Industrialisation and Urbanisation by 3V792K

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									Industrialisation and
   Urbanisation

  History of Germany
       Lecture 3
            Schedule
1.   The Industrial Revolution
2.   Population Growth and Migration
3.   The Emergence of Classes
4.   Cultural Change
5.   Social Costs
6.   Conclusion
           Industrial Revolution
• Late 18th, early 19th c. Started in Britain, spread then over the whole
European continent.
• Industry replaces agrarian sector as most important economic sector
• Economy based on manual labour was replaced by industry, industrial
manufacturing and machinery. It began with the mechanisation of the
textile industries and the development of iron-making techniques.
• Improvement of transportation (canals, roads, railways)
• Steam power – fuelled primarily by coal and powered machinery


     Dramatic increase in production capacity and productivity
     Fundamental socio-economic and cultural changes
Second Industrial Revolution
Since middle of the 19th c.
Development of chemical, electrical,
petroleum and steel industries
Mass production of consumer goods
Mechanisation of manufacture of food and
drink, clothing and transport
Employment for increasing number of
population whose needs were satisfied by
mass production
Spread of the Industrial Revolution
    Paths to industrialisation
The „British‟ model of coal & iron-fired
industrialisation (Germany had many of the
same raw materials as GB)
Late-comer industrialisers benefit from
technology transfer
Role of foreign investors in early industrialisation
(Irish capital in Hibernia mines in 1855)
Role of state in German investment (Prussian
government interest in railways, coal mines)
Role of big investment banks (often represented
on board of companies)
(1913 ~ 100)                  Metal         Coal      Transport     Building        Textile
1870                             7,5         13,9            8,9        20,1          31,9
1880                           13,9          24,7          16,1          29           40,1
1890                           23,8          36,9          27,9         45,6            65
1900                           47,5          57,5          50,1          67           72,8
1913                            100          100            100         100            100


       Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Deutsche Gesellschaftsgeschichte, vol. 3 (Munich, 1995
Data from: Paul Bairoch, "International Industrialization Levels from 1750 to
1980" JEEH 11
       New Technologies in Industrial Production in Germany
                            1870-1900

Heavy industry          Mechanical        Electrical Industry   Chemical Industry
                        engineering
English blast furnace                     Dynamos               Artificial fertilizers
technology              Locomotives       (Siemens)
                                                                Dyes
Coal from Silesia and   Internal          Electrical engines
                                                                Plastics 1885
the Ruhr                combustion
                                          Telephones
                        engine 1876                             Pharmaceuticals
Ores from Lorraine
                                          Power stations
                        Cars 1889                               Safety explosives
Bessemer process
                                          Films                 1885
1879                    Diesel engines
                        1896              X-ray units
Stainless steel 1912
                        Zeppelins
                        (airships) 1900
                        Airplanes 1905
Famous companies/industrialists
Stumm
Krupp
Thyssen
Bosch
Siemens
Daimler
Benz
AEG - Rathenau
Bayer
BASF
         Electrical industry - Siemens




Siemens pointer telegraph, 1847




Electrical dynamo, 1866
         Steel – Krupp, Essen
                           Pioneering of seamless
                           railway wheels
                           Alfred Krupp, 1812-87,
                           the „Cannon King‟
                           Develops Bessemer
                           process for purifying steel
                           Close contacts with arms
                           industry



Krupp steelworks, Essen,
  stages of growth 1819,
  1852, 1912
            Krupp & munitions




Krupp‟s cast-steel cannon at    Krupp‟s 42cm „Dicke Bertha‟
the 1851 Exhibition in London   siege gun (used to reduce
                                Liege in 1914 and shell Paris)
 Some consequences of the
   Industrial Revolution
Population effects: productivity increases,
health improvements, lower birth rates
Urbanisation – industry as “city forming”
activity
Class society
Environmental damage
Growth of global markets & international
trade
        Some Peculiarities
Important role of state investment (coal mining in
Saarland belonged to Prussian state)
Important role of finance capital (long-term
investments, directors of banks in supervisory
boards of shareholder companies)
Important role of industrial associations
(lobbyism)
Important role of cartels
 Associations, lobbyism and trade unions
Centralverband Deutscher Industrieller   Free = Socialist
1876 (Central Union of German            “Generalkommission” general
Industrialists)                          commission
Bund der Industriellen 1895 (Union of    Christian “Gesamtverband”
Industrialists)
                                         “yellow” = liberal
Hansabund 1909
Vereinigung der deutschen
Arbeitgeberverbände 1913 (Union of
German Employers‟ Associations)

Exert pressure on the government             Organising the working class,
and Reichstag deputies                       representing interests of
                                             workers, indirect successes –
Successes: Tariffs 1878/79                   state intervention and
                                             “welfare state”
                                             Channelling dissatisfaction?
                     Cartels
Cartels created in times of crisis (1873 ff), 70 in 1887,
143 in 1895
Agreements between companies to fix prices, regulate
output
Legally binding (in USA cartels were forbidden)
But…
So successful and useful, that even more cartels were
founded after 1896, 673 by 1910
Not all sectors dominated by cartels: potash industry
(100%), paper industry (90%), coal (82%), iron and
cement industries (less than 50%), electrical industry
(less than 10%), almost no cartels in chemical industry
            Schedule
1.   The industrial revolution
2.   Population Growth and Migration
3.   The Emergence of Classes
4.   Cultural Change
5.   Social Costs
6.   Conclusion
    Demographic Revolution
Inhabitants of German Empire:
1864: 39,392,000;
1871: 40,997,000;
1910: 64,568,000
Growth of urban population
More big cities
Urbanisation of daily life
Migration and “uprooting”
Relative decline of agrarian population
Emigration and immigration
Improvement of health care – decline of infant mortality
(since 1900) and higher life expectancy
            Schedule
1.   The industrial revolution
2.   Population Growth and Migration
3.   The Emergence of Classes
4.   Cultural Change
5.   Social Costs
6.   Conclusion
                  Class
In Marxist terms a class is a group of people
defined by their relationship to the means of
production.
Social class is based on economically
determined relationship to the market (owner,
renter, employee etc.) – Max Weber
Similar life chances
Common interests
Subjective factor: Identification with class
 Social Consequences of the
    Industrial Revolution
Creation of an industrial working class
– Rise of organised labor
Growth of bourgeoisie (merchants,
entrepreneurs) – economically dominant
Craftsmen (old Mittelstand - middle class)
become less important
Civil servants and white collar workers (new
Mittelstand - middle class)
Der Sozialist, Robert Koehler, 1885, DHM, Berlin
Villa Hügel in Essen (Krupp family)
            Schedule
1.   The industrial revolution
2.   Population Growth and Migration
3.   The Emergence of Classes
4.   Cultural Change
5.   Social Costs
6.   Conclusion
First threshing-machine in Lankow near Schwerin in 1882
Carl Wilhelm Christian Malchin, 1882, DHM, Berlin
Großstadt (Berlin), Hugo Krayn, 1914, DHM, Berlin
Das Stufenalter der Frau, F. Leibner, um 1900
            Schedule
1.   The industrial revolution
2.   Population Growth and Migration
3.   The Emergence of Classes
4.   Cultural Change
5.   Social Costs
6.   Conclusion
Modell einer Berliner Mietskaserne, Berlin, um 1880, DHM, Berlin
Elendsquartier in der Berliner Spreestr. 6, Berlin, about 1910 (DHM, Berlin)
            Schedule
1.   The industrial revolution
2.   Population Growth and Migration
3.   The Emergence of Classes
4.   Cultural Change
5.   Social Costs
6.   Conclusion
Effects of “Great Depression” 1873-1896
Peculiarities of German economy: role of state, cartels,
finance capital, corporations
Relative financial weakness: needs of state (armament),
less productive agrarian sector (Junkers), compared to
Britain industrial late comer – less accumulation of capital
(financial capital of world – London)
Workers: improved living standards – pauperisation
Bourgeoisie: weak or strong? class conscious or aiming
to adopt culture of nobility
Alliance of rye and iron (East Elbian Junkers and
industrialists of Ruhr district) – dominant – responsible for
“German special path”?
How important were economic questions for outbreak of
WWI?

								
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