1. The Triple Alliance forged by Bismarck consisted of the following countries:
A. Greece, Germany, Albania.
B. Germany, France, Britain.
C. Italy, Germany, Spain.
D. Austria, Germany, Poland.
E. Germany, Austria, Italy.
2. At the Congress of Berlin in 1878:
A. Germany became newly important on the world stage.
B. Russia was permitted to occupy Constantinople.
C. Bosnia-Herzegovina became an independent state.
D. the Ottoman Empire was dismembered.
E. Italy gained new territories in the Adriatic.
3. William II believed that dismissing Bismarck in 1890 would help him secure Germany’s deserved “place in the
4. Which of the following did NOT help pave the road to World War I?
A. Young Turks overthrowing the Ottoman government
B. Balkan Wars
C. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
D. Alliance system
E. French demilitarization
5. The first power to mobilize against Russia was:
6. Which of the following was one of the demands made by Austria-Hungary to Serbia after the assassination of the Archduke
A. Formation of a military alliance with Austria-Hungary
B. Declaration of war against Russia
C. Suppression of Allied propaganda
D. Annexation into the Dual Monarchy
E. eliminate anti-Austro-Hungarian materials in Serbian schools
7. What best characterizes the Serbian reply to Austria-Hungary’s demands?
8. According to the Schlieffen Plan of 1905, which of the following was supposed to happen?
A. German troops would move west to ransack France and then move to the Eastern Front.
B. French troops would move to conquer German troops and then move east to assist the Russians.
C. German troops would move east to ransack France and then move to the Russian Front.
D. French troops would move to conquer German troops and then move west to assist the Russians.
E. German troops would march east into Poland and then west into France.
9. Why did the United States enter World War I in 1917?
A. The Germans attacked Cuba.
B. The Germans started sinking U.S. ships again.
C. The Germans bombed Rhode Island.
D. The German sinking of the Lusitania.
E. None of these answers.
10. If Germany had not invaded Luxembourg and ______________, British public opinion might have continued to favor
11. The March Revolution in Russia was the result of all of the following EXCEPT:
A. widespread hunger.
B. peasant unrest and strikes.
C. the collapse of the monarchy’s ability to govern.
D. the ineptitude of Nicholas II.
E. widespread public support for the Bolsheviks.
12. Initially the Soviets:
A. supported the provisional government.
B. plotted to overthrow the provisional government.
C. allowed the provisional government to function without actually supporting it.
D. supported the war.
E. supported the tsar.
13. A main reason for popular discontent with the provisional government was:
A. Kerensky’s decision not to aggressively continue the war.
B. the resistance of embittered monarchists to a socialist premier.
C. widespread demands for the Bolsheviks to lead the country.
D. continuing shortages of food.
E. the government’s decision to redistribute land to the peasants.
14. Shortly after seizing power, the Bolsheviks did all of the following EXCEPT:
A. nationalize the land.
B. put workers in charge of their factories.
C. seize the banks and seize church property.
D. send more troops to fight Germany.
E. pull out of the war with Germany.
15. Bolshevik Russia agreed to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, from which they:
A. gained the Baltic States.
B. received large amounts of money for reparations.
C. agreed to end the civil war.
D. yielded Finland, Poland, and the Ukraine to Germany.
E. gained much and gave little.
16. The Socialist parties organized workers into ______________, or councils.
17. The Red Army was led by ______________.
18. The Germans controlled Eastern Europe and its resources, especially food, and by 1918 were free to concentrate their forces
on the western front. These developments would probably have been decisive without:
A. the Italian allies’ support.
B. American intervention.
C. British invasion in northern France.
D. widespread mutinies in the German ranks.
E. the failure of the German army to act on its advantages.
19. In March 1918, the last German offensive occurred at:
C. the Marne.
E. the Somme.
20. Contemporaries referred to World War I as the:
A. War in Total.
B. War of Allied Victory.
C. War of German Aggression.
D. Great War.
E. Last War.
21. Which empire survived the end of World War I?
22. The peace treaty signed in Paris in 1920 between Turkey and the Allies dismembered:
A. the Ottoman Empire.
B. the Byzantine Empire.
C. the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
23. A Greek invasion of the Turkish homeland provoked a nationalist reaction, bringing the young general Mustafa Kemal, or
______________, to power.
A. “Prince of Nationalism”
B. “General of Freedom”
C. “Protector of the People”
D. “Father of the Turks”
E. “the New Sultan”
24. The disintegration of the German army forced ______________ to abdicate on November 9, 1918.
25. The pro-German ______________ overthrew the Ottoman government and had control of the government in 1909.
26. The “Big Four” were:
A. the United States, Britain, France, and Italy.
B. the United States, Britain, Germany, and Japan.
C. the United States, Russia, France, and Germany.
D. the United States, Japan, France, and Italy.
E. France, Germany, Russia, and Britain.
27. In the peace talks that ended World War I, Germany:
A. was forced to accept terms dictated by the victors.
B. negotiated a few minor concessions.
C. negotiated several major concessions.
D. retained the right to station troops west of the Rhine River.
E. gained about as much as it lost.
28. The covenant of the League of Nations sought to establish:
A. one world government.
B. the elimination of barriers to free trade.
C. international bans on the production of machine guns, tanks, and submarines.
D. a system for resolving international conflicts.
E. a world bank.
29. World War I:
A. did little to eliminate colonialism.
B. brought about the rapid elimination of colonialism.
C. led the United States to seek new colonies.
D. led to a prohibition on the creation of new colonies by European nations.
E. had little impact on the lives of colonial subjects.
30. At the Versailles peace talks, Germany signed a treaty:
A. accepting blame for World War I.
B. requiring Germany to pay $5 billion a year in reparations.
C. both of these answers.
D. neither of these answers.
E. that was more generous than most Germans had anticipated.
31. The notion of “a peace without ______________” became a mockery when the Soviet Union and Germany were excluded
from the peace conference.
32. Following the Paris peace treaties, all of the following transpired EXCEPT:
A. Germany believed treaty provisions were not being properly enforced.
B. politicians looked to gain leverage by exploiting the disorderly situation.
C. demands were made for further border adjustments.
D. Eastern European successor states felt they had been denied self-determination.
E. France felt that key treaty provisions were not being enforced.
33. Most money the Allies collected in war reparations went to:
B. Great Britain.
C. the United States.
D. the Soviet Union.
34. In the summer of 1932 this, in effect, ended the era of reparations:
A. Kreditanstalt in Vienna
B. Young Plan
C. Lausanne Conference
D. Hoover’s moratorium
E. Malbourg Corollary
35. When American ______________ for Europe began to run out, a severe financial crisis struck the Continent.
36. The collapse in ______________ prices and the financial turmoil resulted in stagnation and depression for European
37. The 1936 Popular Front government of France consisted of an alliance of the following political parties:
A. Socialists, Labor, and Radicals
B. Radicals, Communists, and Fascists
C. Liberals, Anarchists, and Communists
D. Socialists, Nazis, and Communists
E. Socialists, Radicals, and Communists
38. Between 1928 and 1940, Soviet industrial production:
A. rose dramatically.
B. declined slightly.
C. rose gradually.
D. remained stagnant.
E. was outstripped by the production of consumer goods.
39. Government-set prices for grain in the Soviet Union resulted in all of the following EXCEPT:
A. the hoarding of grain.
B. shortfalls of grain on the market.
C. a lack of federal income to pay for its imports from abroad.
D. the stabilization of the rural economy.
E. a decrease in the incentive for farmers to sell grain.
40. The replacement of private peasant farms with huge state-run and state-owned farms was called ______________.
41. ______________ was the executor of the imprisonment and execution of millions of Soviet citizens between 1934 and 1939.
42. Most scholars agree that all of the following adjectives could be applied to fascist governments EXCEPT:
43. The fascists’ seizure of the Italian government can be primarily attributed to the:
A. resignation of the cabinet.
B. majority controlled by Mussolini in the Chamber of Deputies.
C. failure of the king to authorize the army to block the Black Shirt March.
D. split between Mussolini and his former political allies before the march on Rome.
E. overwhelming popularity of the fascists.
44. Mussolini’s success can be attributed to all of the following EXCEPT:
A. his power over the masses.
B. his ruthlessness.
C. the impotence of his rivals.
D. his ability to charm his rivals.
E. the weakness of Italy’s monarch.
45. The Lateran Accord of 1929 established that:
A. the Pope was ruler of the independent Vatican City.
B. the government would be forgiven its confiscation of papal lands.
C. Catholicism was one of multiple recognized religions in Italy.
D. the church laws on marriage would be eclipsed by government law.
E. Germany and Italy would soon be allies.
46. Fascists won a great victory in the Italian Chamber of Deputies in:
47. The outflow of foreign capital from Germany beginning in 1928 undermined the brief prosperity and resulted in economic
A. parliamentary government.
B. authoritarian rule.
C. free elections.
D. the rule of the Social Democrats.
E. the rule of the German Marxists.
48. German unemployment from March 1930 to March 1932:
A. slight rose.
B. rose by 30 percent.
C. more than doubled.
E. fell slightly.
49. By 1933, the Nazi storm troopers (SA) had:
A. 50,000 members.
B. ceased to be an important political force.
C. been absorbed by the Gestapo.
D. lost favor with most Nazi officials.
E. 1 million members.
50. The 1932 presidential elections resulted in:
A. a Nazi victory in the runoff election.
B. Hindenburg’s dismissal of Brüning.
C. Hindenburg’s failure to win reelection.
D. Hitler’s election as President.
E. Hitler’s election as Vice Premier.
51. Adolph Hitler became chancellor of Germany:
A. after a brief but bloody revolution.
B. by legal means.
C. after a campaign of selective assassination.
D. after a heated lawsuit.
E. after 10,000 Germans lost their lives in street fighting.
52. The suspending of civil liberties and arrests of communists or alleged communists was a direct result of:
A. Hitler’s appointment as chancellor.
B. the Reichstag fire.
C. the film Triumph of the Will.
D. the Olympic games held in Berlin in 1936.
E. a public referendum.
53. The 1935 Nuremberg laws:
A. stripped German Jews of their citizenship.
B. established a police state in Germany.
C. were modeled after the Soviet New Economic Policy.
D. nationalized all banks and factories.
E. declared Germany’s intent to ignore the Versailles Treaty.
54. Nazi policy called for German women to do all of the following EXCEPT:
A. be teachers and nurses.
B. protect and transmit German cultural values.
C. bear racially pure German children.
D. occupy key positions in the German government.
E. support their husbands in all things.
55. Papen and the circle around Hindenburg wanted to find some way to use the Nazis without giving ______________ effective
56. ______________, meaning “Night of Smashed Glass,” refers to the broken glass that littered German streets after the looting
and destruction of Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across Germany on the orders of the Nazi Party in November 1938.
57. The following can be said about the successor states in eastern Europe EXCEPT:
A. all the new states were primarily urban nations.
B. all the new states had unstable economies following World War I.
C. all the new states except Czechoslovakia were dependent on foreign loans.
D. trade among the new states was difficult.
E. most of the new states had no history of democracy.
58. The new Poland was constructed from the following countries:
A. Russia, Lithuania, and Germany.
B. Russia, Germany, and Austria.
C. Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia.
D. Austria, Italy, and Russia.
E. Germany, Hungary, and Russia.
59. Which successor state avoided a self-imposed authoritarian government?
60. Royal dictatorships were imposed in:
A. Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Greece.
B. Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Romania, and Greece.
C. Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, and Czechoslovakia.
D. Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Austria, and Greece.
E. Yugoslavia, Germany, Poland, and Serbia.
61. The League of Nations condemned the Japanese use of force against Manchuria and:
A. imposed heavy sanctions on Japan.
B. forced Japan to withdraw from the league.
C. forced Japan to relinquish control of Manchuria.
D. assembled an expeditionary force to confront the Japanese.
E. did nothing else of substance.
62. The Anschluss was carried out by Germany because:
A. the people of Poland were going to hold a plebiscite to decide whether to unite with Germany.
B. the people of Austria were going to hold a plebiscite to decide whether to unite with Germany.
C. the people of Czechoslovakia were going to hold a plebiscite to decide whether to unite with Germany.
D. it had no other choice.
E. Britain made it clear that this was a condition of peace.
63. The German invasion of this country was the immediate cause of World War II:
(Answer: C; pages 718)
64. In a secret agreement, signed in August 1939, these two nations agreed to divide Poland amongst themselves:
A. Germany and France
B. Soviet Union and Germany
C. France and Italy
D. Hungary and Soviet Union
E. Spain and Italy
65. Hitler planned to bring the entire German ________, understood as a racial group, together in a single nation.
66. The League of Nations demonstrated its weakness in its response to Japan’s occupation of ________.
67. Blitzkrieg means:
A. war propaganda, which is how Hitler hoped to win.
B. air war, which is how the Allies hoped to win.
C. war as fast as lightning strikes, which is how Hitler hoped to win.
D. trench warfare, which is how the Allies hoped to win.
E. total war.
68. By July 1940, all of these countries had become puppet republics within the Soviet Union:
A. Estonia, Poland, and Hungary
B. Poland, Bulgaria, and Hungary
C. Lithuania, Finland, and Poland
D. Finland, Romania, and Hungary
E. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
69. French generals believed that:
A. France could do worse than be ruled by Hitler.
B. Hitler had a right to take certain French provinces.
C. World War I had no relevance to contemporary military planning.
D. France was ready for blitzkrieg.
E. the Maginot Line would protect them from a German assault.
70. Any chance of the British considering terms set by the Germans, in the face of defeat, disappeared when this man became
prime minister of Great Britain in May 1940:
A. Neville Chamberlain
B. Winston Churchill
C. Tony Blair
D. Robert Walpole
E. John Major
71. The United States aided the British during the war effort in 1940, despite declaring neutrality, by doing all of the following
A. sending military supplies to the British.
B. trading badly needed warships for leases on British naval bases.
C. convoying ships across the Atlantic to help the British survive.
D. passing on military intelligence to the British.
E. sending an elite air unit to help defend London.
72. The Battle of Britain resulted in:
A. a victory for the Germans.
B. a victory for the British.
C. the abandonment of Hitler’s plans to invade England.
D. both B and C.
E. very few British causalities.
73. The Battle of the Bulge:
A. was Germany’s last major offensive on the Western Front.
B. marked the Allied invasion of Europe.
C. was a victory for the Soviet Union.
D. was the Allies’ greatest victory of the war.
E. ended Axis control of North Africa.
74. Military deaths in World War II numbered approximately:
A. 5–10 million.
B. 30 million.
C. 15 million.
D. 50-60 million.
E. 3-6 million.
75. Hitler often spoke of the “new order” that he meant to impose after he had established his ____________ throughout Europe.
76. The Japanese launched an air attack on the United States on December 7, 1941 at the U.S. naval base of _____________.
77. Even after the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and ________, the Japanese would have continued fighting
if Emperor Hirohito had not intervened.
78. Hitler referred to these people as Untermenschen:
79. Hitler decided on a “final solution of the Jewish problem”:
E. forced conversion.
80. The Holocaust claimed the greatest number of victims from:
81. All of the following is true of Polish anti-Semitism between the wars EXCEPT:
A. Many political groups equated citizenship with Polish ethnicity.
B. the Polish government nationalized the matches, salt, tobacco, and alcohol industries and then enacted legislation that
discriminated against hiring Jews for these government monopolies.
C. laws made it difficult for Jews to observe the Sabbath while keeping their jobs; requiring businesses to be closed on Sunday
meant Jewish shops had to close two days of the week.
D. government regulations required businesses to display their owners’ names prominently, which made it easy for people to
avoid Jewish shops.
E. Jews were forced to wear distinctive badges on their clothing.
82. The Holocaust was driven by:
A. Polish anti-Semitism.
B. the desires of most European Christians.
C. public opinion.
D. the policies of Eastern European governments.
E. German policy.
83. To achieve total mobilization, the Germans did all of the following EXCEPT:
A. close retail businesses.
B. raise the age of eligibility of women for compulsory service.
C. shift non-German domestic workers to wartime industry.
D. increase wages for all workers.
E. moved artists and entertainers into military service.
84. Hitler assigned women a special place in the war effort that included all of the following EXCEPT:
A. working on farms to provide for their soldier sons and husbands.
B. working in munitions plants.
C. protecting racial purity, forbidden from marriage or sex with non-Germans.
D. giving birth to as many children as possible.
E. working on the front lines of battles, especially as ambulance drivers.
85. By the end of 1941:
A. the British experienced heavy inflation.
B. the British experienced heavy deflation.
C. British unemployment disappeared.
D. British banks collapsed.
E. the British economy was in disarray.
86. The ________ French government collaborated with the Nazis.
87. The British established their own ________ machine by using the British Broadcasting Company to send programs to every
country in Europe in the local language to encourage resistance against the Nazis.
88. World War II was known as “The ________” in the Soviet Union.
89. Residents of this city paid with their lives for expecting that Russian troops would liberate their city before turning south to
90. The Declaration on Liberated Europe promised:
A. a free Germany to be ruled by the Germans.
B. freedom for the Soviet Union to dictate governments in Eastern Europe.
C. self-determination and free democratic elections in Eastern Europe.
D. a sizable social safety net.
E. punishment for Nazi collaborators.
91. At the time of the Yalta Conference, Eastern Europe was under the control of:
A. Nazi Germany.
B. Great Britain.
C. the United States.
D. the Soviet Union.
E. a combined Allied force.
92. At Potsdam the Allies agreed to:
A. ban the use of atomic weapons.
B. organize elections in Germany once the war ended.
C. divide Germany into occupation zones.
D. withdraw from Germany by the end of 1946.
E. divide the Middle East amongst them.
93. The Truman Doctrine was initiated in response to Soviet pressure on what countries?
A. Romania and Bulgaria
B. Greece and Turkey
C. Albania and Yugoslavia
D. Hungary and Romania
E. Korea and Japan
94. The purpose of Stalin’s Cominform group was to:
A. improve communications among communist nation-states.
B. increase communications with noncommunist governments.
C. devise a master plan for generation of Soviet propaganda.
D. spread communism throughout the world.
E. develop better control over the dissemination of information in the Communist world.
95. The United States wanted German industry in the western zone to be left intact because:
A. it hoped to use Germany’s economic might for its own military purposes.
B. it was concerned that the U.S. would have to provide long-term economic support for Germany if German industry was
C. that was what the Soviets had done in the eastern zone.
D. Truman feared the consequences of high unemployment in Germany.
E. Truman saw domestic political advantages in doing so.
96. The creation of a Jewish state:
A. intensified Cold War conflicts.
B. preceded the United Nations’ abstention from taking action in 1947.
C. was worsened by Britain’s harsh judgments of the Zionist movement.
D. engendered a surprisingly positive reaction from Egypt.
E. provoked little controversy at the time.
97. The separation of Germany into two states was hastened by the yearlong __________ of Berlin starting in 1948.
98. In June 1950, __________ Korea invaded ___________ Korea.
99. What did the Suez intervention of 1956 prove?
A. The United States had little power to stop a determined Britain.
B. The nations of Western Europe could not impose their will on the world without the support of the United States.
C. The United States had little power to stop a determined France.
D. The new states in Africa and the Middle East were still, essentially, European colonies.
E. The Soviet Union was stronger than anyone suspected at the time.
100. Hungarian leader Imre Nagy:
A. rejected support offered by noncommunist groups.
B. asked the Soviets for help in increasing a communist military presence in Hungary.
C. sought to make Hungary independent from the Soviet Union.
D. succeeded Janos Kadar as premier.
E. was a hard-core communist.
101. During the Cuban missile crisis of 1962, what evidence was used by the United States to convince the world of the threat
posed by Cuba?
A. Photographs of missile equipment
B. An audio recording that discussed Cuba’s plans
C. Munitions equipment that the United States confiscated from a boat near the coast of Florida
D. Written documents intercepted by U.S. intelligence forces
E. The testimony of Cuban informants
102. In 1957 Fidel Castro took power in Cuba, removing the dictator __________.
103. In the Brezhnev Doctrine, the Soviet Union:
A. was focused on reforming the internal workings of the Soviet government.
B. set a policy of Soviet self-containment.
C. increased freedom of discussion and other rights in the Soviet Union.
D. gave itself the right to interfere in the affairs of other communist countries.
E. committed itself to a policy of isolationism.
104. The appointment of __________ was a key factor in Poland’s resistance to communist control.
105. Evidence of the retreat from imperialism was seen in all of the following EXCEPT:
C. the Congo.
D. the East Indies.
106. Mohandas Gandhi adopted the model of passive resistance after exposure to the writings of what American writer?
A. Ralph Waldo Emerson
B. Margaret Fuller
C. Henry David Thoreau
D. Nathaniel Hawthorne
E. Martin Luther King Jr.
107. Generally speaking, Britain:
A. imagined it would always have the empire.
B. offered armed resistance to calls for decolonization.
C. sought to sever ties with its former colonies.
D. was taken by surprise by calls for decolonization.
E. accepted the loss of empire as inevitable.
108. The founding of _________ resulted from the British withdrawal from India in 1947.
109. What event marked the beginning of Algerian nationalism?
A. Granting of full citizenship by France to a select group of Algerian Muslims
B. Immigration of Europeans into Algiers
C. Conflict at Sétif between Muslims and French settlers
D. Foundation of the National Liberation Front
E. Withdrawal of French forces from Algeria
110. What was one of the main aims of the National Liberation Front in Vietnam?
A. Oust the French from Vietnam
B. Divide Vietnam into separate military-run territories
C. Overthrow Ho Chi Minh
D. Overthrow Diem.
E. Encourage U.S. intervention in the Vietnamese civil war.
111. The French leader who orchestrated that country’s retreat from Algiers was __________.
112. Mikhail Gorbachev’s economic policies could be characterized as:
A. hugely successful.
B. moderately successful.
C. having no impact.
D. a failure.
E. a rejection of free market mechanisms.
113. In 1989, to what country did Hungary open its border, freeing travel to West Germany?
E. East Germany
114. Revolution in Czechoslovakia was led by:
A. Nicolae Ceausescu.
B. Václav Havel.
C. Gustav Husak.
D. Janos Kadar.
E. Tomas Rosicky.
115. The final big event preceding Gorbachev’s exit from Soviet political life was the:
A. attempted coup in 1991.
B. attack on the Russian Parliament building in 1993.
C. massacre of civilians in Romania in 1989.
D. opening of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
E. rise of Putin to power in 1998.
116. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Commonwealth of Independent States formed to loosely join how many of
the 15 resulting republics?
117. In Poland, __________ took on the role of mediator between the government and the trade union movement he had founded.
118. West German leader __________ was the leading force for German reunification.
119. The “ethnic cleansing” that took place in Bosnia primarily targeted:
120. Serbian leader __________ was finally removed from power in 2000.
121. Madrasas are:
A. holy cities.
B. religious scholars.
C. secular Muslims.
D. Islamic political parties.
E. Islamic religious schools.
122. The literal meaning of the Muslim term __________ is “a struggle.”
123. The Persian Gulf War of 1991 resulted from Iraq’s invasion of:
A. Saudi Arabia.
E. the U.A.E.
124. The train bombings in Madrid, Spain contributed to:
A. the retention of power by the Spanish government.
B. the removal of Spanish troops from Iraq.
C. greater solidarity between Spain and the U.S.
D. the complete breakdown of relations between Spain and the U.S.
E. the addition of more Spanish troops in Iraq.
125. Vladimir Putin has been sharply critical of the ongoing expansion of ____________, which has embraced nations directly
bordering the Russian Federation.
126. City dwellers make up about what percentage of Western Europe’s population?
127. Between 1945 and 1960, approximately __________ Europeans left Europe each year.
E. 1.75 million
128. The growing _________ presence in Europe has produced some of the most serious ethnic and political tensions in recent
129. The NATO defense umbrella was primarily staffed and funded by:
C. Great Britain.
D. the UN.
E. the United States.
130. The first major European nation to begin to create a welfare state was:
D. Great Britain.
131. A shopkeeper’s daughter, she became the first female prime minister of Great Britain from May 1979 through November
A. Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
B. Rachel Whiteread
C. Margaret Thatcher
D. Mary Chestnut
E. Jean Grey
132. Since World War II, governments have begun to spend more money on ________ than they do on the military.
133. All surveys indicate that this is the most important difficulty women face in the workplace:
A. Sexual harassment
B. Equality in the hiring process
C. The need to provide care for their children
D. Better opportunities for educational advancement
E. The structure of retirement and benefit packages
134. The number of __________ women in the work force has risen sharply.
135. Which set of events proved crucial to the intellectuals’ disillusionment with communism?
A. The Russo-Japanese War, the Spanish-American war, the Nazi-Soviet pact of 1939, and the Soviet invasion of
Czechoslovakia in 1968
B. Soviet public purge trials of the late 1930s, the Spanish Civil War, the Nazi-Soviet pact of 1939, and the Soviet invasion of
Poland in 1956
C. Soviet public purge trials of the late 1930s, the Spanish Civil War, the Nazi-Soviet pact of 1939, and the Soviet invasion of
Hungary in 1956
D. Soviet public purge trials of the late 1930s, the Spanish-American War, the Nazi-Soviet pact of 1939, and the Russo-Japanese
E. The Russo-Japanese War, the second Five-Year Plan, the Soviet-Sino alliance, and the launch of Sputnik
136. As rapid changes in communications technology vastly expanded access to information, more Europeans received some form
A. university education.
B. religious indoctrination.
C. intercultural awareness.
D. political indoctrination.
E. social indoctrination.
137. “Americanization” in Europe refers to American influence on all of the following EXCEPT:
A. cultural life.
B. social life.
C. economic life.
D. military planning.
E. consumer patterns.
138. This political party was formed in 1979 and immediately became an electoral force for environmental issues such as global
warming, pollution of water, and the atmosphere:
A. Green Berets
B. German Greens
C. Earth Party
D. Citizens for Environmental Awareness and Pollution Prevention (CEAPP)
E. Green Peace
139. The Arab oil embargo of 1973–1974 pressed home the message to the industrialized West that:
A. natural resources are limited.
B. oil productions were not meeting consumer demands.
C. foreign, potentially hostile, countries control critical resources.
D. both A and C.
E. domination of the Middle East was essential.
140. During the late 1920s and the 1930s, ____________ became a substitute religion for some Europeans.
141. The 1986 disaster at the ___________ nuclear reactor in the Soviet Union heightened concern about environmental issues
and raised questions that no European government could ignore.
142. This individual designed the Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial in Vienna, Nameless Library, which commemorates the deaths
of 65,000 Austrian Jews under the Nazis:
A. Pablo Picasso.
B. Tatjiana Yablonskaya.
C. Jackson Pollock.
D. Rachel Whiteread.
E. Vince Rogers.
143. In recent times, the Christian churches in Europe have raised critical questions regarding all of the following EXCEPT:
B. human rights.
C. nuclear weapons.
D. the environment.
E. papal infallibility.
144. Under Pope Paul VI, the Twenty-First Ecumenical Council made changes in Catholic liturgy, including all of the following
A. fostering a new spirit toward Judaism.
B. encouraging freer relations with other Christian denominations.
C. Mass would be celebrated in the vernacular languages rather than in Latin.
D. ordaining women.
E. giving more power to bishops.
(Answer: D; page 792)
145. The first machine genuinely recognizable as a modern digital computer was the ______________, built and designed at
146. The Benelux countries include the nations of:
A. Switzerland, Austria, and Liechtenstein.
B. Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
C. Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.
D. Bulgaria, Serbia, and Hungary.
E. Bulgaria, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands.
147. Despite their relatively strong economies, these nations declined joining the EEC:
A. Norway and Sweden
B. Greece and Hungary
C. Spain and Portugal
D. Austria and Ireland
E. Belgium and the Netherlands
148. The new constitutional treaty for the Union was defeated with referendums held in:
A. Sweden, Finland, and Italy.
B. Hungary, Belgium, and Denmark.
C. Ireland, Austria, and Germany.
D. France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands.
E. Turkey, Hungary, and Poland.
149. The European Community’s common currency is called the ________.
150. The controversy over the admission of ___________ to the European Union is partially over the “Islamic factor.”