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Chapter 8
Objectives of Production
   Enhance the aesthetic appeal, color,
    texture, and flavor of food

   Destroy harmful organisms

   Maximize nutrient retention
Mise en Place
   “Everything put in place”
       Assembly of tools and ingredients
       Weighing and measuring ingredients
       Keep workplace clean and orderly
       Knife skills
       Preliminary cooking and flavoring
         • Marinating
         • Blanching and parcooking
       Preparation for frying
         • Breading
         • Dredging
Principles of Basic Cooking
   Appendix A
       Summary of heat transfer and basic
        cooking methods
   FFF Chapter 4
       Cooking methods and terms
   FFF Glossary
     Menu and cooking terms
     Pronunciation of French culinary terms
Recipe Standardization
   The standardized recipe is the most
    important control tool in food

   Tested and adapted to the
    requirements of a specific
    foodservice operation.
Recipe Standardization
 Improves consistency of
  flavor, texture, portion
  size, nutrient composition
 Simplifies planning,
  purchasing, forecasting,
  recipe costing, and recipe
Recipe Standardization
   Reduces effects of employee

   Simplifies training of new staff

   Important if you have centralized
    ingredient assembly
       Accuracy in weights and measures is
Recipe Development
   Recipe format
       Standard Form

       Narrative Form

       Block Form
        • Figure 8.1, pg. 258

   Computerized
Recipe Development
   Essential Information:
     Recipe Title
     Yield and Portion Size
      (weight, # of pans)
        • Define serving utensil for portioning
     Cooking Time and Temperature
     Ingredients and Quantities
        • No more than three ingredient amount
Recipe Development
Descriptive Terms:
 Words before ingredient is AP
       Canned tomatoes
       Frozen chopped broccoli
   Words after ingredient is EP
       Onions, chopped
       Margarine, melted
   Designate AP or EP amount – Table 8.1
   Use consistent abbreviations – Table 8.2
Recipe Development
   Procedures
     Clear, concise
     Across from ingredients

     Uniform basic procedures

     Timing for procedure using equipment

     Weight measures per pans in bakery
Recipe Development
Additional Information:
 Substitution of ingredients
 Alternate methods of preparation
 Comments about appearance
 Variations
 Tips on how to
  plate or garnish
Recipe Development
   Size
     4 x 6 or 5 x 8 cards
     8 ½ x 11 heavy typing paper
     12 font or larger
     Placed in plastic cover if used again
     Computer systems – recipes are
      printed as needed
Recipe Development
 Final step in standardizing a recipe
  is when it is tried and adapted to
  your facility
 Recipe Evaluation
     Yield – measure of total amount
     Quality standards – appearance, color,
      flavor, texture, consistency,
 A prediction of food needs for a day
  or other specific period of time
 Forecasting
     Triggers purchasing and production
     Vital for financial management

     Provides efficient scheduling of labor
      and use of equipment and space
   Accurate forecasting minimizes
    overproduction and

   Consequences of overproduction

   Consequences of
   Uses Historical Data-p.271
     Restaurants
     Schools

     Hospitals

     Vending Services

   Knowledge of pattern variances
   Types of Forecasting Models
     Moving Averages-drops last number
      and adds next number
     Exponential Smoothing-newer numbers
      hold more weight than older numbers
     Regression and Autoregressive moving
      average-sophisticated statistical
Production Schedule
   A detailed list of food items to be
    produced for the current day’s menu plus
    any advance preparation needed
   Includes all phases of production
       Preparation, production, holding, service,
   Batch Cooking: fresh vegetables, rice,
    noodles, french fries
Production Schedules
   Production sheets include:
     Work to be done
     Who is to do the task

     Amounts to produce

     Source recipe

     Portion sizes

     Target completion times
Production Scheduling
   Production Meetings
       Menu as served measures up to the
        menu as planned
   Production Control/Ingredient Room
     Increase production control
     Improved security
     Consistent quality control
     Efficient use of equipment
     Advantage of cooks skills
Production Scheduling
   Production Control/Ingredient Room
     Lack of flexibility
     Cooks may feel restricted

     May allow some adjustment of
Production Scheduling
   Portion Control
     Add scoop number to recipe
     Numbering system for scoop size is
      based on the number of scoops per

   Production Evaluation

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