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Advanced Placement United States History Assessment Index for the Americans Reading Study Guide Unit 1: Chapters 1-3 (Pre-Columbian and Colonial America, 1400-1763) 1. Describe two of the civilizations that started in the desert areas of southwestern North America. 2. Explain three key parts or features of the “Columbian Exchange.” 3. Explain three key elements or aspects of Spanish colonization in the Americas through 1700. 4. Explain Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) and how it exposed class tension in colonial Virginia. 5. Explain three key characteristics of the Puritans and the colonies they founded in New England. 6. Explain two ways that the Quaker colony of Pennsylvania was different from the other English colonies. 7. Explain the Navigation Acts and how they shaped the relationship between England and her American colonies. 8. Explain how the Glorious Revolution changed the relationship between England and her American colonies. 9. Explain four differences between the southern plantation colonies and the northern colonies between 1607 and 1775. 10. Explain the Great Awakening and its influence on American society in the 1700s. 11. Explain two reasons that Britain and France went to war in 1754. 12. Explain three key outcomes of the French and Indian War (1754-1763). Unit 2: Chapters 4-5 (American Revolution and Constitution, 1763-1789) 1. Explain why some colonists felt that they should, and could, oppose the King and Parliament. 2. How, specifically, did American colonist respond to British attempts to crack-down on the colonies after 1763. 3. Explain why some colonist chose to remain loyal to the British during the American Revolution. 4. Explain why the Battle of Saratoga is considered a turning point in the American Revolution. 5. Explain three key outcomes of the Treaty of Paris of 1783. 6. Explain two of the social and political effects of the Revolution on the new United States. 7. Explain two key weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation. 8. Explain why and how Shay’s Rebellion influenced changes to the central government. 9. Explain three key issues on which the Federalists and Anti-Federalists disagreed. Unit 3: Chapter 6-8: Federalist Period – Jacksonian Democracy, 1789-1840 1. Describe three of the reform movements that began during the 1830s. 2. Explain President Washington’s foreign policy with respect to European powers like Spain, Britain and France. 3. Explain three key differences between the political views of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. 4. Explain two sources and two consequences of sectionalism in the U.S. prior to 1850? 5. Explain two specific ways that President Jackson showed his commitment to the Common Man once he was in office? 6. Explain two ways that Chief Justice John Marshall used the Supreme Court to boost federal power in the early 1800s? 7. How did Henry Clay’s American System help strengthen the nation’s sense of unity? (7.1) 8. What was the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine? (7.2) 9. What were two reasons that American wanted war with Great Britain by 1812? (6.4) 10. What were three significant results of the War of 1812 for the United States? (6.4) 11. Why did some states feel justified in refusing to obey the Alien and Sedition Acts? (6.2) 12. Why did South Carolina threaten to leave the Union in 1832? (7.4) Unit 4: Chapters 9-11: Manifest Destiny – Civil War, 1840-1865 1. Explain two specific reasons or justifications for Manifest Destiny. 2. Explain two specific ways that Northern abolitionists responded to the new Fugitive Slave Law. 3. Explain what group of Americans opposed a war with Mexico through 1846 and why they opposed it. 4. Explain why Kansas became the focus of the slavery debate in the mid 1850s? 5. How and why did Lincoln’s election as President in 1860 trigger Southern secession? 6. How did the Dred Scott Decision change the slavery debate in 1857? 7. How did the Emancipation Proclamation change or enlarge the Union war aims? 8. Name two key military turning points in the Civil War and explain why they were turning points. 9. Explain two important outcomes of the Mexican War? 10. What, specifically, did the Kansas-Nebraska Act do? (10.1) 11. Why did Great Britain remain neutral during the Civil War? (11.1) 12. Why did California’s application for admission to the Unites States trigger a crisis in 1850? 13. Explain three reasons that Texans desired, then demanded, independence from Mexico in 1835? 14. Explain what a “nativist” is, and what events or developments in the 1840s-1860s encouraged this feeling. Unit 5: Chapters 12-14 (Reconstruction – The Gilded Age) 1. Explain how US Government policy relating to the Plains Indians changed between 1865 and 1890. 2. Explain the Compromise of 1877 and why it occurred. 3. Explain the Granger Laws and how they led to the Interstate Commerce Act (1887). 4. Explain three specific goals of the Populist Party. 5. Explain two reasons why strikes usually failed during the Gilded Age. 6. Explain two specific parts of the Congressional plan for Reconstruction between 1867 and 1877? (12) 7. Explain two specific reasons why western farmers were unhappy with the big railroad companies. 8. Explain two ways that the US Government promoted settlement on the Great Plains between 1862 and the 1890s. 9. Explain what William Jennings Bryan meant by “Cross of Gold.” 10. How would bimetallism help the economy, according to its supporters? (13) 11. Identify two groups of Americans that were most likely to support the Populist Party, and explain why. (13.3) Unit 6: Chapters 15-17 (The Gilded Age – The Progressive Era) 1. Describe Teddy Roosevelt’s view of how the federal government should manage public land. 2. Explain the Federal Reserve Act and why it was Progressive. 3. Explain the four key goals of Progressivism. (17) 4. Explain three specific problems that city residents faced at the Turn-of-the-Century. (15.2) 5. Explain three specific ways that Progressive Era reforms helped ordinary people. (17.1) 6. Explain three ways that southern states restricted the voting rights of African-Americans by the 1890s. (16.3) 7. Explain two examples of anti-immigration measures in the US at the Turn-of-the-Century. (15.1) 8. Explain two forms of corruption practiced by political bosses at the Turn-of-the-Century (15.3) 9. Explain two reasons why big business supported high tariffs during the Gilded Age? (15) 10. Explain two ways that Teddy Roosevelt helped make people’s lives safer and healthier. (17.3) 11. How, specifically, did the Clayton Anti-Trust Act benefit labor? (17) Unit 7: Chapters 18-21 (American Imperialism – World War One – Roaring 1920s) 1. Explain the main goal of the Anti-Imperialist League and why they pursued this goal. 2. Explain three specific parts of the Versailles Treaty (1919). 3. Explain two main features of the foreign policy of Presidents Harding and Coolidge. 4. Explain two of the incidents that led the US to abandon its neutrality and enter World War One. 5. Explain two of the ways that the federal government mobilized the US for war in 1917. 6. Explain two outcomes (or consequences) of World War One that had a positive effect on the US. 7. Explain two reasons why the US wanted an empire in the 1890s. (18) 8. Explain two ways that Americans showed their fear of communism and foreign influence in the 1920s? (20) 9. Explain why many Americans opposed the ratification of the Versailles Treaty. 10. How did the US government get Americans to support the war effort between 1917 and 1918? (19) 11. What two events led many Americans to call for war against Spain in 1898? (18) 12. Why did Emilio Aguinaldo feel betrayed by the US? (18) Unit 8: Chapters 21-23 (Roaring 20s – Great Depression – New Deal) 1. Explain three of the factors that contributed to rapid social change in the Roaring 20s. 2. Describe two ways the Great Depression affected American families. (22) 3. Explain the three goals of the New Deal. (23) 4. Explain how the New Deal gave greater security to American homeowners. 5. What were the CCC and WPA, and how did they contribute to economic recovery in the 1930s? 6. Explain two problems that American farmers faced in the 1920s. (22) 7. Explain two ways that some conservatives criticized the New Deal. (23) 8. Explain two ways that the New Deal changed the role of the federal government in the lives of regular people? 9. Explain two weaknesses in the economy in the 1920s that led to the Great Depression. (22) 10. How did fundamentalist beliefs lead to the Scopes Trial? (21) 11. How did the flapper represent the spirit of the 1920s? (21) 12. What did President Hoover think government should do in bad economic times? (22) Unit 9: Chapters 24-26 (World War Two and the Early Cold War) 1. According to the Atlantic Charter, why were the Allies fighting the Nazis and Japanese? 2. Explain how the Munich Conference led to World War Two. (24) 3. Explain McCarthyism. 4. Explain the Berlin Blockade of 1948 and its outcome. 5. Explain the goals of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan. 6. Explain two of the steps in America’s progress toward joining the World War Two in 1941. 7. Explain two reasons why hostilities between the US and Soviet Union increased in the 1950s. 8. How did the US react to the rise of dictators in Europe and Asia in the 1930s? 9. What did the US gain from the Korean War? 10. What were the goals of US foreign policy during the Cold War? 11. What were three ways that the US reacted to fear of communism at home in the 1950s. 12. Explain the purpose and objectives of the US “island-hopping” campaign during World War Two. Unit 10: Chapter 27-29 (Social History of the 1950s – Civil Rights Movement) 1. Explain how the tactics of Malcolm X and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. differed. 2. Explain President Kennedy’s doctrine of “flexible response,” and how it differs from “brinkmanship.” 3. Explain the “Black Power” movement. 4. Explain the key developments that led to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. 5. Explain the main goal of Freedom Summer (1964). 6. Explain two parts of Kennedy’s “New Frontier.” 7. Explain two parts of President Harry Truman’s “Fair Deal.” 8. Explain two parts of President Johnson’s “War on Poverty.” 9. Explain why the Montgomery Bus Boycott succeeded in 1956. 10. How did Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev “test” President Kennedy in Europe in 1961? 11. Name two factors that helped Kennedy win the election in 1960. 12. What was the key conclusion of the Warren Commission’s report? Unit 11: Chapters 30 and 31 (Social History of the 1970s and Vietnam) 1. Explain how Cold War tensions between 1945 and 1973 led to US involvement in Vietnam. 2. Explain how the leak of the Pentagon Papers led to a “credibility gap” about the Vietnam War. 3. Explain the ERA, what happened to it and why. 4. What is Title IX, and what was it intended to accomplish? 5. Explain the War Powers Act and what it was intended to accomplish. 6. Explain two factors that helped launch the women’s movement in the late 1960s. 7. Explain two goals of the NOW and the feminist movement in general. 8. Explain two incidents that weakened support for the Vietnam War among Americans. 9. Explain two reasons that conservative Americans criticized the counter-culture movement. 10. Explain Vietnamization and its intended purpose. 11. What was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, and what powers did it give to President Johnson? 12. What was the Tet Offensive and why is it considered a turning-point of the war in Vietnam? Unit 12: Chapters 32-33 (Nixon and the 1970s – Conservative Reaction) 1. Explain “deregulation” and why President Reagan supported it. 2. Explain détente and give one example of this policy in action in the 1970s. 3. Explain how OPEC affected the US economy in the 1970s. 4. Explain two reasons that President Ford lost public support between 1974 and 1976. 5. Explain two reasons why the Soviet Union collapsed in 1990. 6. Explain the Camp David Accords (1978) 7. Explain the Iran-Contra Scandal (1986). 8. Explain the Iran-Hostage Crisis (1978) and why it hurt President Carter’s popularity. 9. Explain two reasons that Nixon was successful at attracting votes in the South. 10. Explain two reasons why Reagan won the election in 1980. 11. Explain NAFTA and two specific ways that it affected average Americans. 12. Explain, specifically, why President Nixon resigned in 1974. Unit 13: Supplemental Handout on the 1990s and 2000s (Clinton and George W. Bush) 1. Explain the reasons for US and NATO involvement in Bosnia in the mid 1990s. 2. Explain President Clinton’s economic agenda and evaluate its results. 3. Explain three specific reasons why Bill Clinton won the Election of 1992. 4. Explain three specific ways that the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks shaped President George W. Bush’s foreign policy after 2001. 5. Explain the key features and objectives of the federal “No Child Left Behind” law. 6. How did the Bush administration reform the Medicare program in 2005? 7. Explain two specific ways that Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath influenced public opinion? 8. Explain the key features and objectives of the USA PATRIOT Act.
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