TONE words by gR0S34y

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									TONE word     Student-friendly definition
allusive      makes many allusions, or references to things that are well-known by
              many people (references to the Bible, literature, art, mythology, etc.)
ambiguous     unclear; could be interpreted more than one way
ambivalent    undecided; having both positive and negative feelings towards something
antagonistic  extremely unfriendly; almost verbally attacking another person
anxious       worried, uneasy
apathetic     showing no emotion or concern
apologetic    sorry, regretful
apprehensive fearful, uneasy, worried that something bad might happen
audacious     really bold or daring; shocking
belligerent   eager to fight or argue
benevolent    kind
bewildered    confused
biting        words that emotionally “sting” the other person
blunt         insensitive; saying something “like it is”, without caring whether or not
              you offend someone
brisk         quick, energetic (speaking quickly without pausing for chit-chat or friendly
              conversation)
candid        to be honest, open, outspoken
celebratory   full of a desire to celebrate/party about something that is joyful
clinical      unemotional, scientific
compassionate feeling sadness for another person’s bad situation and wanting to relieve
              that person’s pain
condescending to talk “down” to someone, like that person is beneath you or of less
              quality (as if you are superior)
contemptuous to be full of hatred towards someone
detached      to remove all your emotions from a situation; to be sort of numb
diabolical    having the qualities of the devil
didactic      teaching, instructive
dreary        dull, boring, sad
earnest       full of seriousness, effort, and focus
empathetic    trying to understand what another person is going through, even if you
              have not experienced it yourself
facetious     joking around, usually at an inappropriate time; being sarcastic
fanciful      imaginary, unreal
ghoulish      ghost-like, but even more grotesque or monstrous
giddy         to be light-headed or ditzy with joy
gleeful       full of joy
grave         very serious
gushy         to be overly complimentary (to the point of seeming insincere)
haughty       arrogant; looking down on people
holier-than-   acting like you are so religious that you are better than everyone else;
thou           being judgmental
hostile        unfriendly; treating someone like an enemy
impartial      not taking sides
incredulous    unbelieving
indifferent    not caring what happens
indignant      to be insulted; to be angry at something that is unfair
irreverent     disrespectful, especially being disrespectful towards something that is holy
mournful       full of sadness and grief
nostalgic      happily remembering the past, especially remembering the past as a better
               time than the present
objective      to not take sides
optimistic     to have a positive outlook on life, to think good things will happen
patronizing    to talk down to someone, to treat a person almost as if he or she is your
               child
pessimistic    to have a negative outlook on life, to think bad things will happen
poignant       something that moves you emotionally
pretentious    “putting on airs”; trying to act showy or flashy
provocative    to spark an interest in something (especially a controversial topic or sex)
restrained     to hold back
seductive      sexual, trying to seduce someone
sentimental    remembering the past, placing special attachment on certain times, things
skeptical      to be doubtful, to think something is probably not true
sly            sneaky
solemn         serious, quiet, respectful
somber         serious, dark, depressing
strident       harsh, loud, irritating
sympathetic    trying to experience another person’s feelings/emotions
taunting       teasing; to mock someone to try to challenge him/her
tender         kind, gentle, lovingly
tranquil       peaceful, calm, relaxing
understated    to lessen the importance of something, to make it seem like it’s not a big
               deal (when really it IS)
vexed          to be extremely bothered or irritated
vibrant        to be full of life
wistful        to fondly remember the past
zealous        to be eager, passionate, almost obsessed
                                   DIDLS: The Key to TONE

Diction - the connotation of the word choice

What words does the author choose? Consider his/her word choice compared to another. Why did
the author choose that particular word? What are the connotations of that word choice?

Images - vivid appeals to understanding through the senses - concrete language

What images does the author use? What does he/she focus on in a sensory (sight, touch, taste,
smell, etc.) way? The kinds of images the author puts in or leaves out reflect his/her style? Are
they vibrant? Prominent? Plain? NOTE: Images differ from detail in the degree to which they appeal
to the senses.

Details - facts that are included or those that are omitted

What details are does the author choose to include? What do they imply? What does the author
choose to exclude? What are the connotations of their choice of details? PLEASE NOTE: Details are
facts or fact-lets. They differ from images in that they don't have a strong sensory appeal.

Language - the overall use of language, such as formal, clinical, jargon

What is the overall impression of the language the author uses? Does it reflect education? A
particular profession? Intelligence? Is it plain? Ornate? Simple? Clear? Figurative? Poetic? Make
sure you don't skip this step.

Sentence Structure - how structure affects the reader's attitude

What are the sentences like? Are they simple with one or two clauses? Do they have multiple
phrases? Are they choppy? Flowing? Sinuous like a snake? Is there antithesis, chiasmus, parallel
construction? What emotional impression do they leave? If we are talking about poetry, what is the
meter? Is there a rhyme scheme?

DICTION:

Laugh: guffaw, chuckle, titter, giggle, cackle, snicker, roar

Self-confident: proud, conceited, egotistical, stuck-up, haughty, smug, condescending

House: home, hut, shack, mansion, cabin, home, residence

Old: mature, experienced, antique, relic, senior, ancient

Fat: obese, plump, corpulent, portly, porky, burly, husky, full-figured

IMAGES:

The use of vivid descriptions or figures of speech that appeal to sensory experiences helps to
create the author's tone.

My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun. (restrained)

An old, mad, blind, despised, and dying king. (somber, candid)
He clasps the crag with crooked hands. (dramatic)

Love sets you going like a fat gold watch. (fanciful)

Smiling, the boy fell dead. (shocking)

DETAILS:

Details are most commonly the facts given by the author or speaker as support for the attitude or
tone.

The speaker's perspective shapes what details are given and which are not.

LANGUAGE:

Like word choice, the language of a passage has control over tone.

Consider language to be the entire body of words used in a text, not simply isolated bits of diction.

For example, an invitation to a wedding might use formal language, while a biology text would use
scientific and clinical language.

• When I told Dad that I had goofed the exam, he blew his top. (slang)

• I had him on the ropes in the fourth and if one of my short rights had connected, he'd have gone
down for the count. (jargon [language reserved for a specific discipline])

• A close examination and correlation of the most reliable current economic indexes justifies the
conclusion that the next year will witness a continuation of the present, upward market trend.
(turgid, pedantic [dry and academic])

SENTENCE STRUCTURE:

How a sentence is constructed affects what the audience understands.

Parallel syntax (similarly styled phrases and sentences) creates interconnected emotions, feelings
and ideas.

Short sentences are punchy and intense. Long sentences are distancing, reflective and more
abstract.

The inverted order of an interrogative sentence cues the reader to a question and creates tension
between speaker and listener.

Short sentences are often emphatic, passionate or flippant, whereas longer sentences suggest
greater thought.

Sentence structure affects tone and can signal a tonal shift—the author’s changing attitude about
the subject.

								
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