel, 1988)
and within the last 15 years, the parasite has become a subject of bee-
keepers concern, and has been found in the majority of the Egyptian
apiaries (Abd El-Fattah et al. 1991).
     The impact of varroa infestation depends on the degree of infestation
in the honeybee colony: low infestation apparently causes little damage,
while high one leads to colony death (Cavalloro, 1998).
     The most extensive spread of varroa disease has been caused by
transporting bee colonies from one country to another (Griffith and
Bowman, 1981). Migratory beekeeping, importation of colonies, package
of bees and queens, are considered to be the possible ways of varroa
spread. The spread of varroa within colonies is due to swarming, robbing
and foraging.
     This work was carried out throughout the period from 2001 to 2005
in three apiaries at Menoufia Governorate (Berket El-Saba, Quessna, and
Shebin El-Kom), aiming to study the control of varroa mite.
                   MATERIALS AND METHODS
Population dynamics of Varroa jacobsoni infesting honeybee in three
localities along two successive years:

     Three private apiaries hybrid Carniolan were chosen for this study
where it were naturally infested with V. jacobsoni, at three localities of
Menoufia Governorate (Berket EL-Saba, Quessna, and Shebin El-Kom)
along two successive years.
     Biweekly three samples of sealed workers, sealed drones, workers
and drones, of each colony at three localities were collected.
     Each sample was 100 bees for adults or sealed brood cell from all
treatments.
Evaluation of some materials in varroa control:
     An apiary at Berket El-Saba, locality was chosen for this
experiment, naturally infested with varroa mite. Twenty one colonies
were marked (3 colony / material) and applied as follows:
1- Formic acid 65% at the rate of 4 ml/colony which treated on a paper
sheet (30x20 cm) and put on the upper direction of infested frame.
2- Camphour (an exported product) at rate of two tablets/colony which
was applied by putting it at the lower direction of the infested frames.
3- Oxalic acid (30 gm/ liter water) at the rate of 6 cm3/colony, used as
spray.
4- Clove oil (3ml/liter water) at the rate of 3 ml /colony as spraying
treatment.
5- Di-stop (a local product) which is consisted of different physical and
chemical materials at the rate of 4 cm3/colony which treated on a paper
sheet and put in bottom of the frame.
6- Wheat flour and Kerfa dust at the rate of 20 gm/colony dusting on the
infested frames and bees.
7- Check was left without any treatments.
     All materials were applied at the first of January. Varroa mites were
counted pre-treatment and post-treatment at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days as a
number of varroa mites per 100 workers.
Control of varroa mite infesting honeybee colony using clove oil
material for one year:

     An apiary, naturally infested with varroa mite at Berket El-Saba
locality was chosen for this experiment.
     Six colonies were chosen, three served as check treatment, the rest
three colonies were treated with clove oil (3 cm3/colony) at three times,
1st of Feb., 1st of July, and 1st of Nov.
     Bimonthly three samples each 100 workers were collected from each
treatment.
Statistical analysis:
     All obtained data were statistically analyzed according to ANOVA
test Snedecor and Cochran (1973) and Costat 22 (1998).
       Reduction percentages were counted according to the formula of
Henderson and Tilton (1955) and (Fleming and Retnakaran, 1985)
                      RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
       The principal purpose of this research was to throw a light on the
ecology, biology and control of varroa mite infesting honeybee colonies.

1- Population dynamics of Varroa jacobsoni infesting honeybee
   worker and drone stages at Shebin El-Kom locality, Menoufia
   governorate:
    The numbers of varroa mites on sealed brood of workers and drones
for two successive years, also, the numbers of varroa mites on adult of
workers and drones at Shebin El-Kom locality are recorded in Tables (1
&2).
           1.1- On worker sealed brood:
       Data presented in Table (1) cleared that in the first year, low
numbers of mites were recorded at Apr. (1.6 , 1.4), May (2.0 , 1.2), Mar.
(2.6 , 1.8), June 3.2 , 2.4), July (7.2 , 5.2), then it increased gradually from
Sep. reaching (26.6 ,28.2), Oct. (27.6 , 25.2) and (17.2 , 19.2) during
August, then it is sharply decreased at Nov. (4.8 ,3.6), Dec. (5.4 , 4.2),
Feb. (6.2 , 4.2), and (10.0 , 8.4) during January.
       Results of the second year are in harmony with those obtained from
the first year where mean numbers were 9.14 and 8.51 indiv. for the first
and second seasons, respectively.
       Statistical analysis of data, indicated that there were significant
differences between the most of year months. There were no significant
differences between (Feb., Jul., Nov. months and Dec.). the mean
numbers were 9.14 and 8.51 indiv. for the first and second years
respectively.
       Data stated that varroa mite had 6 and 8 peaks on sealed worker cells
for the first and second years, respectively. In the first year, 6 peaks were
     Table (1): Seasonal fluctuation of Varroa jacobsoni on workers sealed
brood and their adults of honeybee colonies at Shebin El-Kom locality during
two successive years

                     Ave. no. of mites/100 worker cell and 100 adult workers
Day/month         Workers sealed brood                     Adult workers
                 2001/02          2002/03            2001/02            2002/03
1/2            6.2     efg       3.8   efg        24.6    d          30.6    fgh
15/2           4.2     ghijk     4.2   ef         18.2    e          46.0    ab
1/3            2.6     ijkl      1.4   ghi        25.6    d          29.2    gh
15/3           1.8     kl        2.6   efghi      27.2    d          40.4    cd
1/4            1.6     kl        1.2   hi         26.2    d          24.4    ij
15/4           1.4     l         0.8   i          23.0    d          27.0    hi
1/5            2.0     kl        1.6   ghi        13.6    f          22.6    j
15/5           1.2     l         0.8   i          26.0    d          32.2    fg
1/6            3.2     hijkl     3.0   efghi      23.6    d          30.2    fgh
15/6           2.4     jkl       1.8   fghi       26.8    d          29.0    gh
1/7            7.2     ef        7.2   d          35.0    bc         22.2    j
15/7           5.2     fghi      4.4   e          34.2    bc         31.0    fgh
1/8           17.2     c        14.6   c          32.6    c          37.4    de
15/8          19.2     c        18.2   b          39.0    ab         43.0    bc
1/9           26.6     ab       26.2   a          34.0    bc         38.2    de
15/9          28.2     a        25.4   a          33.6    c          41.0    cd
1/10          27.6     ab       27.2   a          42.2    a          34.2    ef
15/10         25.2     b        26.0   a          35.0    bc         49.0    a
1/11           4.8     fghij     3.6   efgh        5.4    h          31.2    fgh
15/11          3.6     ghijkl    4.4   e           7.0    gh         41.2    cd
1/12           5.4     fgh       4.6   e           4.2    h          30.6    fgh
15/12          4.2     ghijk     3.8   efg        12.0    f          33.0    fg
1/1           10.0     d         9.2   d          10.4    fg         31.2    fgh
15/1           8.4     de        8.4   d          13.2    f          44.0    bc
Mean          9.14              8.51             23.85              34.11
L.S.D 5%      2.32              2.20              4.56               3.82
      1%      3.10              2.93              6.08               5.10
Data followed by the same letter(s) in each column are not significantly different.
observed (1 May, 1 June, 1 July, 15 Sep., 1 Dec., and 1 Jan.). In the
second year, 8 peaks registered at (15 Feb., 15 Mar., 1 May, 1 June, 1
July, 1 Sep., 1 Oct., and 1 Jan.).
          1.2- On adult workers:
     Results of the first year, Table (1) show that varroa mite population
(per adult worker) were fluctuated along the year months, it was recorded
low numbers of mites at Nov. (5.4 , 7.0), Dec. (4.2 , 12) and (10.4 , 13.2)
during January, then it increased gradually from October, reaching (42.2 ,
35.0), Sep. (34.0 , 33.6), Aug. (32.6 , 39.0), Jul. (35.0 , 34.2), Jun. (23.6 ,
26.8), May (13.6 , 26.0), Apr. (26.2 , 23.0), Mar. (25.6 , 27.2) and (24.6 ,
18.2) during February.
     Results of the second year recorded higher number especially during
Nov., Dec. and Jan. with higher mean number (34.11 indiv.) where it was
23.85 indiv. at the first year.
     Statistical analysis of Table (1) indicated that there were significant
differences between the most of year months (Feb., Jul., Sep., Oct., Nov.,
and Dec.). No significant differences were recorded among February to
April, and June months.
     Data recorded that varroa mite had 8 and 10 peaks for the first and
second years, respectively. In the first year, 8 peaks through (1 Feb., 15
Mar., 15 May, 1 July, 15 Aug., 1 Oct., 15 Nov. and 15 Dec.), while in the
second year, 10 peaks through (15 Feb., 15 Mar., 15 Apr., 15 May, 15
Aug., 15 Sep., 15 Oct., 15 Nov., 15 Dec. and 15 Jan.).
          1.3- On drone sealed brood:
     Data presented in Table (2) indicated that varroa mite population
(per 100 sealed drone cells) was fluctuated along the year months. It was
recorded low number of mites at May (33.4, 32.2), Apr. (44.2, 43.4), May
(68.6, 60.2), Jun. (58.2, 62.2), Jul. (62.4, 65.2), Aug. (68.0, 67.2) and Sep.
(70.4, 67.2) and Feb. (73.2, 72.4). The highest numbers of mites were
Table (2): Seasonal fluctuation of Varroa jacobsoni on workers sealed brood and
        their adults of honeybee colonies at Shebin El-Kom locality during two
        successive years
                      Ave. no. of mites/100 drone cells and 100 adult drones

Day/month            Drones sealed brood                    Drones adult
                First year      Second year         First year        Second year
    1/2       73.2     bc       71.4   ab         63.8    de         67.4      d
   15/2       72.4     bcd      70.2   b          67.0    cd         68.2      cd
    1/3       68.6     def      63.6   c          63.2    de         60.2      e
   15/3       60.2     hi       61.2   cd         64.4    de         69.0      cd
    1/4       44.2     j        44.2   h          42.8    g          36.0      k
   15/4       43.4     j        41.4   h          40.4    g          47.2      h
    1/5       33.4     k        34.2   i          31.2    hi         40.2      ij
   15/5       32.2     k        33.0   i          25.6    j          51.0      fg
    1/6       58.2     i        48.4   g          28.2    ij         38.0      jk
   15/6       62.2     gh       43.2   h          33.4    h          42.6      i
    1/7       62.4     gh       50.2   g          57.4    f          52.6      f
   15/7       65.2     fg       54.6   ef         63.4    de         48.2      gh
    1/8       68.0     ef       54.2   f          70.0    bc         50.6      fgh
   15/8       67.2     ef       58.2   def        62.8    e          61.0      e
    1/9       70.4     cde      60.0   cd         72.4    b          61.2      e
   15/9       66.4     ef       58.8   de         73.2    ab         78.0      a
   1/10       73.2     bc       58.4   def        76.2    a          71.2      bc
  15/10       67.2     ef       64.0   c          72.2    b          73.0      b
   1/11        0.0     l         0.0   j           0.0    k           0.0      l
  15/11        0.0     l         0.0   j           0.0    k           0.0      l
   1/12        0.0     l         0.0   j           0.0    k           0.0      l
  15/12        0.0     l         0.0   j           0.0    k           0.0      l
    1/1       78.0     a        75.2   a          31.2    hi         69.4      cd
   15/1       74.8     ab       73.2   ab         26.4    j          74.2      b
  Mean        51.7             46.56             44.38               48.3
L.S.D 5%      3.62              3.98              3.53               3.27
       1%     4.96              5.31              4.71               4.36
Data followed by the same letter(s) in each column are not significantly different.
recorded at January month reaching (78.0, 74.8) and (75.2, 73.2) for the
two years, respectively. The drone sealed brood was absent at Nov. and
Dec. months during the first and second seasons.
     Results of the second year were similar to the first one where mean
numbers were 51.7 and 46.56 indiv., respectively.
     Statistical analysis of data indicated that there were significant
differences between the most of year months (Mar., Apr., May, June,
July, and Sep. months). Also there were no significant differences among
Feb., Oct. and Jan month in the first and second years.
     Data stated that varroa mite had 6 peaks for both of two years. In the
first year, 6 peaks through (15 Apr., 15 June, 1 Aug., 1 Sep., 1 Oct., and 1
Jan.). In the second year, 6 peaks through (15 Feb., 1 June, 15 July, 1
Sep., 15 Oct., and 1 Jan.).
           1.4- On adult drone:
     Results of the first year, Table (2) stated that varroa mite population
were fluctuated along the year months, it was recorded low numbers of
mites at May (31.2, 25.6), June (28.2 , 33.4), then it increased gradually
from Oct. reaching (76.2 , 72.2), Sep. (72.4 , 73.2), Aug. (70.0 , 62.8),
Feb. (63.8 , 67.0), Mar. (63.2 , 64.4), Apr. (42.8 , 40.4) and (57.4 , 63.4)
during July, then it sharply decreased at January (31.2 , 26.4). The adult
drone was absent at Nov. and Dec. months during the first and second
years.
     Results of the second year were in harmony with those obtained
from the first year without exception. The mean numbers were 44.38 and
48.3 individuals for the first and second years.
     Statistical analysis of data, recorded that there were significant
differences between the most of months at first and second years.
     Data stated that varroa mite had 5 peaks during the first year, while
it was 8 peaks during the second one. In the first year, 5 peaks through
(15 Feb., 15 Mar., 1 Aug., 1 Oct., and 1 Jan.). In the second year, 8 peaks
through (15 Feb., 15 Mar., 15 Apr., 15 May, 1 July, 15 Aug., 15 Sep. and
15 Oct.).
     Similarly results were obtained by Romaniuk and Duk (1983),
reporting that the number of Varroa jacobsoni females per 100 bees were
low in the period from April to July (3.2 , 7.7). and the number increased
to 15.9 and 23.0 in August and September respectively. Also, Fathi
(1998) stated that the percentage of infestation with varroa mites was
significantly high in October (84%) while during winter the infestation
was slightly reduced in January (80%), however, the infestation was
significantly lower in February and March (65%) and the infestation was
lower in April as it reached (55%), then it declined in May to reach
(48%). In addition, Serag El-Din (1999) stated that the percentage of
infestation with varroa mites for adult drones was significantly high in
September and October (80.2 and 82.00), while, the infestation was
45.38% in April, 32.25% in May, and 35.35% in June during (1991 and
1992) seasons.
     Finally, it could be concluded that varroa mite prefer attacking both
sealed and adult drones than sealed and adult workers and that is agree
with Kyntchev (1985), who found that the presence of drone brood
preferred by the mites, reduces the infestation of worker broods.
     2- Varroa Control
     Data presented in Tables (3 and 4) indicated that the reduction
percentage of varroa mite infesting honeybee colony was the highest
(92.27%) with the treatment of clove oil at the rate of 3 cm3/colony
followed by wheat of flour dust (88.75%) with the rate of 20g /colony,
Di-Stop (81.31%) with the rate of 4 cm3/colony, then the treatment of
Camphour (60.71%) with the rate of 2 tablet/colony, Formic acid 65%
gave the lowest reduction (58.83%) with the rate of 4cm3/colony.
  Table (3): Effect of some materials on the average numbers of varroa mite
            infesting honeybee colonies
                                               Ave. no. of mites / 100 workers




                              treatment
Materials         Doses                                      Post-treatment




                                 Pre-
                                                                                          Mean
                                           3        6            9        12       15
                                          days     days         days     days     days
Formic 65%     4 cm3/colony    45         22        17           15       18       20      18.4

Camphour       2tab./colony    43         20        18           12       15       19      16.8

Oxalic acid
               6 cm3/colony    41         15        18           20       22       23      19.6
30g/litre
Clove3ml/lit
               3 cm3/colony    39          2            2         3           4     4       3
water
Di-stop        4 cm3/colony    44          5            6         8       10       12      8.2

Wheat flour
               20 g/colony     48          3            5         5           6     8      5.4
dust & Kerfa

Check                          38         35        42           40       38       36      38.2


  Table (4): Reduction percentages of varroa mite infesting honeybee colonies after
             treating with some materials

                                                            Reduction percentage
  Materials        Doses
                                                6               9        12        15      Over all
                               3 days
                                               days            days     days      days    reduction

Formic 65%     4 cm3/colony     46.92          65.82          68.33     60.00     53.08     58.83

Camphour       2tab./colony     49.50          62.12          73.48     65.11     53.35     60.71
Oxalic acid
               6 cm3/colony     60.27          60.27          53.65     46.34     40.78     52.26
30g/litre
Clove3ml/
               3 cm3/colony     94.43          95.36          92.69     89.74     89.17     92.27
Lit. water
Di-stop        4 cm3/colony     87.66            87.7         82.72     77.27     71.21     81.31
Wheat flour
               20 g/colony      93.21          90.57          90.10     87.5      82.40     88.75
dust & Kerfa
     The lowest reduction percentages (52.26%) were observed with the
treatment of oxalic acid (30g/liter water) with the rate of 2 cm3/comb.
     Our results indicated that the clove oil at the rate of (3 cm3/colony)
gave the best varroa control and it could be concluded that this material
gives us good control as well as protect our environmental form chemical
pollution which used in varroa control and gives us safe product of honey.
     Another experiment was conducted to determine the effect of multi
application of clove oil against varroa mite (as the most efficient tested
material).
     Clove oil was treated as spray at the dose of 3 cm3/colony during
Feb., July, and Nov. months.
     Data presented in Table (5) indicated that one month after clove oil
treatment, reduction percentage of varroa mite was 67.50% during March,
then it reduction sharply reaching 25.03, 12.99 and 21.20% at May, June
Table (5): The effect of multi-application of (clove oil) (three times) against
        varroa mite infested honeybee colony at Shebin El-kom locality
                          Treatment           Check
         Months                                             Reduction %
                          Ave. No. of mite/100 worker
                            42.33              40.66             -
     February
                            14.66              43.33           67.50
     March *
                             19.0              33.33           45.24
     April
                            21.33              27.33           25.03
     May
                            25.66              28.33           12.99
     June
                            24.33              29.66           21.20
     July *
                            20.33              32.66           40.20
     August
                            13.66              39.33           66.63
     September
                            11.66              40.33           72.22
     October
                             8.33              42.66           81.24
     November*
                             0.0               35.33            100
     December
                             0.0               41.00            100
     January
   *Time of application of clove oil at 3 cm3/colony
and July, respectively, while it increased reaching 40.20, 66.63 and
72.22% at August, September and October, respectively. Finally after the
third treatment at November, the reduction percentage of varroa mite
reached 100%, December and January.
     The result is in agreement with Allam (1999) who stated that the
clove oil gave good results in controlling varroa mites, also, Bidair
(1996) found that the reduction in varroa infestation by using camphour
was 83.46%, and Hussein et al., (2001) used six plant oils to control
varroa infestation in honeybee colonies noticed that clove oil gave the
best result in controlling varroa mite infestation.
                               REFERENCES

Abd El-Fattah, M.A.; E.M. Nour and M.A. El-Shemy (1991). Efficacy of
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Allam, S.F.M (1994). Ecological biological and control studies on Varroa
       jacobsoni, a parasitic mite of honeybees in Egypt. M.Sc. thesis, Fac.
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Bedair, E.I.H. (1996): Studies ion certain honeybee acarine diseases and its
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Cavalloro, R. (1998). European research on varroatosis control. A.A.
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Costat 22 (1998): A computer program for statistical analysis.
De Jong, D.; A.R. Morse and C.G. Eickwort (1982b.) Mite pests of
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Fathi, A.S. (1998). Biological, ecological and control study on bee
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       Kafr-Sheikh, Tanta Univ., PP 72.
Fleming, R. and Retnakaram A. (1985): Evaluating single treatment data
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Griffith, D.A. and C.A. Bowman (1981). World distribution of mite
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Hussein, M.H; Ali A.M; Morsi, M.A. and Rateb, S.H (2001): Using of
       some plant oils for controlling of some parasites, diseases and pests
       of honeybee colonies in Assiut region, Egypt.
Kyntchev, K. (1985). The dynamics of the invasion of joneybee colonies by
      Varroa. International Zeitschrift der Landwritschoft No.6:541-543.
      (A.A. 292/87).
Romaniuk, K. and S. Duk (1983). Seasonal dynamic of Varroa jacobsoni
     development in untreated honeybee Colonies. Medycyna,
     Weterynaryina, 39 (12): 725-727.
Snedecor, G.W. and G. Cochran (1973): Statistical methods. 6th ed.; Iowa
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Wienands, A. and G. Madel, (1988): Haemocytes of honeybee, Apis
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 ‫حصروالمكبفحة اآلمنة الكبروس الفبروا ‪ Varroa jacobsoni‬المتطفل عمى طوائف نحل العسل‬
                              ‫فى محبفظة المنوفية ، مصر‬

  ‫1‬
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                                   ‫2‬
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                                   ‫كشى تحود اهٌحل يرنز اهتحود اهزراعيج اهدكي جيزث يضر .‬      ‫2‬




                                       ‫اهيوخص اهعرتي‬
‫خى اجراء حضر هالضبتج تبنبروس اهفبروا في يٌحل تيٌعلج شتيً اهنوى تيحبفغةج اهيٌوفيةج‬
‫وذهم هيدث عبيييً يخخبهييً ، نيب خى اخختبر نفبءث اشخخداى تعط عوايل اهينبفحج خجبث االضةبتج‬
‫تبنبروس اهفبروا عوي عوائف اهٌحل . وكد اوظحح اهدراشج اً اهحظٌج اهيلفوج واالفراد اهتبهغةج‬
‫هوذنور انذر كبتويج هالضبتج عً حظٌج االفراد اهنبيوج هوشغبالح في يٌعلج اهدراشج خالل شةٌخي‬
‫اهدراشج . وجدح فروق يعٌويج تيً يعدل اضبتج اهذنور ويعدل اضبتج اهشغبالح وذهم خالل يدث‬
‫اهدراشج . اوظحح اهٌخبئج اً اشخخداى زيح ‪ Clove‬اععي ٌشتج ينبفحج 99.97% في حةيً اً‬
‫خويع اهليح واهلرفج اععي 89.77% ويحوةول داى شةخوة 8:.87% ونتشةوالح اهنةبيفور‬
‫89.71 % وحيط اهفورييم :7.78% . اغهرح اهدراشج أً إشخخداى زيح ال ‪ Clove‬ذةالد‬
         ‫يراح شٌويب خالل شهور فتراير ذى يوهيو ذى ٌوفيتر اععح افظل ٌخبئج اهينبفحج هوفبروا.‬

				
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posted:11/29/2011
language:English
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