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									Personality
  Chapter 14
  McElhaney
                Personality
► Definition-“a person’s unique pattern of
  thinking, emotions, and behavior.”

► Refers  to consistency in who you are, have
  been and will become.
► Is a blend of talent, values, hopes, loves,
  hates, and habits…
                         Basics
► Each of us have consistent behavior patterns that
  define our personality

► Predictable-   we can predict how people will act

► Personality-   is closely related to traits
   Can be understood as a manifestation of Mental
    conflicts
   Is effected by learning
   Is effected by social situations
   Relate to how people perceive themselves
                         Basics 2
► Psychologists   use:
   Interview
   Direct observation               To assess
   Questionnaires                   personality


► Shyness=    public self-consciousness

► Behavior-   is influenced by self-monitoring

► Self-monitoring- is a process of observing,
  regulating, and controlling personal image we
  display
       Psychology of Personality
► Personality   factors
    Who are you?
    How do you think?
    How do you behave and express feelings?

► Personality is not character (is a term of
  evaluation- friendly, outgoing, honest with moral
  values…
► Personality is not temperament (hereditary
  aspects – sensitivity, irritability, distractibility
  typical mood)
            Personality Traits
       are- stable qualities that a person
► Traits
  shows in most situations
   Are inferred from observed behaviors
     ►Sociable,   orderly, intelligent, shy, sensitive, creative


► Types=   Personality types- people who have
  several traits in common
   Categories of include- popular, athletic,
    motherly
              Self Concept
► Consistsof all your ideas, perceptions and
 feelings about who you are

► Guides our behavior
► Problems can arise with inadequate or
  inaccurate self concept
                Self Esteem
► Highesteem = confident, proud, self-
 respecting
   Rises with success
► Low Esteem- Falls= with negative self
 evaluation
   Examples- insecure, lacking in confidence, self-
    critical
► Genuine Esteem is accurate appraisal of
 strengths + weaknesses
          Personality Theories
►    Are frameworks to understand personality
►    5 major Theories
1.   Trait Theory
2.   Psycho-Dynamic
3.   Behavioristic
4.   Social Learning
5.   Humanistic
       Match the Personality Theory
A. Focuses on private, subjective experience, and personal
   growth

B. Effect of conditioning +Learning = effects of external
   environment

C. Focuses on inner workings of personality
      Especially internal conflicts & struggles

D. To learn what traits makeup personality + how they relate
   to actual behavior

E. Attribute differences in personality to socialization,
   expectations+ and mental processes
             Trait Approach
► Traitis a stable + enduring quality that a
  person shows in most situations.

► To be considered a personality trait it must
  be typical of your behavior

► AncientGreeks- found 4 different types of
  temperament
Eysenck believed that

                            Hans Eysneck and Traits
many personality traits
are related to whether
you are mainly
introverted or
extroverted and whether
you tend to be
emotionally stable or
unstable (highly
emotional). These
characteristics, in turn,
are related to four basic
types of temperament
first recognized by the
early Greeks. The types
are: melancholic (sad,
gloomy), choleric (hot-
tempered, irritable),
phlegmatic (sluggish,
calm), and sanguine
(cheerful, hopeful).
(Adapted from Eysenck,
1981.)
Gordon Allport and Classifying Traits
► Identified different           ► Individual   Traits
  kinds of traits                   Defines a person of
► Subjective Classifying             unique qualities…


► Common       traits
   Characteristics shared
    by most members of a
    culture
   Tells us similarities in a
    culture
                        Allport 2
► Cardinal   Traits              ► Central  traits- Basic
   Basic trait easily visible     building blocks of
    to a person’s activities       personality
   Few people have              ► Small # of traits (7)
    cardinal traits
                                   tell clear story of
   “Trait that literally
                                   personality
    Drives/guide’s your
    life.”
   Mother Teresa-
    Compassion
         Allport Secondary Traits
► Lessconsistent
► Superficial aspects
     Food preferences
     Attitudes
     Political opinion
     Musical tastes
                Raymond Cattell
► Wanted   to know how       ► Used  statistics
  traits were interlinked    ► Called Factor Analysis
                                Psychologists correlates
► Found  surface traits-         and looks for patterns
  make up visible              Associated with traits
  areas of -
  personality                ► 16   Source traits
► Occur in clusters
    Appear often
    Seen as a basic trait
        Cattell 16 Source Traits
► All are needed to Fully describe a
  personality
► Created a questionnaire
► “16 Personality Factor Questionnaire”
  (16PF)
► Used to create a trait profile
► Represented in a graph or score based on
  traits
    The Big 5- “5 Factor Model”
►   Cattell’s (16 PF) was reduced to 5
    Universal dimensions
►   That can predict how people will act in
    various circumstances (used to compare
    personalities)
          1.Extroversion
          2.Agreeableness
          3.Conscientiousness
          4.Neuroticism
          5.Openness to Experience
             Big 5 trait factors
► 1. how extro or introverted ?
► 2. Agreeableness- how agreeable= friendly,
  nurturing, caring vs. cold, indifferent, self-
  centered, spiteful
► 3. Conscientious- How self-disciplined,
  responsible/achieving vs. irresponsible, careless,
  undependable
► 4. Neuroticism- how negative, upsetting emotions-
   High neuroticism= anxious, emotionally sour, irritable
    and unhappy.
► 5. Openness to Experience how open to
  experience are you
► Any trait you can name will be tied to one of the
  five factors
       Which is more important?
    Personality traits or External Circumstances

                      ► Both
► Personalitytraits are consistent & can
  predict behavior

► Situations   influence behavior

       interact with situations to determine
► Traits
  how we act.
        Psycho-Dynamic Theory of
               Personality
► Not   focused on traits-but under the surface

        our actions are based on hidden
► Believe
 unconscious needs
                     Freud
► Freud   personality theory

► Structureof personality
► Saw personality as 3 mental structures
► Id
► Ego
                Interaction of 3 = Behavior
► Superego
                       The Id
► Includes  innate biological instances + urges
► Self serving irrational, impulsive,
► Totally unconscious
► Operates on Pleasure Principle
   I.E., seeks to express- pleasure urges
   (Id is) Energy for psyche=personality
   AKA the libido
► Id is the energyfor the psyche=libido
► Libido comes from life instincts (eros)
                    Freud 3
► Freud   said the libido drives:
   Sexual desires
   Survival
   Pleasure thinking
► Deathinstinct = (Thanatos)- produces
 destructive + aggressive urges
                           Ego
► Ego   is the executive- “Directs energies supplied by
  id.”
► Mediates between the Id & reality
► Id is expressed through the Ego

► Id=   desires to- ego- reality
         (Changes)

► Ego–   guided by reality Principle
   Delays action until it is practical or appropriate
   Thinking, planning, problem solving, + deciding
   In conscious control of personality
                   Super Ego
► Super   ego- the judge, or Censor
   Internal parent- to keep order of behavior
   Thinking, planning, problem solving + deciding
   In conscious control of personality


► Consciencewhen punished, when standards of
 the conscience are not met= guilt feelings
                    Ego Ideal
         all behavior- parent approved of+
► Reflects
  rewarded
   Source of goals + aspirations
   When standard are met = pride


► Weak  Super Ego= delinquent, criminal, anti-social
  personality

► Harsh   Super Ego= inhibition, rigidity, unbearable
  guilt
             Freud Continued
      Id + superego + Ego are conflicting
► Said-
 mental processes

► When    in conflict (especially sexually)–then
   Displacement or
   Sublimation occur- (sexual energy is directed to
    other activities)
                Freud and Anxiety
►   Freud said most internal struggles are     re-channeled
    energies typify most personality functioning.

►   Anxiety- is the result of when ego is threatened or
    overwhelmed

►   Neurotic Anxiety results when ego can barely keep Id
    under control. (individuals are struggling with forbidden
    drives)
►   Moral Anxiety- occur with threats of punishment from the
    superego

►   Ego defense mechanisms- are used to calm these anxieties
►   Rationalization, Denial, Projection, Repression, Regression
          Levels of Awareness
      said- behavior- expresses
► Freud
 unconscious forces
   The unconscious holds repressed memories +
    emotions plus drives of Id
    ►(also   a limbic system connection )


► Unconscious  thoughts feelings-urges may
 slip into behavior in symbolic form
 Freud and Personality Development

► Freudsaid “Core of personality is formed
 before age 6”

► Psycho-Sexual Stages= erotic (broad
 categories of sources of pleasure) childhood
 urges have lasting effects on development
          4 Psycho Sexual Stages
► Eachdifferent phase has a different phase
 becomes a child primary erogenous zone
 (area for experiencing pleasure)

► Adult  Personality traits – can be traced to
  fixations
► Fixations- arise from unresolved conflicts in
  childhood- 1. over indulgence in one stage
              2. frustration at stage
            4 Stages
► Oral-
► Anal
► Phallic
► Genital
            Neo-Freudians
► Close to Freuds ideas
► Accepted broad features of Freudian theory
► Horney
► Adler
► Jung
             Alfred Adler (1937)
► Broke   from Freud

► Disagreed   with Freud’s
   Emphasis on Unconscious
   Emphasis on Instinctual drives
   Emphasis on Sexuality
► Believed  we are social creatures controlled by
  social urges
► Main force of personality=striving for superiority
                to overcome imperfections
     ► Struggling
     ► We have a drive for competence, mastery of shortcomings
                        Adler 2
► Said-   Everyone experiences inferiority feelings

► Because we begin small weak + relatively
  powerless

► Inferiority   also comes from personal limitations

► We   compensate for limitations
                      Adler
► We  each have a unique style of life = personality
  pattern

► Formed  by age 5 indicated by earliest memory
  that can be recalled

► Alsosaid we have a creative self-
► Humans create their personalities through choice
  and experience
        Karen Horney (1855-1952)
►   Close to Freud’s view- except the gender bias
►   Said
►   Basic Anxiety occurs- when people feel isolated
    and helpless in a hostile world
       Feelings come from childhood experience

►   Personality is affected when people try to control
    anxiety by exaggerating a single mode of
    interacting
    1. Move toward= dependent- love, support, friendship
    2. Move away= independent, withdrawal, loner, strong
    3. Move Against= hostile, attacking, competing, seeking
       power
       Carl Jung (1875-1961)
► Studentof Freud
► Developed his own ideas
► Used Ego=Conscious
   Identified the Persona- “Mask” that exists
    between the ego and the outside world, the
    public self to others
   (which makes up the personality)
                     Jung said
        Introverts                  Extroverts
► Shy                      ► Bold
► Egocentric               ► Outgoing
► Attention   is focused   ► Attention   directed
  inward                     outward
► Energy directed mainly
  inward                   ► Energy directed mostly
                             outward
 Jung and Personal Unconscious
► Used the term- Personal unconscious-
 instead of the Freudian “Unconscious”

   Is a mental storehouse for individual’s
    experience feelings and memories
Jung and Collective Unconscious
►A  deep mental storehouse for unconscious
  ideas and images
► Shared by all humans
   Called Archetypes
► Examples-   all humans share experience:
   Birth, death, power, god figures, mother,
    father, Earth, evil, rebirth
      Archetypes (arkehtypes)
► Found in collective unconscious
► They cause us to respond emotionally to
  symbols of birth, death, energy, animals,
  evil

     found archetypes in art, religion,
► Jung
 myths, dreams in every culture.
              Two Archetypes-
            Anima= female principle
            + Animus= male principle
► In men- Anima is an      ► Women   have idealized
  idealized image of         man in Animus
  woman- in
  unconscious


• Anima and Animus allows us to relate to
  opposite sex
• Also allows masculine and feminine sides of our
  personalities
            Self-Archetypes
► Jung said most important
► Represents unity
                             Within
   Gradual balance
                             personality
   Wholeness
   Harmony
   Learning Theories of Personality-
              Behavioral
► Personality is a         ► Self Efficacy and
  collection of behavior     Bandura
  patterns                 ► Self Reinforcement
► Situational              ► 4 Critical Situations
  determinants             ► Behavior Critical
► Dollard and Miller         Situations
► Social Learning          ► Becoming Male and
  Theorists                  Female (Behavioral
                             Aspects) and
                               Parental aspects of
                                behavioral development
                       Humanistic
►   Definitions and                 ►   How does development of
    Humanism/Human nature               the self contribute to later
►   Self Actualization Profile/         personality functioning?
    Self Acutalizer

►   Carl Rogers
►   Personality Structure and
    dynamics
►   Ideal self
     Incongruence and
      Incongruent Personality and
Personality Assessments 534-540
                               ► Thematic   Appreciation
                                 Test
► Direct   Observation and
  Rating                       ► Limitsof Projective
                                 Testing
► Personality
  Questionnaires

► Rorschach     Inklbot Test

								
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