APAG Ch.5 Assignment 2 Pages 152- by HC11112920428


									APAG Ch.5 Assignment 2
     Pages 152-
1. What is de facto segregation? De jure
  segregation? What was the solution?
• De Facto Segregation is racial
  segregation that occurs because of past
  social and economic conditions and
  residential patterns.
• De Jure Segregation is racial segregation
  that occurs because of laws or
  administrative decisions by public
• The solution was busing—transporting
  some African American schoolchildren to
  white schools and some white
  schoolchildren to African American
2. Where in the north did you find violent
  reaction to busing?
• South Boston—where African American
  students were bused into blue-collar Irish
  Catholic neighborhoods.
3. By the mid-1970’s, what percentage of
  African Americans opposed busing?
• 50% of African Americans opposed
• ¾ of whites opposed busing.
4. What did the Court rule in:
   A) Reddick v. Sch. Bd. Of City of Norfolk
   B) Board of Educ. v. Dowell (1991)
   C) Freeman v. Pitts (1992)
   D) Missouri v. Jenkins (1995)
• The Norfolk case allowed the city to end 15
  years of court-ordered busing of elementary
• In the Dowell case, the Supreme Court
  instructed a lower court administering a
  desegregation decree that if school racial
  concentration was a product of residential
  segregation that resulted from “private decision
  making and economics,” its effects may be
  ignored entirely.
• In the Pitts case, the Supreme Court also
  stressed the importance of “local control
  over the education of children.”
• In the Jenkins case, the Court ruled that
  the state of Missouri could stop spending
  money to attract a multiracial student body
  in urban school districts through major
  educational improvements.
5. What happened to forced integration by
• By the early 2000’s, the federal courts had
  become increasingly unwilling to uphold
  race-conscious policies designed to further
  school integration and diversity.
6. Had forced integration helped African
  American children improve educational
  resources and achievement?
• NO. Whites have fled the cities to the
  suburbs leaving one out of every three
  minorities attending schools with 90%
  minority enrollment.
7. What goal replaced that of the Brown
  case? What is the better indicator of poor
  academic achievement than race?
• The goal of better-educated children, even
  if that means educating them in schools in
  which the students are of the same race or
  in which race is not considered.
• Poverty is a better indicator of poor
  academic achievement than race.
8. Describe the issue that began the era of
  civil rights protest.
• Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on
  a city bus for a white man in Montgomery,
  Alabama and went to jail for it.
9. What organization did Dr. Martin Luther
  King form in 1957? Where did he get his
  philosophy of non-violent protest?
• King formed the Southern Christian
  Leadership Conference.
• He got his philosophy of non-violent
  protest from Mahatma Gandhi.
10. Where and when was one of the most
  violence-plagued protests? What
  happened? What law was passed as a
• It occurred in Birmingham, Alabama, in the
  spring of 1963, when Police Commissioner
  Eugene “Bull” Connor unleashed police
  dogs and used electric cattle prods against
  protesters who were provoking a reaction
  by local officials so that the federal
  government would act.
• The result of the media event was the
  passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
11. What happened 18 days after King’s
  march on Washington and his most
  famous speech?
• Four African American
12. Describe the African American leaders
  and opposition to King’s movement.
13. How effective were the Civil Rights Acts
  of 1957 and 1960?
14. What was forbidden under the Civil
  Rights Act of 1964?
15. How did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 get
16. What was banned under Title VII and
  create by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of
17. What were the 2 provisions of the
  Voting Rights Act of 1965?
18. Describe briefly examples of progress
  that African Americans have made since
  the Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s.
19. How has the Civil Rights movement
  impacted other minorities. Give some
20. Collectively, minorities outnumber white
  Americans in which states today? What
  other states will be added to this list by
21. What are the lingering social and
  economic disparities between African
  Americans and White Americans?
22. How has immigration rates changed in
  recent years? Where has the majority of
  immigrants come from since 1977?
23. What will happen to the “old guard” by
    2050? How will that impact racial
24. How did 9/11 affect immigration
  attitudes in this country? Are our doors to
  easily opened for terrorists to enter?

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