Point of View - Get as DOC

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					Chart of Rhetorical Devices -2008
1. Point of View     The “third person limited omniscient” point of view, as                        10. Verbal Irony     In verbal irony, the words literally state the opposite of the writer’s (or
       Third         its name implies, presents the feelings and thoughts of only one                                    speaker’s) true meaning.
   Person Limited    character, presenting only the actions of all remaining characters.            11. Situational      In situational irony, events turn out the opposite of what was expected.
      Omniscient                                                                                          Irony          What the characters and readers think ought to happen is not what does
2. Point of View     In literature, the perspective from which a story is told. There are two                            happen.
                     general divisions of point of view and many subdivisions within those.
      First Person          1. The first-person narrator tells the story with the first-person      12. Dramatic Irony   In dramatic irony, facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or
     Narrator                    pronoun, “I,” and is a character in the story. This narrator can                        piece of fiction but known to the reader, audience, or the characters in the
                                 be the protagonist (the hero or heroine), a participant (a                              work.
                                 character in a secondary role), or an observer (a character who    13. Mood             This term has to distinct technical meanings in English writing. The first
                                 merely watches the action).                                                             meaning is grammatical and deals with verbal units and a speaker’s
3.   Third Person    The third person narrator relates the events with the third person                                  attitude. The indicative mood is used only for factual sentences. For
     Narrator        pronouns, “he,” “she,” and “it.” There are two main subdivisions to be                              example, “Joe eats too quickly.” The subjunctive mood is used for a
                     aware of: omniscient and limited omniscient. In the “third person                                   doubtful or conditional attitude. For example, “I were you, I’d get another
                     omniscient” point of view, the narrator, with godlike knowledge, presents                           job.” The imperative mood is used for commands. For example, “Shut
                     the thoughts and actions of any or all characters. This all knowing                                 the door!” The second meaning of mood is literary, meaning the prevailing
                     narrator can reveal what each character feels and thinks at any given                               atmosphere or emotional aura of a work. Setting, tone, and events can
                     moment.                                                                                             affect the mood. In the usage, mood is similar to tone and atmosphere.
4.    Simile         An explicit comparison, normally using like, as, or if. For example,           14. Establishing     Gaining the respect and trust of the readers or establishing credibility with
                     remember Robbie Burns’ famous lines, “O, my love is like a red, red rose           credibility      them.
                     / That’s newly sprung in June. / O, my love is like a melody, / That’s             (ethos)
                     sweetly played in tune.” See metaphor.                                         15. Appealing to     The logic of the argument; the reasoning behind it.
5. Euphemsim         From the Greek for “good speech,” euphemisms are a more agreeable or               logic (logos)
                     less offensive substitute for generally unpleasant words or concepts. The      16. Appealing to     Appeals to emotions and feelings.
                     euphemism may be used to adhere to standards of social or political                emotion
                     correctness, or to add humor or ironic understatement. Saying “earthly             (pathos)
                     remains” rather than “corpse” is an example of euphemism.                      17.   Expletive      A single word or short phrase, usually interrupting normal syntax, used to
6. Imagery           The sensory details of figurative language used to describe, arouse                                 lend emphasis to the words immediately proximate to the expletive. (We
                     emotion, or represent abstractions. On a physical level, imagery uses                               emphasize the words on each side of a pause or interruption in order to
                     terms related to the five senses; we refer to visual, auditory, tactile,                            maintain continuity of the thought.) Compare:
                     gustatory, or olfactory imagery.                                                                          But the lake was not drained before April.
7. Metaphor          A figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or                                 But the lake was not, in fact, drained before April.
                     the substitution of one for the other, suggesting some similarity.
                     Metaphorical language makes writing more vivid, imaginative, thought           18.   Asyndeton      Consists of omitting conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses. In
                     provoking, and meaningful.                                                                          a list of items, asyndeton gives the effect of unpremeditated multiplicity, of
8. Allegory           A form of extended metaphor, in which objects, persons, and actions in a                           an extemporaneous rather than a labored account:
                     narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative
                     itself. The underlying meaning has moral, social, religious, or political                           On his return he received medals, honors, treasures, titles, fame.
                     significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas      19.   Polysyndeton   The use of a conjunction between each word, phrase, or clause, and is
                     as charity, greed, or envy.                                                                         thus structurally the opposite of asyndeton. The rhetorical effect of
                     Thus an allegory is a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a                              polysyndeton, however, often shares with that of asyndeton a feeling of
                     symbolic meaning.                                                                                   multiplicity, energetic enumeration, and building up.
9. Irony/Ironic      The contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant;                                  They read and studied and wrote and drilled. I laughed and
                     the difference between what appears to be and what actually is true. In                                         played and talked and flunked.
                     general, there are three major types of irony used in language. Irony is
                                                                                                    20. Transition        A word or phrase that links different ideas. Used especially, although not
                     used for many reasons, but frequently, it’s used to create poignancy or
                                                                                                                         exclusively, in expository and argumentative writing, transitions effectively
                     humor.
                                                                                                                         signal a shift from one idea to another.
21. Understatement       Deliberately expresses an idea as less important than it actually is, either                       unwillingly is gladly forgotten." Similarly, the parallel sentence, "What is
                         for ironic emphasis or for politeness and tact. When the writer's audience                         now great was at first little," could be written chiastically as, "What is now
                         can be expected to know the true nature of a fact which might be rather                            great was little at first." Here are some examples:
                         difficult to describe adequately in a brief space, the writer may choose to                             3. He labors without complaining and without bragging rests.
                         understate the fact as a means of employing the reader's own powers of                                  4. Polished in courts and hardened in the field, Renowned for
                         description. For example, instead of endeavoring to describe in a few                                         conquest, and in council skilled. --Joseph Addison
                         words the horrors and destruction of the 1906 earthquake in San                                         5. "It is not enough to preach about family values, we must value
                         Francisco, a writer might state:                                                                              families.
                                The 1906 San Francisco earthquake interrupted business
                                      somewhat in the downtown area.                                     27.   Zeugma       Includes several similar rhetorical devices, all involving a grammatically
22.   Litotes             A particular form of understatement, is generated by denying the                     -or-         correct linkage (or yoking together) of two or more parts of speech by
                         opposite or contrary of the word which otherwise would be used.                                    another part of speech. Thus examples of zeugmatic usage would include
                         Depending on the tone and context of the usage, litotes either retains the
                                                                                                               Syllepsis    one subject with two (or more) verbs, a verb with two (or more) direct
                         effect of understatement, or becomes an intensifying expression.                                   objects, two (or more) subjects with one verb, and so forth. The main
                         Compare the difference between these statements:                                                   benefit of the linking is that it shows relationships between ideas and
                                Heat waves are common in the summer.                                                       actions more clearly.
                                Heat waves are not rare in the summer.
                         Johnson uses litotes to make a modest assertion, saying "not improperly"                           In one form (prozeugma), the yoking word precedes the words yoked. So,
                         rather than "correctly" or "best":                                                                 for example, you could have a verb stated in the first clause understood in
                               1. This kind of writing may be termed not improperly the comedy                              the following clauses:
                                      of romance. . . .
                         Occasionally a litotic construction conveys an ironic sentiment by its                                      Pride opresseth humility; hatred love; cruelty compassion. --
                         understatement:                                                                                              Peacham
                                                                                                                                     Fred excelled at sports; Harvey at eating; Tom with girls.
23.   Parallelism        Recurrent syntactical similarity. Several parts of a sentence or several                                    Alexander conquered the world; I, Minneapolis.
                         sentences are expressed similarly to show that the ideas in the parts or
                                                                                                                                     Fluffy rolled on her back, raised her paws, and meowed to be
                         sentences are equal in importance. Parallelism also adds balance and
                                                                                                                                      petted.
                         rhythm and, most importantly, clarity to the sentence.

                         Ferocious dragons breathing fire and wicked sorcerers casting their spells
                                                                                                         28.   Antithesis   Establishes a clear, contrasting relationship between two ideas by joining
                                                                                                                            them together or juxtaposing them, often in parallel structure. Human
                         do their harm by night in the forest of Darkness
                                                                                                                            beings are inveterate systematizers and categorizers, so the mind has a
24.   Juxtaposition      The placing of contrasting elements—close together, positioning them
                                                                                                                            natural love for antithesis, which creates a definite and systematic
                         side by side in order to illuminate the subject.
                                                                                                                            relationship between ideas:

                              2.   To err is human; to forgive, divine. --Pope
                                                                                                                                     That short and easy trip made a lasting and profound change in
                                                                                                                                      Harold's outlook.
25.   Paradox            A statement that appears to be self contradictory or opposed to common                                      That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. --
                         sense, but upon closer inspection contains some degree of truth or                                           Neil Armstrong
                         validity. The first scene of Macbeth, for example, closes with the witches’
                         cryptic remark “Fair is foul, and foul is fair. . .”
                                                                                                                            Antithesis can convey some sense of complexity in a person or idea by
                                                                                                                            admitting opposite or nearly opposite truths.
26.   Chiasmus           Might be called "reverse parallelism," since the second part of a
      syntax &           grammatical construction is balanced or paralleled by the first part, only in
      diction            reverse order. Instead of an A, B structure (e.g., "learned unwillingly")
                                                                                                         29.   Motif        Sub-themes that run through the story that also suggest aspects of the
                                                                                                                            overall theme.
      style of writing   paralleled by another A, B structure ("forgotten gladly"), the A, B will be
                         followed by B, A ("gladly forgotten"). So instead of writing, "What is
                         learned unwillingly is forgotten gladly," you could write, "What is learned
30.   Anaphora        The repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive                                 common ground or admit a truth and then to show how that truth relates
                      phrases, clauses, or sentences, commonly in conjunction with climax and                                 to a more important context:
                      with parallelism:
                                                                                                                                       Our eyes saw it, but we could not believe our eyes.
                               To think on death it is a misery, / To think on life it is a vanity; /                                 The theory sounds all wrong; but if the machine works, we
                                To think on the world verily it is, / To think that here man hath                                       cannot worry about theory.
                                no perfect bliss. --Peacham
                               In books I find the dead as if they were alive; in books I foresee       35.   Periodic       A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end.
                                things to come; in books warlike affairs are set forth; from books                            This independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause at the end.
                                come forth the laws of peace. --Richard de Bury                                Sentence
                                                                                                               (syntax &      This independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot
                                                                                                               diction)       stand alone. For example, “Ecstatic with my AP scores, I let out a loud
31.   Epistrophe       (Also called antistrophe) forms the counterpart to anaphora, because the                               shout of joy!” The effect of a periodic sentence is to add emphasis and
                      repetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive                                     structural variety.
                      phrases, clauses, or sentences:                                                    36.   Loose          A type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes
                                                                                                               Sentence       first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and
                               The energies of mankind are often exerted in pursuit,                          (syntax &      clauses. If a period were placed at the end of the independent clause, the
                                consolidation, and enjoyment; which is to say, many men spend                  diction)       clause, the clause would be a complete sentence. A work containing
                                their lives pursuing power, consolidating power, and enjoying                                 many loose sentences often seems informal, relaxed, and
                                power.                                                                                        conversational.
                                                                                                         37.   Hypophora      Consists of raising one or more questions and then proceeding to answer
                                                                                                                              them, usually at some length. A common usage is to ask the question at
32.   Anadiplosis     Repeats the last word of one phrase, clause, or sentence at or very near
                                                                                                                              the beginning of a paragraph and then use that paragraph to answer it:
                      the beginning of the next. it can be generated in series for the sake of
                      beauty or to give a sense of logical progression:
                                                                                                                              There is a striking and basic difference between a man's ability to imagine
                                                                                                                              something and an animal's failure. . . . Where is it that the animal falls
                               Pleasure might cause her read, reading might make her know, /
                                                                                                                              short? We get a clue to the answer, I think, when Hunter tells us . . . . --
                                Knowledge might pity win, and pity grace obtain . . . . --Philip
                                                                                                                              Jacob Bronowski
                                Sidney
                                                                                                         38.   Double         A single word that happens to have more than one meaning. A statement
                                                                                                               Ententre       that is deliberately ambiguous, one of whose possible meanings is
33.   Conduplicatio   Resembles anadiplosis in the repetition of a preceding word, but it                                     suggestive of some impropriety. “Tis no less. I tell ye; for the bawdy
                      repeats a key word (not just the last word) from a preceding phrase,                                    hand of the dial is now upon the prick of noon”. Shakespeare
                      clause, or sentence, at the beginning of the next.                                 39.   Polyptoton     Repetition of words derived from the same root but with different endings.
                                                                                                                              Ex: "Morality is moral only when it is voluntary."
                               If this is the first time duty has moved him to act against his                               (Lincoln Steffens)
                                desires, he is a very weak man indeed. Duty should be                    40.   Polyptoton     Homophonic puns use like sounds but with different spellings and
                                cultivated and obeyed in spite of its frequent conflict with selfish           Pun            meanings. Ex: The pilot thought it would be a good idea to decorate
                                wishes.                                                                                       the plain plane.
                                                                                                         41.   Antanaclasis   Homographic puns make use of multiple meanings from a single spelling
34.   Epanalepsis     Repeats the beginning word of a clause or sentence at the end. The                       Pun            in which the word is understood differently with each use.
                      beginning and the end are the two positions of strongest emphasis in a                                  EX: We must all hang together or assuredly we will all hang
          -or-                                                                                                                separately.
                      sentence, so by having the same word in both places, you call special
      Symploce        attention to it:                                                                                        It is terrible to have a cold in the cold.
                                                                                                         42.   Ambiguity      The multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word,
                               To report that your committee is still investigating the matter is                            phrase, sentence, or passage.
                                to tell me that you have nothing to report.
                                                                                                                              EX: The chicken is ready to eat. This could mean the animal the
                      Many writers use epanalepsis in a kind of "yes, but" construction to cite                               chicken wants to eat or it could mean that the cooked food of
                                                                                                                              chicken is ready to be eaten.
43.   Rhetorical       (Erotesis) differs from hypophora in that it is not answered by the writer,    48.   Scesis           Emphasizes an idea by expressing it in a string of generally synonymous
      question        because its answer is obvious or obviously desired, and usually just a yes            Onomaton         phrases or statements. While it should be used carefully, this deliberate
                      or no. It is used for effect, emphasis, or provocation, or for drawing a                               and obvious restatement can be quite effective:
                      conclusionary statement from the facts at hand.                                                              We succeeded, we were victorious, we accomplished the feat!
                                                                                                      49.   Apophasis        Asserts or emphasizes something by pointedly seeming to pass over,
                               Is justice then to be considered merely a word? Or is it                    (also called     ignore, or deny it. This device has both legitimate and illegitimate uses.
                                whatever results from the bartering between attorneys?                      praeteritio or   Legitimately, a writer uses it to call attention to sensitive or inflammatory
                                                                                                            occupatio)       facts or statements while he remains apparently detached from them:

                                                                                                                                      She's bright, well-read, and personable--to say nothing of her
                                                                                                                                       modesty and generosity.
44.   Procatalepsis   By anticipating an objection and answering it, permits an argument to
                      continue moving forward while taking into account points or reasons
                      opposing either the train of thought or its final conclusions. Often the        50.   Metanoia         Qualifies a statement by recalling it (or part of it) and expressing it in a
                      objections are standard ones:                                                                          better, milder, or stronger way. A negative is often used to do the
                                                                                                                             recalling:
                               It is usually argued at this point that if the government gets out
                                of the mail delivery business, small towns like Podunk will not                                       The chief thing to look for in impact sockets is hardness; no, not
                                have any mail service. The answer to this can be found in the                                          so much hardness as resistance to shock and shattering.
                                history of the Pony Express . . .
                                                                                                      51.   Aporia           Expresses doubt about an idea or conclusion. Among its several uses are
45.   Metabasis       Consists of a brief statement of what has been said and what will follow. It                           the suggesting of alternatives without making a commitment to either or
                      might be called a linking, running, or transitional summary, whose                                     any:
                      function is to keep the discussion ordered and clear in its progress:
                                                                                                                                      I am not sure whether to side with those who say that higher
                               We have to this point been examining the proposal advanced                                             taxes reduce inflation or with those who say that higher taxes
                                by Smervits only in regard to its legal practicability; but next we                                    increase inflation.
                                need to consider the effect it would have in retarding research
                                and development work in private laboratories.                         52.   Synethesia       The manner of speaking about one sense on terms of another.

46.   Distinctio      An explicit reference to a particular meaning or to the various meanings of                                   The man was wearing a loud suit.
                      a word, in order to remove or prevent ambiguity.                                                              She is a really bright student.
                                                                                                      53. Paraprosdokian     A figure of speech that uses an unexpected ending to a series or phrase.
                               To make methanol for twenty-five cents a gallon is impossible;                               It can be used for dramatic effect.
                                by "impossible" I mean currently beyond our technological                                           It was a beautiful day in March when I was hit by a bus.
                                capabilities.                                                         54.   Analogy          Compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose
                                                                                                                             of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by
                      Involves repeating a word or expression while adding more detail to it, in                             showing how the idea or object is similar to some familiar one. While
47.   Amplification
                      order to emphasize what might otherwise be passed over. In other words,                                simile and analogy often overlap, the simile is generally a more artistic
                      amplification allows you to call attention to, emphasize, and expand a                                 likening, done briefly for effect and emphasis, while analogy serves the
                      word or idea to make sure the reader realizes its importance or centrality                             more practical end of explaining a thought process or a line of reasoning
                      in the discussion.                                                                                     or the abstract in terms of the concrete, and may therefore be more
                                                                                                                             extended.
                                                                                                                              You may abuse a tragedy, though you cannot write one. You may
                               He showed a rather simple taste, a taste for good art, good                                        scold a carpenter who has made you a bad table, though you cannot
                                food, and good friends.                                                                            make a table. It is not your trade to make tables.
                                                                                                                              --Samuel Johnson
55.   Synecdoche      A type of metaphor in which the part stands for the whole, the whole for a                                  had perfect credit was independent and successful, the
                      part, the genus for the species, the species for the genus, the material for                                application still required that she reveal her marital status. With
                      the thing made, or in short, any portion, section, or main quality for the                                  apprehension and hesitation she put an “X” in the “single
                      whole or the thing itself (or vice versa).                                                                  woman” box on the mortgage application.

                               Farmer Jones has two hundred head of cattle and three hired                             The statement implies that the woman is judged by her marital status and
                                hands.                                                                                  to be a "single woman” was in some way insufficient in societies eyes and
                                                                                                                        in the eyes of the attorney herself.
56.   Metonymy        Another form of metaphor, very similar to synecdoche (and, in fact, some
                      rhetoricians do not distinguish between the two), in which the thing           62.   Eponym       Substitutes for a particular attribute the name of a famous person
                      chosen for the metaphorical image is closely associated with (but not an                          recognized for that attribute. By their nature eponyms often border on the
                      actual part of) the subject with which it is to be compared.                                      cliché, but many times they can be useful without seeming too obviously
                                                                                                                        trite. Finding new or infrequently used ones is best, though hard, because
                                                                                                                        the name-and-attribute relationship needs to be well established.
                               The orders came directly from the White House.
                                                                                                                        Consider the effectiveness of these:
                               You can't fight city hall.
                                                                                                                                 You think your boyfriend is tight. I had a date with Scrooge
57.   Periphrasis     When a descriptive phrase is substituted for a proper noun.                                                 himself last night.
                       The Motor City                                                                                           We all must realize that Uncle Sam is not supposed to be Santa
                       The Big Apple                                                                                             Claus.
58. Personification   Metaphorically represents an animal or inanimate object as having human
                      attributes--attributes of form, character, feelings, behavior, and so on.
                      Ideas and abstractions can also be personified.
                                                                                                     63.   Oxymoron     A paradox reduced to two words, usually in an adjective-noun ("eloquent
                                                                                                                        silence") or adverb-adjective ("inertly strong") relationship, and is used for
                                                                                                                        effect, complexity, emphasis, or wit:
                               After two hours of political platitudes, everyone grew bored. The
                                delegates were bored; the guests were bored; the speaker
                                                                                                                                 I do here make humbly bold to present them with a short
                                himself was bored. Even the chairs were bored.
                                                                                                                                  account of themselves and their art.....--Jonathan Swift
59.   Reification     The treatment of abstractions as concrete things.
                                                                                                     64.   Epithet      An adjective or adjective phrase appropriately qualifying a subject (noun)
                                                                                                                        by naming a key or important characteristic of the subject, as in "laughing
                          Truth is a deep well.                                                                        happiness," "sneering contempt," "untroubled sleep," "peaceful dawn,"
                          She walks in beauty.                                                                         and "life-giving water." Sometimes a metaphorical epithet will be good to
                          Thoughts sink into the sea of forgetfulness.                                                 use, as in "lazy road," "tired landscape," "smirking billboards," "anxious
                                                                                                                        apple." Aptness and brilliant effectiveness are the key considerations in
60.   Allusion        A direct or indirect reference to something that is presumably commonly                           choosing epithets. Be fresh, seek striking images, pay attention to
                      known, such as an event, book, myth, place, person, or work of art:                               connotative value.

                               If you take his parking place, you can expect World War II all
                                over again.                                                          65.   Hyperbaton   Includes several rhetorical devices involving departure from normal word
                               Plan ahead: it wasn't raining when Noah built the ark. --Richard                        order. One device, a form of inversion, might be called delayed epithet,
                                Cushing                                                                                 since the adjective follows the noun. If you want to amplify the adjective,
                                                                                                                        the inversion is very useful:
61.   Inference       When the meaning of the text is implied and the reader is required to use
                      their own prior knowledge to arrive at a decision, conclusion or opinion by                                From his seat on the bench he saw the girl content-content with
                      reasoning from known facts.                                                                                 the promise that she could ride on the train again next week.
                                                                                                                             
                               Although the forty year old lawyer earned a substantial salary,
66.   Parenthesis    A final form of hyperbaton, consists of a word, phrase, or whole sentence
                     inserted as an aside in the middle of another sentence:                                                       Since your application was submitted before April 10th, it will be
                                                                                                                                    considered. [Omitted premise: All applications submitted before
                     Every time I try to think of a good rhetorical example, I rack my brains but-                                  April 10 will be considered.]
                     -you guessed--nothing happens.                                                                                He is an American citizen, so he is entitled to due process. [All
67.   Alliteration   The recurrence of initial consonant sounds. The repetition can be                                              American citizens are entitled to due process.]
                     juxtaposed (and then it is usually limited to two words): Done well,
                     alliteration is a satisfying sensation.                                         72.   Climax          (Gradatio) consists of arranging words, clauses, or sentences in the
                                                                                                                          order of increasing importance, weight, or emphasis. Parallelism usually
                           -- The big bouncing basketball burst.                                                          forms a part of the arrangement, because it offers a sense of continuity,
68. Onomatopoeia     The use of words whose pronunciation imitates the sound the word                                     order, and movement-up the ladder of importance. But if you wish to vary
                     describes. "Buzz," for example, when spoken is intended to resemble the                              the amount of discussion on each point, parallelism is not essential.
                     sound of a flying insect. Other examples include these: slam, pow,
                     screech, whirr, crush, sizzle, crunch, wring, wrench, gouge, grind,                                      To have faults is not good, but faults are human. Worse is to have
                     mangle, bang, blam, pow, zap, fizz, burp, roar, growl, blip, click, whimper,                              them and not see them. Yet beyond that is to have faults, to see
                     and, of course, snap, crackle, and pop. Note that the connection between                                  them, and to do nothing about them. But even that seems mild
                     sound and pronunciation is sometimes rather a product of imagination                                      compared to him who knows his faults, and who parades them about
                     ("slam" and "wring" are not very good imitations). And note also that                                     and encourages them as though they were virtues.
                     written language retains an aural quality, so that even unspoken your
                     writing has a sound to it. Compare these sentences, for instance:
                                                                                                     73.   Diacope:       Repetition of a word or phrase after an intervening word or phrase:
                              Someone yelled, "Look out!" and I heard the skidding of tires
                               and the horrible noise of bending metal and breaking glass.                                         We will do it, I tell you; we will do it.
                              Someone yelled "Look out!" and I heard a loud screech
                               followed by a grinding, wrenching crash.                              74.   Antimetabole   Reversing the order of repeated words or phrases (a loosely chiastic
                                                                                                                          structure, AB-BA) to intensify the final formulation, to present alternatives,
                                                                                                                          or to show contrast:
69.   Apostrophe     Interrupts the discussion or discourse and addresses directly a person or
                     personified thing, either present or absent. Its most common purpose in
                     prose is to give vent to or display intense emotion, which can no longer                                      All work and no play is as harmful to mental health as all play
                     be held back:                                                                                                  and no work.
                     But all such reasons notwithstanding, dear reader, does not the cost in                                       Ask not what you can do for rhetoric, but what rhetoric can do
                     lives persuade                                                                                                 for you.

                         But all such reasons notwithstanding, dear reader, does not the cost       75.   Antiphrasis    One word irony, established by context:
                          in lives persuade you by itself that we must do something
                          immediately about the situation?                                                                         "Come here, Tiny," he said to the fat man.
                                                                                                                                   It was a cool 115 degrees in the shade.
70.   Syllogism      A three step form of deductive reasoning. The argument reasons from
                                                                                                                               
                     the general to the particular. Using information we already know we are
                     able to deduce a probable conclusion.
                        Major Premise               All men are mortal.                              76.   Epizeuxis      Repetition of one word (for emphasis):
                        Minor Premise               Socrates is a man.
                        Conclusion                  Therefore Socrates is a mortal.                                                The best way to describe this portion of South America is lush,
71.   Enthymeme      An informally-stated syllogism which omits either one of the premises or                                       lush, lush.
                     the conclusion. The omitted part must be clearly understood by the                                            What do you see? Wires, wires, everywhere wires.
                     reader. The usual form of this logical shorthand omits the major premise:
77.   Aposiopesis       Stopping abruptly and leaving a statement unfinished:                                                                 being issued.

                                 If they use that section of the desert for bombing practice, the       85.   Pleonasm             Using more words than required to express an idea; being redundant.
                                  rock hunters will--.                                                                              Normally a vice, it is done on purpose on rare occasions for emphasis:
                                                                                                                                         We heard it with our own ears.
                                                                                                                                         And lifting up their eyes, they saw no one, except Jesus Himself
78.   Anacoluthon Finishing a sentence with a different grammatical structure from that with                                                 alone. --Matthew 17:8
                        which it began:

                             And then the deep rumble from the explosion began to shake the
                                                                                                         86.   Assonance            Similar vowel sounds repeated in successive or proximate words
                              very bones of--no one had ever felt anything like it.                                                 containing different consonants:
                             Be careful with these two devices because improperly used they                                              A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid. --Matthew 5:14b (KJV)
                              can—well, I have cautioned you enough.
79.   Enumeratio        Detailing parts, causes, effects, or consequences to make a point more
                        forcibly:                                                                        87.   Dirimens             Mentioning a balancing or opposing fact to prevent the argument from
                                                                                                               Copulatio            being one-sided or unqualified:
                                                                                                                                          This car is extremely sturdy and durable. It's low maintenance;
                                 I love her eyes, her hair, her nose, her cheeks, her lips [etc.].
                                                                                                                                              things never go wrong with it. Of course, if you abuse it, it will
                                                                                                                                              break.
80.   Antanagoge        Placing a good point or benefit next to a fault criticism, or problem in order   88.   Appositive:          A noun or noun substitute placed next to (in apposition to) another noun
                        to reduce the impact or significance of the negative point:                                                 to be described or defined by the appositive. The appositive can be
                                                                                                                                    placed before or after the noun:
                                 True, he always forgets my birthday, but he buys me presents
                                  all year round.                                                                                            Henry Jameson, the boss of the operation, always wore a red
                                                                                                                                              baseball cap.
81.   Parataxis         Writing successive independent clauses, with coordinating conjunctions,                                              A notorious annual feast, the picnic was well attended.
                        or no conjunctions:
                                                                                                         89.   Pedantic             An advantage that describes words, phrases, or general tone that is
                                 We walked to the top of the hill, and we sat down.                           Style of writing     overly scholarly, academic, or bookish.
                                 The Starfish went into dry-dock, it got a barnacle treatment, it
                                  went back to work.                                                     90.   Didactic             From the Greek, didactic literally means “teaching.” Didactic works have
                                                                                                               (Style of writing)   the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral
82.   Hypotaxis         Using subordination to show the relationship between clauses or phrases                                     or ethical principles.
                        (and hence the opposite of parataxis):
                                                                                                         91.   Colloquial           The use of slang or informalities in speech or writing. Not generally
                                                                                                               (style of writing)   acceptable for formal writing, colloquialisms give work a conversational,
                                 They asked the question because they were curious.
                                                                                                                                    familiar tone. Colloquial expressions in writing include local or regional
                                 While I am in the world, I am the light of the world. --John 9:5
                                                                                                                                    dialects.
                                                                                                         92.   Cacophony            Harsh or discordant sound. Harshness in the sound of words or phrases.
83.   Sententia         Quoting a maxim or wise saying to apply a general truth to the situation;                                              My stick fingers click with a snicker
        -or-            concluding or summing foregoing material by offering a single, pithy                                                   And, chuckling, they knuckle the keys;
                        statement of general wisdom:                                                                                           Light footed, my steel feelers flicker
      Aphorism                But, of course, to understand all is to forgive all.                                                            And pluck from these keys melodies.
                              As the saying is, art is long and life is short.                          93.   Euphony              From Greek "good sound": Attempting to group words together
84.   Exemplum          Citing an example; using an illustrative story, either true or fictitious:                                  harmoniously, so that the consonants permit an easy and pleasing flow of
                              Let me give you an example. In the early 1920's in Germany,                                          sound when spoken,
                                  the government let the printing presses turn out endless                                                     'Twas sad as sad could be;
                                  quantities of paper money, and soon, instead of 50-pfennige                                                  And we did speak only to break
                                  postage stamps, denominations up to 50 billion marks were                                                    The silence of the sea

				
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