Vietnam War - Get Now PowerPoint

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					          10th American History
  Unit V – A Nation Facing Challenges
Chapter 19 – Section 3 – 1968: A Turning
Hey, Hey, LBJ (03:41)
           1968: A Turning Point
                         The Main Idea
As the Vietnam War dragged on and increasingly appeared to
     be unwinnable, deep divisions developed in American

                         Reading Focus
• What was the Tet Offensive?
• What were the effects of the Tet Offensive?
• How did President Johnson try to find a solution to the war?
• How did the election of 1968 illustrate divisions in American
    Tet Offensive- 2:04 min

The Tet Offensive (07:41)
                    The Tet Offensive
                •   A series of massive coordinated attacks throughout
Tet Offensive
                    South Vietnam

                •   In January 1968 thousands of NVA and Vietcong troops
                    attacked a U.S. military base in Khe Sanh.
 Khe Sanh       •   This and other rural attacks were diversions to draw
                    U.S. and ARVN forces away from urban areas.

                •   Main Communist offensive began on January 30, 1968,
 The Main           at the start of Tet, the Vietnamese New Year.
  Attacks       •   Some 84,000 Communist soldiers attacked 12 U.S.
                    military bases and more than 100 cities across South
Khe Sahn (00:31)
1968- Tet Offensive
     •   January- “Tet” lunar new year.
     •   Gen. Westmoreland tells the country
         how the war is being won.
     •   The Vietcong and North Vietnamese
         84,000, attacked 36 of 44 provincial
         towns in addition to 5 of 6
         autonomous cities, 72 of 245 district
         towns, and many military bases and
         airfields on the same day. They even
         attack the U.S. embassy.
     •   All is retaken in few difficult weeks.
     •   NLF, Vietcong, are crushed as a
         fighting force.
     •   Westmoreland wants 206,000 more
         troops and more fighter squadrons.
     •   Graphic film footage of the fighting
         reinforced concerns about casualties,
         and the fact the offensive took place
         undermined the White House's
         claims that victory had been in sight.
     •   Did we really win the Tet Offensive?
       The Tet Offensive
• What was the Tet Offensive?
• Recall – What took place in Khe
  Sanh in 1968?
• Analyze – What was the purpose
  of the attack on Khe Sanh?
        The Tet Offensive
• Recall – What happened when the
  U.S. Embassy in Siagon was
  attacked at the beginning of the Tet
• Make Judgments – Do you believe,
  as did General Westmoreland, that
  the Tet Offensive was a defeat for the
      Effects of the Tet Offensive
• General Westmoreland called the Tet Offensive a decisive defeat
  for the Communists.
   – The cities taken by the Communists were retaken.
   – About 45,000 enemy soldiers were killed. About 1,100 Americans and
     2,300 ARVN troops also died.
   – The Communists showed that they were determined to keep on
• The Tet Offensive showed that no part of South Vietnam was safe
  from attack.
• The Tet Offensive caused many Americans to question whether or
  not the war in Vietnam could be won.
• President Johnson announced that he would not seek reelection.
       Effects of the Tet Offensive
        Growing Doubts                    Democratic Challengers
• Walter Cronkite broadcast a          • Roughly 3 out of 4 Americans
  television report in which he gave     opposed his policies in Vietnam.
  his personal assessment of the
  situation in Vietnam.                • Minnesota senator Eugene
                                         McCarthy challenged Johnson for
• Major national magazines such as       the Democratic Party’s
  Time and Newsweek also                 nomination.
  expressed doubts about the war
  and began to call for its end.       • New York senator Robert
                                         Kennedy entered the race.
• Public criticism of the
  government’s policies grew louder    • Shaken by the divisions within his
  and more intense.                      party, Johnson announced that he
                                         would not seek nor accept the
• Leaders within Johnson’s               office of the presidency.
  administration began to criticize
  Johnson’s policies.
• Robert S. McNamara began to
  seek ways to end the war.
 Effects of the Tet Offensive
• What were the effects of the Tet
• Recall – Who was Walter Cronkite?
• Explain – How did the Tet Offensive
  cause many Americans to doubt that
  the U.S. would soon win the war?
 Effects of the Tet Offensive
• Analyze – How did Robert S.
  McNamara’s position on the war
• Evaluate – What role did
  electoral politics play in Johnson’s
  deciding not to run in 1968?
Credibility Gap
        • Johnson did not tell Congress
          his intention to escalate the war.
        • He did tell Congress how much
          it will cost.
        • He was worried the the full
          truth would hurt the Great
          Society plans.
        • He wanted to be a leader in war
          and a leader of peace.
        • Credibility Gap- between what
          the President wanted people to
          believe and what was really
        • People began to doubt what
          their President would tell them.
         Searching for Solutions
President Johnson denied General Westmoreland’s request
for 206,000 more ground soldiers.

Johnson’s advisors could not come up with the best course
for the war strategy.
Robert McNamara suggested limiting the air strikes and
reversing the escalation of the war.
Johnson decided to negotiate with the North Vietnamese.
The Paris peace talks stalled over two issues: the United
States wanted all NVA troops out of South Vietnam, and
North Vietnam would not accept a temporary South
Vietnam government that included a U.S.-backed president.
     The Peace Offensive + Anti-War Protest

•   Senators who voted for the Tonkin Gulf Resolution changed their minds.
•   Anti-War Teach-ins
•   Protest marchers in Washington D.C.
•   December 23, 1965- LBJ halts the bombing- “a peace offensive” to explore
    diplomatic avenues to end the war.
           Fall of LBJ
• Anti-War activists challenged
  LBJ for the Democratic
  nomination for President in
  1968- Robert Kennedy and
  Eugene McCarthy
• LBJ’s advisors and other world
  leaders thought the war was
  being handled badly and the
  U.S. should get out.
• Mar. 31, 1968- LBJ resticts
  bombing and calls for peace
• “I shall not seek, and I will not
  accept the nomination of my
  party for another term as your
• Peace Talks begin in May of
  1968 and drag on for months
  without success. Our longest
  Johnson Seeks a Solution
• How did President Johnson try to
  find a solution to the war?
• Explain – Why did Westmoreland
  request additional troops?
• Elaborate – Why were many
  Americans outraged by
  Westmoreland’s request?
  Johnson Seeks a Solution
• Recall – What alterations to
  President Johnson’s policies in
  Vietnam did McNamara suggest?
• Analyze – Why did peace talks
  between the U.S. and North
  Vietnam stall so quickly?
The Presidential Campaign (03:19)
        The Election of 1968
        The Democratic Primary Fight
– Vice President Hubert Humphrey entered the race
  and defended the administration’s policies in
– Senator Eugene McCarthy called for a rapid end to
  the war.
– Senator Robert Kennedy also called for an end to
  the war and won primaries in Indiana, Nebraska, and
   • Kennedy was shot leaving a Las Vegas hotel by Sirhan
     Sirhan, a Jordanian immigrant who didn’t like Kennedy’s
     support for Israel.
The Second Kennedy Assassination (05:55)
June 5, 1968 (03:15)
    The Democratic Convention
Delegates at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago
debated between McCarthy and Humphrey.

Outside the convention, protesters from around the country
demanded an immediate end to the war.
Chicago mayor Richard Daley sent troops to maintain order
but violence soon broke out.

Television crews captured violent scenes between protesters
and police.
The chaos was one symptom of a growing “generation gap”
over government, politics, and the Vietnam War.
Rebellion and the Democratic Convention
                 of 1968
                  •   Before the convention- King assassinated,
                      RFK assassinated, and countless anti-war
                  •   For the Democratic party, Chicago '68
                      doomed the candidacy of Hubert Humphrey
                      and set off shock waves of reform.
                  •    For the Left (antiwar), Chicago '68 hastened
                      the demise of SDS and intensified the
                      revolutionary fervor that would spawn street
                      violence and bombings.
                  •    Jerry Rubin and Abbie Hoffman- leaders of
                      the Youth International Party (YIPPIES) came
                      to Chicago
                  •   For the media, Chicago '68 created a deep
                      suspicion of the state and its minions.
                  •   For Chicago, Chicago '68 weakened support
                      for the last of the big-city bosses and fanned
                      the flames of political reform.
                  •   In the end 8 police charged and 8 civilians
                      charged (“Chicago 8”- later the “Chicago 7”
       Other Contenders in 1968
       Richard Nixon                    George Wallace
• Republican                      • Independent
• Won the nomination at the       • Former Alabama governor
  Republican National
  Convention                      • Nominated by the American
                                    Independent Party
• Chose Spiro Agnew as his
  running mate                    • Opposed the civil rights
                                    movement and school
• Appealed to the patriotism of     desegregation and war
  mainstream Americans              protesters
• Promised ―law and order‖        • Appealed to conservative
                                    Democratic white southerners
• Claimed to have a secret plan     and working class whites
  to end the war ―with honor‖
               The Election of 1968
         The Campaign                              The Results
• Nixon led the polls for most of the   • The election was very close—just
  campaign.                               510,000 votes separated Nixon
                                          and Humphrey.
• Humphrey made gains when he
  said the bombing in Vietnam           • Nixon won 43.4 percent of the
  should be stopped and that the          votes cast to Humphrey’s 42.7
  South Vietnamese should                 percent.
  shoulder more of the war’s
  responsibilities.                     • Nixon won 301 electoral votes to
                                          Humphrey’s 191.
• The peace talks in Paris made
  some progress when the North          • Wallace was one of the most
  Vietnamese agreed to include            successful third party candidates
  South Vietnamese                        in U.S. history (46 electoral votes
  representatives.                        and 13.5 percent of the popular
• Johnson announced an end to the
  bombing in Vietnam a few days         • Nixon’s electoral margin provided
  before the election.                    him with a mandate to rule that
                                          allowed him to escalate the war in
         Election of 1968
• How did the election of 1968 illustrate
  divisions in American society?
• Identify – Who was Hubert
• Contrast – How did the policies of
  McCarthy, Kennedy, and Humphrey
         Election of 1968
• Identify – Who was Richard Daley?
• Explain – Why did protestors gather
  outside the Democratic National
• Predict – If Kennedy had not been
  assassinated, how might the election
  of 1968 turned out differently?

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