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APAG Ch.5 Assignment 2 Pages 152- 1. What is de facto segregation? De jure segregation? What was the solution? • De Facto Segregation is racial segregation that occurs because of past social and economic conditions and residential patterns. • De Jure Segregation is racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies. • The solution was busing—transporting some African American schoolchildren to white schools and some white schoolchildren to African American schools. 2. Where in the north did you find violent reaction to busing? • South Boston—where African American students were bused into blue-collar Irish Catholic neighborhoods. 3. By the mid-1970’s, what percentage of African Americans opposed busing? Whites? • 50% of African Americans opposed busing. • ¾ of whites opposed busing. 4. What did the Court rule in: A) Reddick v. Sch. Bd. Of City of Norfolk B) Board of Educ. v. Dowell (1991) C) Freeman v. Pitts (1992) D) Missouri v. Jenkins (1995) • The Norfolk case allowed the city to end 15 years of court-ordered busing of elementary schoolchildren. • In the Dowell case, the Supreme Court instructed a lower court administering a desegregation decree that if school racial concentration was a product of residential segregation that resulted from “private decision making and economics,” its effects may be ignored entirely. • In the Pitts case, the Supreme Court also stressed the importance of “local control over the education of children.” • In the Jenkins case, the Court ruled that the state of Missouri could stop spending money to attract a multiracial student body in urban school districts through major educational improvements. 5. What happened to forced integration by 2000? • By the early 2000’s, the federal courts had become increasingly unwilling to uphold race-conscious policies designed to further school integration and diversity. 6. Had forced integration helped African American children improve educational resources and achievement? • NO. Whites have fled the cities to the suburbs leaving one out of every three minorities attending schools with 90% minority enrollment. 7. What goal replaced that of the Brown case? What is the better indicator of poor academic achievement than race? • The goal of better-educated children, even if that means educating them in schools in which the students are of the same race or in which race is not considered. • Poverty is a better indicator of poor academic achievement than race. 8. Describe the issue that began the era of civil rights protest. • Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a city bus for a white man in Montgomery, Alabama and went to jail for it. 9. What organization did Dr. Martin Luther King form in 1957? Where did he get his philosophy of non-violent protest? • King formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. • He got his philosophy of non-violent protest from Mahatma Gandhi. 10. Where and when was one of the most violence-plagued protests? What happened? What law was passed as a result? • It occurred in Birmingham, Alabama, in the spring of 1963, when Police Commissioner Eugene “Bull” Connor unleashed police dogs and used electric cattle prods against protesters who were provoking a reaction by local officials so that the federal government would act. • The result of the media event was the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. 11. What happened 18 days after King’s march on Washington and his most famous speech? • Four African American 12. Describe the African American leaders and opposition to King’s movement. 13. How effective were the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960? 14. What was forbidden under the Civil Rights Act of 1964? 15. How did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 get passed? 16. What was banned under Title VII and create by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964? 17. What were the 2 provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965? 18. Describe briefly examples of progress that African Americans have made since the Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s. 19. How has the Civil Rights movement impacted other minorities. Give some examples. 20. Collectively, minorities outnumber white Americans in which states today? What other states will be added to this list by 2010? 21. What are the lingering social and economic disparities between African Americans and White Americans? 22. How has immigration rates changed in recent years? Where has the majority of immigrants come from since 1977? 23. What will happen to the “old guard” by 2050? How will that impact racial classifications? 24. How did 9/11 affect immigration attitudes in this country? Are our doors to easily opened for terrorists to enter?
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