HOW SCIENCE WORKS by GgNadU0Y

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									HOW SCIENCE WORKS
Methods of Analysis and
      Detection


  Simon Coates – Bristol Grammar School
   How Science Works
• New program of study for science
  implemented in September 2006
• Pupils learn about the way science
  and scientists work within society
• Greater emphasis on the processes
  and implications of science and
  scientific enquiry
         The Brief

Design lesson material for the new
GCSE specification, with particular
emphasis on „How Science Works‟.
        Problem Topics
New additions to the AQA specification to be
considered:
• Alternative fuels
• Smart Materials and Nanomaterials
• Catalysis in industry
• Water Hardness and Quality
• Instrumental Analysis
                  Specification
“To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of instrumental
methods and the features that influence that development...the
rapid progress in technologies such as electronic and computing”
“To interpret and evaluate the results of instrumental analyses
carried out to identify elements and compounds for forensic,
health and environmental purposes”
“Some instrumental methods are suited to identifying
elements...others are suited to identifying compounds”
                                     AQA GCSE Chemistry Specification
          Requirements
• A method of analysing elements
• A method of analysing compounds
• List the advantages and disadvantages of
  each method
• Give examples of where these methods
  are used to solve particular problems.
The Lesson Plan
               The Tasks
1. Theory and Discussion – powerpoint
2. Analysing compounds – preparing, running
   and analysing an infrared spectrum of Aspirin
3. Analysing elements – the emission spectrum of
   a sodium lamp
4. How Science Works – IR spectroscopy and
   drugs testing
The Theory
       • Analysing elements
       • Analysing compounds
       • Atomic Emission
           Spectroscopy
       • Infrared Spectroscopy
       • Development
       • Advantages
       • Disadvantages
       • Applications
Analysing Elements
Analysing Compounds
     Emission Spectroscopy
• Emission spectrum of a sodium
  lamp
• Analytical questions based on:
     - steel manufacture
     - detecting elements in stars

• Activity cancelled due to
     - lack of time
     - poor quality spectroscopes
     - better success with IR
         activities
              Aspirin
• Pupils to prepare a sample of Aspirin,
  and run an IR spectrum of their sample
• Pupils then interpret their spectra

• Very time consuming

• Instead, class demonstration and
  discussion of use of the IR machine
                    Aspirin

Pupils asked to
interpret the IR
spectrum of
Aspirin based on
simple functional
groups
         Drugs Testing
• Application of Infrared Spectroscopy, links
  to „How Science Works‟
• Discussion of Drugs testing, based on the
  upcoming Olympic games
• Applications, limitations and issues of
  drugs testing in sport
• Analysis of IR spectra of „blood samples‟
Drugs Testing
          Further Work
• Modifications of this lesson to cater for
  different abilities
• Ensure lesson material is suitable
  across all examination bodies
• Extra practical uses of the infrared
  machine
      Acknowledgements
•   Mr Tim Harrison
•   Dr David Smith
•   Mr Steve Croker
•   Staff, technicians and pupils at BGS
•   Dr Jon Stone – school supervisor
•   Fellow UAS students

								
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