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					Documentation for USDA Survey Nutrient Data Base, Release 7.

The Survey Nutrient Data Base is maintained especially for
analysis of nationwide dietary intake surveys. Release 7 was
developed for the 1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by
Individuals (CSFII '91). Values for Release 7 were derived
primarily from Release 10 of the USDA Nutrient Data Base for
Standard Reference. Nutrient values were added for nutrients not
in the Standard Reference Data Base (e.g. carotene), and complete
nutrient profiles were added for missing food items. If
analytical data were not available, the added values were imputed
from other forms of the foods, or estimates were derived from
data for similar foods.

Food composition values in this data base are for 100-gram edible
portions of each food. Food items containing a general or
nonspecific description, for example "Beef, not further
specified" have been assigned nutrient values for a commonly
eaten form of the food or for a composite of several forms.
Values for most items containing two or more ingredients were
calculated from ingredient data using representative recipes.

Recipes for home prepared foods containing salt as an ingredient
have been calculated both with and without the salt, and sodium
values for both calculations appear in this data set. For items
not calculated from recipes and for recipes where salt is not an
ingredient, the two sodium values are identical. Recipes
containing fat as an ingredient were also calculated for several
different fats and oils. However, due to space limitations, only
those nutrient values for analysis of the survey data calculated
using the specific fat listed in the recipe are included on this
file. Values representing calculations based on other fathe
National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

Brief descriptions of each food are provided in the data file.
More detailed descriptions and weights of selected portion sizes
are contained in a separate file--the "Manual of Food Codes for
Individual Intake." The files used to create this data base
include a primary nutrient data set, a recipe file and a file of
nutrient retention factors. These files, along with detailed
information about the recipe calculation procedures, can also be
downloaded from this board.

Nutrient values associated with specific brand named products
were supplied by the companies in most cases. When not supplied
by companies, values were estimated. Estimates are based on
product ingredient lists, or on values for similar products.

Mention of commercial products in this data base and the
accompanying manual of food codes is solely for identification
purposes and does not constitute endorsement by the USDA over
other products not mentioned. Mention of brand names is
necessary to report factually on available data. USDA neither
guarantees nor warrants the standard of the products, and the use
of brand names by USDA implies no approval of the products to the
exclusion of others which may also be suitable.
FORMAT OF THE DATA SET:

This data set is comma delimited. Text fields are enclosed with
double quotation marks. The order of the data fields is as
follows:

      Field
     Number   Description and units of measure

       1       Food Item number (7 digits)
       2       Description (51 characters)
       3       Water (%)
       4       Food energy (kilocalories)
       5       Protein (gm)
       6       Total fat (gm)
       7       Total saturated fatty acids (gm)
       8       Total monounsaturated fatty acids (gm)
       9       Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (gm)
      10       Cholesterol (mg)
      11       Carbohydate (gm)
      12       Total dietary fiber (gm)
      13       Alcohol (gm)
      14       Vitamin A (IU)
      15       Vitamin A (RE)
      16       Carotenes (RE)
      17       Vitamin E (Alpha-tocopherol equivalents in mg)
      18       Ascorbic acid (mg)
      19       Thiamin (mg)
      20       Riboflavin (mg)
      21       Niacin (mg)
      22       Vitamin B-6 (mg)
      23       Folate (mcg)
      24       Vitamin B-12 (mcg)
      25       Calcium (mg)
      26       Phosphorus (mg)
      27       Magnesium (mg)
      28       Iron (mg)
      29       Zinc (mg)
      30       Copper (mg)
      31       Sodium (mg) - Default value (mg)
      32       Sodium (mg) - Salt not added (For items not
               calculated from recipes and those recipes where
               salt is not an ingredient, the two sodium values
               are identical. See text above for further
               description.)
      33       Potassium (mg)



DATA SETS USED TO CREATE RELEASE 7 OF THE USDA NUTRIENT DATA BASE
FOR INDIVIDUAL FOOD INTAKE SURVEYS

PRIMARY NUTRIENT DATA SET FOR USDA NATIONWIDE FOOD CONSUMPTION
SURVEYS (PDS) RELEASE 7. This data set contains nutrient values
used to develop Release 7 of the USDA Nutrient Data Base for
Individual Food Intake Surveys, including values for all
ingredient items used in recipe calculations. Most of the
nutrient data are from Release 10 of the USDA Nutrient Data Base
for Standard Reference. Nutrient values were added for nutrients
not in the Standard Reference Data Base (e.g., carotene), and
complete nutrient profiles were added for missing food items. If
analytical data were not available the added values were imputed
from other forms of the foods, or estimates were derived from
data for similar foods. The values are for 100 grams of the
edible portion of a food. Included with each value is a code to
indicate whether or not it is from the Standard Reference Data
Base and whether it is based on analytical data or is an imputed
value. A date is included with each value not from release 9 of
the Standard Reference Data Base to indicate when it was added to
this data set.

All items from the Standard Reference Data Base carry the same
identification numbers, commonly called NDB numbers, as the
Standard Reference Data Base. Added food items have been
assigned special numbers distinguished with a 4 in the first
position. Data for approximately 3,200 food items are included.
A list of food descriptions for this data set is included on this
tape.

Nutrient values associated with specific brand named products
were supplied by the companies in most cases. When not supplied
by companies, values were estimated. Estimates are based on
product ingredient lists, or on values for similar products.

Mention of commercial products in this data base and the
accompanying manual of food codes is solely for identification
purposes and does not constitute endorsement by the USDA over
other products not mentioned. Mention of brand names is
necessary to report factually on available data. USDA neither
guarantees nor warrants the standard of the products, and the use
of brand names by USDA implies no approval of the products to the
exclusion of others which may also be suitable.

NUTRIENT NOTES: Values in the data base for carotene are those
assumed by HNIS in arriving at the values for total vitamin A and
should not be interpreted as representing solely beta-carotene.
Values for beta-carotene content of foods have not been reported
frequently, and existing reports are often not clear as to
whether a value is explicit for beta carotene or whether it
includes other carotenoids. Only limited analytical data exist
for vitamin E. Analytical data for vitamin E (as
alpha-tocopherol equivalents) are available mainly for basic
staple or commodity food items. Values on the data base for
dietary fiber generally represent total dietary fiber determined
by the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.


The format for the data set is as follows:
         Field    Number of
Column   Width    Decimal Places   Description of Field
------   -----    --------------    --------------------
 1- 5      5             NA        Food item number
                                    (NDB number)
 6- 8     3             NA         Nutrient or name
                                    identification number
                                   000 Abbreviated 20
                                         character name
                                   203 Protein (g)
                                   204 Fat (g)
                                   205 Carbohydrate (g)
                                   208 Energy (kcal)
                                   221 Alcohol (g)
                                   255 Moisture (g)
                                   291 Total Dietary
                                         Fiber (g)
                                   301 Calcium (mg)
                                   303 Iron (mg)
                                   304 Magnesium (mg)
                                   305 Phosphorus (mg)
                                   306 Potassium (mg)
                                   307 Sodium (mg)
                                   309 Zinc (mg)
                                   312 Copper (mg)
                                   318 Vitamin A (IU)
                                   392 Vitamin A (RE)
                                   393 Carotene (RE)
                                   394 Alpha-Tocopherol
                                         Equiv. (mg)
                                   401 Vitamin C (mg)
                                   404 Thiamin (mg)
                                   405 Riboflavin (mg)
                                   406 Niacin (mg)
                                   415 Vitamin B6 (mg)
                                   417 Folacin (mcg)
                                   418 Vitamin B12 (mcg)
                                   601 Cholesterol (mg)
                                   606 Total Sat. Fatty
                                         Acids (g)
                                   645 Total Monounsat Fatty
                                         Acids (g)
                                   646 Total Polyunsat.
                                         Fatty Acids (g)
 9-16         8          3         Nutrient value (amount in
                                   100 grams edible portion)
17            1          NA        Source code
                                    1 Analytical data or
                                      value calculated from
                                      analytical data.
                                      Source: Revised AH-8
                                      sections and USDA
                                         Nutrient Data Base for
                                         Standard Reference
                                         Release No. 10.
                                      2 Analytical data or
                                         value calculated from
                                         analytical data.
                                         Source: USDA Nutrient
                                         Data Bank. Value
                                         considered provisional
                                         at this time.
                                      3 Source: USDA Nutrient
                                         Data Base for Standard
                                         Reference Release 9.
                                      4 Imputed value.
                                         Source: USDA Nutrient
                                         Data Base for Standard
                                         Reference Release
                                         No. 9.
                                      5 Value based on
                                         manufacturer's label
                                         claim (Breakfast
                                         Cereals only) Source:
                                         USDA Nutrient Data
                                         Base for Standard
                                         Reference Release 9.
                                      6 Imputed value.
                                      7 Assumed zero.
                                      8 Value based on
                                         manufacturer's label
                                         claim (Breakfast
                                         Cereals only)
 18             1            NA       Blank
 19-24          6            NA      Date nutrient value added
                                     to data set (not present
                                     for values from USDA
                                     Nutrient Data Base for
                                     Standard Reference)
 25-28          4            NA      Blank (except for name
                                     record)

USDA TABLE OF NUTRIENT RETENTION FACTORS, RELEASE 3. This data
set contains the factors for calculating retention of vitamins
and minerals during food preparation. It is based primarily on
the HNIS "Provisional Table on Percent Retention of Nutrients in
Food Preparation," but contains several additional specific
categories of foods and cooking methods. Because analytical data
on nutrient retention are not available for all nutrients in each
specific category, missing factors were estimated to complete the
table. Each category has a code for computer access.

The format for the data set is as follows:

   Number of
   Field Decimal
Column    Width   Places      Description of Field
------    ----- ----------    --------------------
  1- 4     4       NARetention code
  5-39     35      NAFood category description
 40-42     3        2Calcium retention factor
 43-45     3        2Iron retention factor
 46-48     3        2Magnesium retention factor
 49-51     3        2Phosphorus retention factor
 52-54     3        2Potassium retention factor
 55-57     3        2Sodium retention factor
 58-60     3        2Zinc retention factor
 61-63     3        2Copper retention factor
 64-66     3        2Vitamin C retention factor
 67-69     3        2Thiamin retention factor
 70-72     3        2Riboflavin retention factor
 73-75     3        2Niacin retention factor
 76-78     3        2Vitamin B6 retention factor
 79-81     3        2Folacin retention factor
 82-84     3        2Vitamin B12 retention factor
 85-87     3        2Vitamin A retention factor
 88-90     3        2Vitamin A retention factor (dupl)
 91-93     3        2Carotenes retention factor (vitA)


RECIPE FILE FOR RELEASE 7 OF THE USDA NUTRIENT DATA BASE FOR
INDIVIDUAL FOOD INTAKE SURVEYS. This data set controlled the
generation of the survey nutrient data base using the PDS and the
table of retention factors. The items to be included in the
survey data base were designated and survey food codes assigned
before this file was constructed. In this file, each survey food
code is linked to one or more PDS items through a set of recipe
codes. Links to single PDS items are treated as one-component
recipes. The information included for each recipe is listed
below:

  1. Recipe components.
     a. Names.
     b. NDB numbers.
     c. Weights of the components in grams, excluding the
         weight of any refuse.
     d. Retention codes, where applicable.
  2. Changes in moisture and/or fat that occur during cooking,
     expressed as a percentage (plus or minus) of the total
     weight of the uncooked recipe.
  3. Percent yield of the recipe. This is the final weight of
     the cooked recipe, expressed as a percentage of the
     uncooked weight.
  4. The NDB number for the type of fat (only for recipes with a
     fat change).

The recipe file contains approximately 6,300 items: one item for
every food listed in the survey code book for the Continuing
Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Approximately half are
one-component recipes--direct links to single items on the PDS.
The recipes for mixed dishes were selected primarily from popular
cookbooks and USDA publications. They are intended to be typical
of foods as consumed in the United States.

Each recipe contains two record types: 1 header record and 1 or
more component records. The record formats are listed below.

HEADER RECORD (Record types 1 and 2)

   Number of
   Field Decimal
Column    Width   Places       Description of Field
------    ----- ----------     --------------------

 1         1           NA      Record type (Header Record = 1)
 2         1           NA      Blank
 3- 9      7           NA      Survey food code
 10        1           NA      Blank
 11-46     36          NA      Name of food (abbreviated)
 47        1           NA      Blank
 8-52      5           1       Yield of recipe (cooked weight
                               expressed as percent of uncooked
                               weight)
 53        1           NA      Blank
 54-58     5           1       Moisture change (percent of
                               uncooked weight)
 59        1           NA      Blank
 60-64     5           1       Fat change (percent of uncooked
                               weight)
 65        1           NA      Blank
 66-70     5           NA      Type of fat change (NDB number)
 71-80     10          NA      Blank

COMPONENT RECORD FORMAT (Record types 6 and 9)

   Number of
   Field Decimal
Column    Width   Places        Description of Field
------    ----- ----------      --------------------

  1        1           NA       Record type
           6   = component
           9   = last component
  2        1           NA       Blank
  3- 9     7           NA       Survey food code
  10       1           NA       Blank
  11-12    2           NA       Component number (sequence number)
  13       1           NA       Blank
  14       1           NA       Flag
           2   = substituted item
           4   = fat component
           5   = salt component
  15       1           NA       Blank
  16-22    7          NA      Component's NDB number
  23-29    7          NA       Blank
  30-54    25         NA      Name
  55-58    4          NA      Retention code
  59       1          NA      Blank
  60-65    6          NA      Measure description
  66       1          NA      Blank
  67-73    7          3       Weight of measure (grams, edible
                              portion)
  74-80    7          NA      Blank

RECIPE CALCULATION METHOD

The recipe calculation procedure is the same one used by the USDA
National Nutrient Data Bank for preparation of Agriculture
Handbook No. 8 (1). Additional details appear in the
"Proceedings of the Tenth National Nutrient Data Bank Conference
(2).

The calculation procedure involves seven basic steps:

 1.   Determining the weight in grams of each ingredient and
      subtracting the weight of any inedible part, such as bone.
      USDA publications were used as sources of data on
      weight-volume relationships (1,3,4) and refuse (1,3) of
      ingredients for the recipe file. This step is not a part
      of the automated procedure.

 2.   Determining the nutrients in the specified weight of each
      ingredient. Nutrient values for 100-gram portions of
      ingredients are stored in the Primary Nutrient Data Set for
      Food Consumption Surveys.

 3.   Applying retention factors to vitamin and mineral values
      where losses may occur during cooking. Retention factors
      are contained in the USDA Table of Retention Factors.

 4.   Determining total uncooked weight of the recipe by summing
      weights of the ingredients.

 5.   Determining nutrients in the total recipe by summing
      nutrient values for the ingredients.

  6. Adjusting the total values to account for changes in
     moisture and fat during cooking. Moisture may be lost
     through evaporation or drippings, or it may be gained
     through absorption. The total weight of the recipe and
     the total moisture value are adjusted at this step.
     (Vitamin and mineral losses are calculated in step 3.) Fat
     may be lost through drippings or gained through absorption
     during frying. Fat changes affect total weight, energy,
     total fat, and fatty acids and sometimes also affect
     cholesterol, minerals, and fat-soluble vitamins. These
     values are adjusted at this step. For the recipe file,
       information on   the amount of moisture and fat changes
       during cooking   were taken from Agriculture Handbook No. 102
       (5) or derived   from unpublished materials used in the
       development of   Agriculture Handbook 8 revisions (1).

 7.    Converting nutrient values for the total recipe to the
       100-gram basis. Steps 2 through 7 are performed by the
       computer program.

To illustrate the procedures here are the calculations for a
sample recipe--flounder fillet, breaded, fried.

 Recipe information in the Recipe File:

         Retention           Weight of
 Recipe Components            NDB No.          Code       Edible Part
 -----------------            -------           ---      -------------
1. Flounder, raw              80180            2310         907.2 g
2. Egg, raw                   01123            0103          50.0 g
3. Milk                       01077            15.2 g
4. Bread crumbs, dry          74750            0305           100.0 g
5. Salt                       89630            5.5 g

      Moisture change = -20%
      Fat change = +8%
      Yield = 88%
      Fat NDB No. = 04031 (vegetable shortening absorbed during
      frying)

The USDA recipe program locates each NDB number on the Primary
Nutrient Data Set, calculates the nutrients for the specified
weight, and applies the appropriate set of retention factors to
the resulting nutrient values if a retention code has been
designated. Calculations for thiamin are presented below as an
example.


            Thiamin in    Thiamin
       NDB   100 grams    in recipe Retention       Thiamin
     Number (from PDS) Weight        portion        factor     (corrected)
     ------ ---------- ------       ---------       -------    -----------
                mg        g            mg              g

1.   80180    0.050   X 907.2 /   100   =   0.454   X   .85     =   0.386
2.   01123    0.087   X 50.0 /    100   =   0.044   X   .85     =   0.037
3.   01077    0.038   X 15.2 /    100   =   0.006               =   0.006
4.   74750    0.350   X 100.0 /   100   =   0.350   X   .75     =   0.262
5.   89630    0.000   X   5.5 /   100   =   0.000               =   0.000


The remaining steps in the recipe calculation procedure are
illustrated below for energy and three nutrients. The weight and
nutrient values for the individual ingredients are summed, and
moisture and fat changes are calculated by multiplying the total
weight by the input data for "Moisture change" and "Fat change."
The nutrient data for the type of fat absorbed during frying is
accessed in the PDS by the NDB number included for "Fat NDB No.,"
and the individual nutrients in the fat are calculated for the
amount of fat absorbed. These values are applied to the subtotals
to determine the weight and nutrient content of the cooked
recipe, and all nutrient values are converted to the 100 gram
basis for storage in the survey nutrient data base.

Selected Food Components in Flounder Fillet, Breaded, Fried

                 Total   Saturated
              Weight      Energy     Moisture      Fat    Fatty Acids
              -------     ------     --------     -----   -----------
               Kcal          g           g          g          g

  1.            907.2      717         737.6      7.2         1.8
  2.             50.0       79          37.3      5.6         1.7
  3.            156.2        9          13.3       .5          .3
  4.            100.0      392           6.5      4.6         1.0
  5.              5.5        0           0.0      0.0         0.0
               -------    -------    ---------   -----      -------
Subtotals     1,077.9    1,197         794.7      17.9        4.8

 Moisture
 change       -215.6                  -215.6

 Fat change    +86.2      +762            +86.2 +21.6
              -------     -------    --------- -----        -------
 Yield         948.6     1,959         579.1    104.1        26.4

 per 100
  Grams         100.0     207          61.0      11.0        2.8
_________

REFERENCES

   1.   U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1976- . Composition of
        Foods--Raw, Processed, Prepared. Agric. Handb. No. 8:
        AH-8-1, Dairy and Egg Products, 1976; AH-8-2, Spices and
        Herbs, 1977; AH-8-3, Baby Foods, 1978; AH-8-4, Fats and
        Oils, 1979; AH-8-5, Poultry Products, 1979; AH-8-6,
        Soups, Sauces, and Gravies, 1980; AH-8-7, Sausages and
        Luncheon Meats, 1980; AH-8-8, Breakfast Cereals, 1982;
        AH-8-9, Fruits and Fruit Juices, 1982; AH-8-10, Pork and
        Pork Products, 1983; AH-8-11, Vegetables and Vegetable
        Products, 1984; AH-8-12, Nut and Seed Products, 1984;
        AH-8-13, Beef Products, 1990; AH-8-14, Beverages, 1986;
        AH-8-15, Finfish and Shellfish Products, 1987; AH-8-16,
        Legumes and Legume Products, 1986; AH-8-17, Lamb, Veal,
        and Game Products, 1989; AH-8-18, Baked Products, 1992;
        AH-8-19, Snacks and Sweets, 1992; AH-8-20, Cereal Grains
        and Pasta, 1989; AH-8-21, Fast Foods, 1988; First
        Supplement, 1989; Second Supplement, 1990, Third
        Supplement, 1992.

   2.   Perloff, B.P. 1985. Recipe Calculations for NFCS Data
        Base. Proceedings of Tenth National Nutrient Data Bank
        Conference, July 22-24, 1985, San Francisco, California.
        U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical
        Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161.

   3.   Adams, C.F. 1975. Nutritive Value of American Foods.
        U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agric. Handb. No. 456, 291 pp.

   4.   Fulton, L., E. Matthews, and C. Davis. 1977. Average
        Weight of a Measured Cup of Various Foods. U.S. Dept. of
        Agriculture, Home Econ. Res. Rep. No. 41, 26 pp.

   5.   Matthews, R.H. and Y.J. Garrison. 1975. Food Yields
        Summarized by different Stages of Preparation. U.S.
        Dept. of Agriculture, Agric. Handb. No. 102, 136 pp.
                            KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS
      1

KEY       AMT=AMOUNT
KEY       APPX=APPROXIMATELY
KEY       APRCT=APRICOT
KEY       ART=ARTIFICIAL
KEY       ASC=ASCORBIC ACID
KEY       BAN=BANANA
KEY       BISCT=BISCUIT
KEY       BKD=BAKED
KEY       BLD=BOILED
KEY       BN=BONE
KEY       BRLD=BROILED
KEY       BRN=BROWN
KEY       BRSD=BRAISED
KEY       BTTR=BATTER
KEY       BX=BOX
KEY       C=CUP
KEY       CA PHOS=CALCIUM PHOSPHATE
KEY       CA=CALCIUM
KEY       CAL=KCAL=CALORIES
KEY       CHERR=CHERRY
KEY       CHOC=CHOCOLATE
KEY       CINN=CINNAMON
KEY       CKD=COOKED
KEY       CL=CLASS
KEY       CN=CAN
KEY       CND=CANNED
KEY       CNTNR=CONTAINER
KEY       COCNT=COCONUT
KEY       COMMER=COMMERCIAL
KEY       CONC=CONCENTRATE
KEY       CRCKRS=CRACKERS
KEY       CRM=CREAM
KEY       CRM=CREAM
KEY       CROQ=CROQUETTE
KEY       CTTNSD=COTTONSEED
KEY       CU IN=CUBIC INCH
KEY       DEHY=DEHYDRATED
KEY       DI NA PHOS=DI SODIUM PHOSPHATE
KEY       DIAM=DIAMETER
KEY       DIL=DILUTED
KEY       DRND=DRAINED
KEY       E=COLUMN E AGRICULTURE HANDBOOK 8
KEY       ENR=ENRICHED
KEY       EQ=EQUAL
KEY       F=COLUMN F AGRICULTURE HANDBOOK 8
KEY       FE=IRON
KEY       FL OZ=FLUID OUNCE
KEY       FLAV=FLAVORED
KEY       FLR=FLOUR
KEY       FORT=FORTIFIED
KEY       FRSTD=FROSTED
KEY   FRTS=FRUITS
KEY   FRZ=FROZEN
KEY   FT=FAT
KEY   GAL=GALLON
KEY   GL=GLASS
KEY   GM=GRAMS
KEY   GR=GRAIN
KEY   GRAN=GRANULES
KEY   GRPE=GRAPE
KEY   HI-MT=HIGH MEAT
KEY   HI-PROT=HIGH PROTEIN
KEY   HLVS=HALVES
KEY   HYDR=HYDROGENATED
KEY   IC=ICING
KEY   IMITN=IMITATION
KEY   IN=INCH
KEY   INSTNT=INSTANT
KEY   JNR=JUNIOR
KEY   L/F(%)=LN/FT(%)=LEAN FAT RATIO
KEY   LB=POUND
KEY   LF=LOAF
KEY   LG OR LRG=LARGE
KEY   LIQ=LQ=LIQUIDS
KEY   LN=LEAN
KEY   LNG=LONG
KEY   MARG=MARGARINE
KEY   MED=MEDIUM
KEY   MG=MILLIGRAM
KEY   MILL=MILLED
KEY   NA CAS=SODIUM CASIENATE
KEY   NA=SODIUM
KEY   NFDM=NON FAT DRY MILK
KEY   NFDMS=NON FAT DRIED MILK SOLIDS
KEY   NFMS=NON FAT MILK SOLIDS
KEY   NT WT=NET WEIGHT
KEY   OZ=OUNCE
KEY   PAST=PASTEURIZED
KEY   PC=PIECE
KEY   PDR=POWDER OR POWDERED
KEY   PK=PACK
KEY   PKD=PACKED
KEY   PKG=PACKAGE
KEY   PKT=PACKET
KEY   PNAPPL=PINEAPPLE
KEY   POL=POLISHED
KEY   PPD=PREPARED
KEY   PREP=PREPARED
KEY   PRESWT=PRESWEETENED
KEY   PROC=PROCESSED
KEY   PTTY=PATTY
KEY   QT=QUART
KEY   R-T-C=READY TO COOK
KEY   REC=RECIPE
KEY   RECT=RECTANGULAR
KEY   REG=REGULAR
KEY   RF=REFUSE
KEY   RSTD=ROASTED
KEY   RW=RAW
KEY   SECT=SECTIONS
KEY   SFLWR=SAFFLOWER
KEY   SKN=SKIN
KEY   SL=SLC=SLICE OR SLICES
KEY   SLT=SALT
KEY   SM=SMALL
KEY   SNFLWR=SUNFLOWER
KEY   SOL=SOLIDS
KEY   SQ=SQUARE
KEY   STBL=STABALIZERS
KEY   STFFNG=STUFFING
KEY   STK=STICK
KEY   STR=STRAINED
KEY   SUG=SUGAR
KEY   SWTN=SWEETENED
KEY   SYBN=SOYBEAN
KEY   SZ=SIZE
KEY   TBLTS=TABLETS
KEY   TBSP=TABLESPOON
KEY   TOT ED=TOTAL EDIBLE PORTION
KEY   TSP=TEASPOON
KEY   VAR=VARIETY OR VARIETIES
KEY   VEG-S=VEGETABLE SHORTENING
KEY   VEG=VEGETABLES
KEY   VIT A=VITAMIN A
KEY   VIT C=VITAMIN C
KEY   VOL=VOLUME
KEY   W/=WITH
KEY   WDG=WEDGE
KEY   WHL=WHOLE
KEY   WHT=WHITE
KEY   WO/=WITHOUT
KEY   WT=WEIGHT
KEY   WTR=WATER
KEY   YEL=YELLOW
KEY   YLD=YIELD
ic. Handb. No. 456, 291 pp.

   4.   Fulton, L., E. Matthews, and C. Davis. 1977. Average
        Weight of a Measured Cup of Various Foods. U.S. Dept. of
        Agriculture, Home Econ. Res. Rep. No. 41, 26 pp.

   5.   Matthews, R.H. and Y.J. Garrison. 1975. Food Yields
        Summarized by different Stages of Preparation. U.S.
        Dept. of Agriculture, Agric. Handb. No. 102, 136 pp.
                            KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS
      1

KEY       AMT=AMOUNT
KEY       APPX=APPROXIMATELY
KEY       APRCT=APRICOT
KEY       ART=ARTIFICIAL
KEY       ASC=ASCORBIC ACID
KEY       BAN=BANANA
KEY       BISCT=BISCUIT
KEY       BKD=BAKED
KEY       BLD=BOILED
KEY       BN=BONE
KEY       BRLD=BROILED
KEY       BRN=BROWN
KEY       BRSD=BRAISED
KEY       BTTR=BATTER
KEY       BX=BOX
KEY       C=CUP
KEY       CA PHOS=CALCIUM PHOSPHATE
KEY       CA=CALCIUM
KEY       CAL=KCAL=CALORIES
KEY       CHERR=CHERRY
KEY       CHOC=CHOCOLATE
KEY       CINN=CINNAMON
KEY       CKD=COOKED
KEY       CL=CLASS
KEY       CN=CAN
KEY       CND=CANNED
KEY       CNTNR=CONTAINER
KEY       COCNT=COCONUT
KEY       COMMER=COMMERCIAL
KEY       CONC=CONCENTRATE
KEY       CRCKRS=CRACKERS
KEY       CRM=CREAM
KEY       CRM=CREAM
KEY       CROQ=CROQUETTE
KEY       CTTNSD=COTTONSEED
KEY       CU IN=CUBIC INCH
KEY       DEHY=DEHYDRATED
KEY       DI NA PHOS=DI SODIUM PHOSPHATE
KEY       DIAM=DIAMETER
KEY       DIL=DILUTED
KEY       DRND=DRAINED
KEY       E=COLUMN E AGRICULTURE HANDBOOK 8
KEY       ENR=ENRICHED
KEY       EQ=EQUAL
KEY       F=COLUMN F AGRICULTURE HANDBOOK 8
KEY       FE=IRON
KEY       FL OZ=FLUID OUNCE
KEY       FLAV=FLAVORED
KEY       FLR=FLOUR
KEY       FORT=FORTIFIED
KEY       FRSTD=FROSTED
KEY   FRTS=FRUITS
KEY   FRZ=FROZEN
KEY   FT=FAT
KEY   GAL=GALLON
KEY   GL=GLASS
KEY   GM=GRAMS
KEY   GR=GRAIN
KEY   GRAN=GRANULES
KEY   GRPE=GRAPE
KEY   HI-MT=HIGH MEAT
KEY   HI-PROT=HIGH PROTEIN
KEY   HLVS=HALVES
KEY   HYDR=HYDROGENATED
KEY   IC=ICING
KEY   IMITN=IMITATION
KEY   IN=INCH
KEY   INSTNT=INSTANT
KEY   JNR=JUNIOR
KEY   L/F(%)=LN/FT(%)=LEAN FAT RATIO
KEY   LB=POUND
KEY   LF=LOAF
KEY   LG OR LRG=LARGE
KEY   LIQ=LQ=LIQUIDS
KEY   LN=LEAN
KEY   LNG=LONG
KEY   MARG=MARGARINE
KEY   MED=MEDIUM
KEY   MG=MILLIGRAM
KEY   MILL=MILLED
KEY   NA CAS=SODIUM CASIENATE
KEY   NA=SODIUM
KEY   NFDM=NON FAT DRY MILK
KEY   NFDMS=NON FAT DRIED MILK SOLIDS
KEY   NFMS=NON FAT MILK SOLIDS
KEY   NT WT=NET WEIGHT
KEY   OZ=OUNCE
KEY   PAST=PASTEURIZED
KEY   PC=PIECE
KEY   PDR=POWDER OR POWDERED
KEY   PK=PACK
KEY

				
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