The Formal Report
• Purpose of documentation
• Documentation styles
• Appropriate documentation situations
• Parenthetical citations
• Reference list
• List of links
Definition and Purpose
• Documentation gives credit to the sources used
within a work of research .
• Correct documentation protects authors from
charges of plagiarism (taking credit for other
-- American Psychological Association (APA)
– Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago)
– Council of Biology Editors (CBE)
– Modern Language Association (MLA)
– http://www.montreat.edu/tutor/12-1.htm This link
will take you to a chart that lists documentation
styles and their disciplines. However, double-check
with your department to be sure that the style
mentioned in the chart is the one your dept. uses.
Electronic Sources/Styleguide Links
There are links on the syllabus to sites housing
style guides for APA and MLA styles regarding
Chicago Manual of Style This link will take you to
some questions and answers about the Chicago
Manual of Style.
IEEE Style This link explains the requirements of
IEEE style. You’ll have to search these guides
for information on citing online sources.
• The main rule is to document ideas that come
from other sources.
• The exception is that general information and
common knowledge don’t need to be
• Document especially if material involves
speculation or appears in only a few sources.
Types of Documentation
There are three main ways to cite information:
• Quotations– the author’s exact words placed in
• Summaries—your condensation of the author’s
• Paraphrases—your rephrasing of the author’s
point in your words, not his/hers.
• This example presented here is in MLA style. The
specific rules may be different from the ones for your
• Instead of using footnotes or endnotes for
bibliographic information, place the author’s name and
page number in parentheses at the end of the citation.
• Ex. ―Kate looked around and saw another woman
standing at the bottom of a flight of stairs‖ (Stabenow
• Depending on the style, this page may be titled
Works Cited (MLA), References (APA),
• This page contains all the sources you’ve
consulted and/or cited in the paper (depending
on your style’s rules), alphabetized by the 1st
listed author’s surname.
Reference Lists 2
• Book information includes
– All authors’ names, surname first (MLA).
– Title underlined or italicized.
– City (and state if city is unfamiliar) where publisher
– Publisher’s name (check rules to see if you include
Co., Ltd., Inc, Press),
– Publication date.
Reference Lists 3
• Magazine and Journal Articles
– Authors’ names, surname first.
– ―Article title with quotation marks (MLA).‖
– Magazine or journal title underlined or italicized.
– Volume number. issue number (if paginated by issue
[every issue starts with page 1]. Issue number not
needed if paginated by volume [only the 1st issue that
year has page 1]):
– Page numbers for entire article.
Reference Lists 4
• Other sources you may cite include
– Government documents
– Interviews (if interview text not included in an
appendix, use parenthetical citation in text but don’t
put interview in bibliography)
– Electronic sources (Internet sources contain the date
on the site, the URL, and the date you accessed the
Everyone will send to the discussion board forum
(Documentation) the following:
– The original passage your quote, summary or paraphrase
– The way you incorporated the passage into your paragraph +
the parenthetical citation/footnote/endnote
– The bibliographic entry
Documentation Exercise Example
• Old Sam didn’t say a word to Kate the whole
way, even when she brought his lunch to the
bridge. It was a corned beef sandwich, too, with
lots of mayo and mustard and a layer of lettuce
thick enough to choke a horse, served on
homemade sourdough bread, his favorite
sandwich in the whole entire world.
Documentation Exercise Example 2
Quote incorporated into text, parenthetical citation,
bibliographic entry (MLA style)
• The Kate Shugak seen at the start of A Taint in the
Blood was surely not the same woman who didn’t tell
Old Sam Dementieff that she could make pineapple
upside down cake because he’d have her make one
twice a week. Stabenow described Kate as being overly
helpful, ―when she brought his lunch to the bridge. It
was a corned beef sandwich . . . his favorite sandwich in
the whole entire world‖ (6-7).
• Stabenow, Dana. A Taint in the Blood. New York: St.
Documentation Style by Discipline Chart
cmosfaq/cmosfaq.html Chicago Manual of
k-docum1b.html IEEE Style