Introduction - IS MU - Masaryk University

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					1. Introduction
     No historical document about education exist in Libya before 1911.Libya was a Turkish
colony. The Turkish did not take these aspects into consideration people participated in
religious education, reading and writing. At the end of the 19th century, the Turkish founded
schools in Tripoli and Benghazi. There was no such subject as physical education. there was
only unsystematic play. In 1911 Italy colonized Libya. The new colonizers founded some
schools and sports fields. They used the Italian curriculum. Therefore , physical education
became a regular subject in schools.


     In 1944 during the British and French administration, physical education was included
within the scholiast plan. There were a total of two lessons per week. Egyptian teachers
started teaching physical education lessons based on the Egyptian curriculum. Sports
equipment and supplies were distributed to schools. But only in the main cities.


     The Czech Republic, compared to Libya, belongs to the countries with a rich history of
the school physical education and teaching process including school physical education and
school sport. In the Czech lands, physical education was placed among the obligatory
subjects to be taught in The second half of 19th century. The contents of physical education
teaching consisted of both natural and artificial motoric activities that were gradually adapted
to the physical and mental abilities and skills of children and youth of school age (31).


     One of the most important features of our modern era is the competition between
individuals and countries aiming at the development and advancement of all aspects of life.
Physical education and sports is one of the areas where many scholars and researches have
conducted a lot of researches and studies to find solutions for the problems facing humanity.


       No society can face the challenges of civilization unless, through arming his
individuals with high level of health to enable them to play their roles in the achievement of
the national goals in development and production. Provided that the individuals of this
society live in an environment which provides them with a healthy atmosphere that prevents
infection of different diseases and prevents the spread of such diseases.




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 Sport students suffer some sports injuries during their competition either with themselves
or with their colleagues within limited spaces and upon using certain tools during the
exercise of different sports and games.


       Attention is increasingly paid in the last years to the sports injuries as for this causes,
types, factors affecting them and the methods of their diagnosis. Also it extends to the
creation of the methods of treatment on the purpose of completing the physical, functional
and anatomy fitness which adversely affected by injuries. That’s to ensure the sportsman and
therefore, to participate regularly in the training and tournaments without being afraid that
these injuries would adversely affect
       Next the researcher shall discuss the participation in different tournaments and
incurred injuries. Injuries also affect the diligence of the student during their study due to
their repeated absence because of the different Injuries they face. (36)


      There are many causes leading to injury. Some of them are causes favoring the
Occurrence of the injury, and others are direct causes to the occurrence of the injury.
Whether this injuries can be by contact with other bodies, the floor or ground, or Sporting
equipment.


       As the researcher is an instructor to the students of the faculty of the physical
education his attention was drawn to the physical formation of students and their sufferings
from different types of sports injuries during scientific lectures and during the exercise of
evening activities. Some of them attend the education lessons bearing the pains of that
injuries where others cannot attend which's adversely reflected on their academic
performance. They fear in some courses or on the final result and that affect their
graduation (41)
This study is an attempt to identify the health services in the faculties of physical
education, reasons of different sports injuries to students during academic programs and the
post- academic activity program.




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2. Theoretical Part
2.1. Sports injuries
       Sports injuries” are injuries that happen when playing sports or exercising. Some are
from accidents. Others can result from poor training practices or improper gear. Some people
get injured when they are not in proper condition. Not warming up or stretching enough
before one plays or exercises can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are:

   Sprains and strains
   Knee injuries
   A chills tendon injuries
   Pain along the shin bone
   Fractures
   Dislocations (49).

       Sports injuries are one of the obstacles facing students during their practical program.
The negative effects may extend to their academic comprehension when they cannot continue
the program and they lose the high functional efficiency required of them in this field. Or due
to their exposure to the fear factor of having the injury repeated that will affect the
professional performance and readiness for education (38).


        The injuries are the damage in one of more types of body different tissues,
organically or chemically. Usually, the result of external sudden effect is tough. In fact, each
sportive team shall have a team of persons interesting in the players, injuries and their
treatment so that the player may return to the level he has already reached before (41).


        There are two major types of physical injuries that occur in sports: the acute injury
and the overuse injury. An acute injury is usually caused by an abrupt force such as impact
with another athlete. A blow from a ball, puck, or stick, or a sudden twist may sprain an
ankle or tear a knee ligament.       An overuse injury is progressive condition caused by
repetitive stress on one single part of the body. Contact or collision sports like football, rugby
and hockey have a high percentage of acute injuries that occur to the athletes playing these
sports, whereas, athletes playing non-contact sports such as track and swimming, obtain
injuries from overusing certain muscles (9).




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        The sporting injuries are considered little to happen relatively compared with the
other injuries, where they represent 2% of the total injuries, as well as regarding the quantity
and danger. It is rate that the sportive injuries happen to a great deal when the physicians
cooperate with the coaches and following the scientific methods in training and qualifying as
well as treatment immediately when the injury happens (7).


        Hossam Sharara and Hamdy Abdelrehim (1992) indicted that, in spite of high
progress in sciences of medical sporting, and also improving of tools and sporting equipment
as well as multiplication of incidents protection methods, but we still have a high ratio of
sporting incidents among players (18).


       Syad Abdelgawad Elsayd (1984), mentioned that features of sporting incidents are
various and show differences according to type of sport, sort of movement dynamic for
kinetic skills for each activity and also between communities (43).


       Mohamed Subhi Abdulhamee, (1986) divided the sporting incidents according their
dangerous and disobedient for players as following: simple incidents, which prevent and
disobedient player from kinetic sport for a short time, and great incidents, which is dangerous
and need special cure as well as prevent play sport for along time (36).


2.1.1. The Meaning of injury
        Injury is an unfortunate face of every day life. While some individuals sustain
injuries of greater severity more frequently than others, no one is spared the pain, distraction,
and incapacity caused by injury. Along with injury come the inevitable physical, emotional,
and economic costs, as well as loss of time and normal function (16).


        Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an
outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical. Injury may also refer to injured
feelings or reputation rather than injuries to the body (30).




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        The sports injuries differ from one sports activity to another according to its nature,
methods of playing and laws; however these activities may cause many injuries. As per the
definition given by Osama Riyadh(1998) sports injuries are the disablements or hindrance by
an external influencing factor on the work of the different tissues and organs of a sportsman
body, generally this influencing factor is effective and severe, the fact that results in functional
and physiological changes such as contusion and tumefaction at the location of Injury with a
change in the color of the skin, and anatomic changes that limit the mobile muscular work of
the muscle or articulation (41).


        Burns are injuries caused by excess heat or sometimes cold (frostbite) fractures are
injuries to bones. Wound. Cuts and grazes are injuries to the skin that can cause bleeding (i.e.
laceration). Bruise is a hemorrhage under the skin caused by contusion. Damage to a person
since of self- worth can be considered an emotional injury (38).


        Serious injury is one of the most emotionally and psychologically traumatic things that
can happen to an athlete. Injury can take away an athletes career at any time, and it threatens
the feelings of invincibility and immortality that all young people have to some degree.
Because athletes are so dependent upon their physical skills and because their identities are so
wrapped up in their sport, injury can be Tremendously threatening to them there are some
injuries from which a highly competitive athlete simply cannot recover, at least not to the point
where he or she can return to a prior level of competition. In comparison, someone not
involved in sports who sustain the same injury may be able to rehabilitate to the point of
maintaining normal physical activity (21).


       Lien. I.N & Lai have stated the importance of functional, anatomy and psychological
fitness, and they said that genetic of acquired defects and non-conformity of the body parts as
from shape, structure and size will affect the functional efficiency and that shall result in many
sports injuries (25).




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         Many people in today's society choose to participate in athletics, some are
professionals whose physical performance is their livelihood, many are students who pursue
sports in conjunction with academics and still others are avid amateurs who participate in
sports for recreation and physical fitness, all athletes with different skill levels different
motivations and different goals with one shared need: the need for a fully integrated,
comprehensive sports medicine program that can be tailored to each athletes goals.
Unfortunately, injuries that accrue during or related to athletic competition have become
common among today's active population. At the human motion institute, our Philosophy is to
provide all athletes, professional and recreational- with the same high quality level of care (3).


2.1.2. Epidemiology of sports injuries
        During the last few decades, the role of sports and physical activity has become more
and more important in all modern communities. Conditioning sports are generally considered
positive by many governments because of their beneficial effect on human well-being. The risk
of injury is increased, for both acute traumas and overuse injuries, and prevention has also
become more important in sports. Epidemiologic studies are important when planning
prevention programs for sports injuries. Because of individual sport cultures and different sport
habits in different countries, national epidemiologic studies are of importance in each
individual country (55).


        Mohamed Kamal said that the sportive injuries are considered little to happen
relatively compared with the other injuries, where they represent 2% of the total injuries as
well as regarding the quantity and degree of danger. It is rate that the sportive injuries happen
to a great deal when the physicians cooperate with the coaches and following the scientific
methods in training and qualifying as well the treatment immediately when the injury happens.
The sportive injuries happen often, insomuch as the player may not avoid the same. To know
the extant of danger of such injuries, the first aid is identifying the type of injury causes to the
player. Therefore, it must perform the rescue as soon as possible and in the right manner. This
step does not the rescue of the injured player firstly, but when the some done rightly and in
good manner that will be a factor of those through which the player will be protected against
the injury complications in any degree of the injuries ones (34).




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       The extent of sport and exercise injuries varies across countries. For example, in
Australia20% of child and adolescent and 18% of adult hospital emergency room consultations
were related to sport injuries. In the UK, sport and exercise- related injuries accounted for 33%
of all injuries reported in a population survey (Uitenbroek 1996). In the USA, of the estimated
17 million annual sport and recreation injuries, nearly 2 million require hospital emergency
room consultations. Highlighting the problem further, Weaver et al (1999) suggested that in a
single state in the USA, injuries sustained by high school athletes in 12 sports would produce
medical costs of $ 10 million in the long term and a further $19 million of lost earnings (48).


        Approximately 30 million children and adolescents participate in organized sports in
the United States. Twenty-five percent to 30% of sports injuries occur in youth involved in
organized sports, another 40%occur in youth playing unorganized sports. There are 3 million
injuries annually, when injury is defined as time lost from the sport. Approximately 770 000 of
these organized sports injuries require physician visits and 45 000 to 90 000require
hospitalization (51).



         In 2002, about 20.3 million Americans suffered a sports injury. Of those, 53% were
minor enough to be self-treated or left untreated. However, about 7 million Americans annually
receive medical attention for their sports-related injuries. That equates to almost 26 per 1,000
people. The highest rate is among children age five to 14 years old (59.3 per 1,000 people). As
many as 20% of children who play sports get hurt, and about 25% of their injuries are
classified as serious. Boys age 12 to 17 are the highest risk group. More than 775,000 boys and
girls under age 14 are treated in hospital emergency rooms for sports-related injuries. Injury
rates are highest for athletes who participate in contact sports, but the most serious injuries are
associated with individual activities. Between one-half and two- thirds of childhood sports
injuries occur during practice, or in the course of unorganized athletic activity (38).




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2.1.3. The main factors leading to the occurrence of sports injuries:
        There exist many important factors that lead to the occurrence of sports injuries,
Mouizz Abdullah Alayeb (2000), Osama Riyadh and Imam Hassan Ennajmi (1999) and
Abduadhim A lawadeli (1999) mention that the main of these factors are:


    2.1.3.1. The age
        No doubt that the sport injuries differ by age , the injuries that occur with the
juniors and youths are injuries of muscles, articulation, joints and fractures, and with age
the sportsman is subject to intense and voluminous training exercises in order to reach the
required level or to achieve the goal of realizing the intended results, these strong and sever
exercises aim to strengthen his muscles and help him in confronting the problem of fatigue
and contacting the adversary, the fact that avoids the occurrence of injury to him.


2.1.3.2 Volume of the body
        The volume of the body became one of the main factors in the performance of the
different kinds of activities, for example basket ball requires that the players shall be tall
whereas in gymnastics he shall be of short height.


2.1.3.3. Physical fitness
        The physical fitness is among the physical factors in the preparation of body
muscles and articulation and their protection from injury, the physical fitness works in
giving the muscles, joints and articulation the natural mobile extent, thus helping in
supporting the Factors affect greatly the exposure of the player to the injury. Charge on it
upon the performance of the different kinds of movements, and help him in the occurrence
of injury.


2.1.3.4. Influence of the environment
        The environment has a great influence in the exposure the occurrence of an injury,
in particular the high temperature or humidity, or the low temperature; these factors affect
greatly the exposure of the player to the injury.




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2.1.3.5. Psychological state
        The practicing of different sports activities requires a full care with the
psychological state of the players since this factor influences the exposure of the player to
the injury, the feeling of the player of anxiety, fear and uneasiness will certainly lead to his
exposure of the player to the injury, the feeling of the player of anxiety, fear and uneasiness
will certainly lead to his exposure to the injury. This fact requires a psychological curer
with the team that contributes in achieving the objectives of the sports training.


2.1.3.6. Smoking, Alcoholic and Drugs consumption
        We know all of us the bad impact of smoking and beer drinking on the player
different tissues, especially the neurotic tissues, as well as the consumption of natural drugs
away from medical guidance, where he takes them to help him in the sportive performance,
which leads to the injury and exposes his life and health to danger. When the player uses
the big effect calming down drug before the match so that he can overcome the pain which
he feels in some places in his body to be devoted to the play without pain Such strong pain
calming down drug will make him loosing the neurotic- muscular equilibration, which may
lead to a new injury as well as, surely, to the increase and expansion of the old injury (40).


2.1.4. Types of injuries
        About 95% of sports injuries are minor soft tissue traumas. The most common
sports injury is a bruise (contusion). It is caused when at the site of an injury and discolors
the skin. Sprains account for one-third of all sports injuries. A sprain is a partial or
complete tear of a ligament, a strong band of tissue that connects bones to one another and
stabilizes joints (56).
Sports injuries are of different types, the different between the types of injuries are injury
requires a mechanical knowledge of its occurrence and factors that favored the occurrence
of this injury in addition to the history of this occurrence The mechanism of the sportive
injuries depends on the nature of its happening reasons, according to the movements
performed by the player, as per the game type he practices as well as the form of the
movement he performs (28)




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      Sports injuries overuse syndromes can affect any part of the musculoskeletal system,
a system made up of al the muscles, bones, and cartilages of the body collectively. Overuse
symptoms in children and adolescents can be found in muscles, tendons (which attach
muscles to bones), and ligaments (which attach bones to bones).These are the soft tissues
of the musculoskeletal system. Overuse of cartilage (the covering of the bone at the joint
surface) most commonly happens on the knee cap, especially with squatting activities, such
as in baseball catchers and gymnasts (53).


        The most common sports-related injuries primarily are overuse injuries. As the
name implies, an overuse injury results from wear and tear on the body, particularly on
joints subjected to repeated activity. By far, the most common sport that leads to injury is
running. "Running jars the body from the foot all the way up into the back," says James
Carrick, MD, director of the Center for Sports Medicine at St. Francis Hospital in San
Francisco. He has seen more runners than any other recreational athletes in his clinic,
followed by those who participate in dance (including aerobics), tennis, skiing, basketball,
gymnastics, football, soccer and figure skating. Certain types of injuries plague sports
participants. Most of them, however, are minor. Knowing the early signs and what to do
can help prevent them from becoming nagging problems. Here's a look, from head to toe, at
the Top Ten sports injuries you're most likely to face: (34).


2.1.4.1. The primary injury
        This type of injury occurs as a result of practicing the chosen sport event; it requires
being acquainted with the date of occurrence of the injury, the mechanism of its occurrence
and the factors that led to this occurrence, in particular for the severe injuries.
This type on injury can be divided into two basic types:
1) The intrinsic injuries
2) The extrinsic injuries




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        The intrinsic injury occurs due to internal forces from the inside of the injured
body. Whereas the extrinsic injury occurs as a result of external forces, i.e. from the
exterior of the injured body. We can say that the external injury occurs as a result of an
accident and this type is greatly linked to the most of injuries resulting From the accidents
for which we do not know their time of occurrence, such as those occurring in sports field,
or precisely the sportsmen injuries, the only Difference is that the sportsmen injuries can be
treated because we need the return of sportsmen to their practiced sport; of course the
degree of healing of the sportsmen injuries is faster than the non-sportsmen, due to the
physiological difference acquired by sportsmen as a result of practicing sports As for the
extrinsic injury, the injury will be acute and accompanied with pain at the same time.
Because the force that caused the occurrence of the injury is greater than the ability of
player to bear it, in particular during high speeds, as well as the utilized tools and their
relation with the injury (27).


2.1.4.2. The secondary injury
        This injury occurs as a result of the previous injuries, however they affect other
places of the body, this injury is complex, for example after a fracture, the short leg may
result in scoliosis in the vertebral column, whether simple or complex, and the result will
be low back pain, moreover the knee pain may result from the an acute injury in the knee
articulation of the other leg. These two examples elucidate to us how it is important to
conduct a full examination of the injured, and to be satisfied just with the affected region
only, this allows to the Examiner to have a full image of the injured. The treatment of these
Injuries require knowing the primary injury even if the symptoms of the first injury have
disappeared. We must help the injured to be adapted with the primary injury, by amending
or improving his equilibrium and stature, by raising the alveolus slowly we can minimize
the load borne by the calks and crest bones in case of leg fracture, therefore each case
require a full examination. The change and recurrence of the treatment program may be
necessary and important in particular if some muscles are weak as a result of the primary
injury, and in special cases there must be a change of the practiced sport event in necessary
(27).




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2.1.4.3. overuses injuries
        Injuries caused by stressing an area over and over until it is damaged and begins to
hurt are described as overuse injuries. One such injury is patellar tendonitis, or jumper's
knee which is characterized by pain in the tendon just below the knee cap. Achilles
tendinititis is another common overuse injury, this injury of the tendon connecting the
muscles in the back of the heel bones causes pain the back of the leg just above the heel.
Occasionally, the Achilles tendon can tear. To treat a torn Achilles tendon, the doctor might
tell you to keep the area immobilized for some time so the tendon can heal, or you might
need surgery to repair the damage (33).


        Overuse injuries develop when repetitive stress to bone and musculotendinous
structures damages tissue at a greater rate than that at which the body can repair itself. A
combination of extrinsic factors, such as training errors and environmental factors, and
intrinsic or anatomical factors, such as bony alignment of the extremities, flexibility
deficits and ligament us laxity, predispose athletes to develop overuse injuries. Milligan of
the lower extremity, including excess femoral ante version, increased Q angle, lateral (33).


       Chronic injuries are also caused by some reasons for overuse injuries, repetitive
stress to tissues or bones, and typically result from a sudden increase in duration or
intensity of athletic activity in some chronic injuries can be precipitating factor in acute
injuries such as strains and sprains (32)


2.1.4.4. Joint injuries
       A joint is formed by two adjacent bones covered by particular surfaces. Joints vary
in structure, but in general one particular surface is convex (the ball) and the other is
concave (the socket). The two fit together to a varying degree in different joints: in the hip
the ball is almost entirely surrounded by the socket, whereas the knee, shoulder, and finger
joints are very shallow.


       The opposing ends of the bones are joined by a capsule of connective tissue which
surrounds the joint. The joint capsule is lined by a membrane which produces the snivel
fluid. At points where the strain imposed on the joint is greatest, it is strengthened and
protected by ligaments- bands of the connective tissue limiting abnormal movement. The
entire joint I surrounded by muscles and tendon (24).


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2.1.4.5. Ligament injuries
        Ligament injuries in athletes are common particularly around the knee and the ankle;
they also occur in the shoulder, elbow, and thumb. (24)


        The sportive injuries happen often, insomuch as the player may not avoid the same.
To know the extent of danger of such injuries, the first aid is identifying the type of injury
caused to the player. Therefore, it must perform the rescue as soon as possible and in a
right manner. This step does not the rescue of the injured player firstly, but when the same
done rightly and in good manner that will be a factor of those through which the player will
be protected against the injury complications in any degree of the injuries (34).


2.1.4.6. Traumatic injuries
        Traumatic injuries are those caused by a sudden forceful injury. Some more
common traumatic injuries are jammed fingers. The severity of a jammed finger can range
from a minor injury of the ligaments. Which connect bones to a broken finger Splinting
may be needed to allow the injured finger to heal? Another type of traumatic injury is a
muscle pull or tear. These injuries occur primarily in the large muscles of the legs. To
prevent them, stretch your thighs and calves well and do warm-up exercises before playing
(33).


2.1.4.7. Acute injuries
        Acute injuries, such as a sprained ankle, strained back or fractured hand, occur
suddenly during activity. Signs of an acute injury include the following:
1. Sudden, severe pain
2.swelling
 3.inability to place weight on a lower limb
4.extreme tenderness in an upper limb
5.inability to move a joint through its full range of motion
6.extreme limb weakness
7.Visible dislocation or break of a bone.




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       Many acute injuries to joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments cause bleeding,
swelling and pain. With all acute injuries, treatment should be immediate so that healing
can start as soon as possible. Unless the injury is very minor, you should stop the activity
and apply first aid treatment of ice and compression to the injured area, ice and
compression will help prevent bleeding and bruising of the injured tissue. The injured part
of your body should be rested in a raised position (34).


2.1.4.8. Tendon injuries
       Tendon injuries constitute a frequent diagnostic and therapeutic problem in sports
medicine. If these injuries are not treated well, they result in chronic and long- lasting
problem. The basis for successful management is a correct diagnosis.
       A muscle is usually attached to bone by a tendon through which the effects of
muscle contraction are conveyed. The main function of a tendon is to transfer forces from
the muscle to the bone, the muscle produces force only when contracting, and this has a
stretching effect on the tendon. Tendon display great anatomic diversity in shape, length,
vascular, and the extent of snivel lining. There is also variability in biochemical and
biomechanical characteristic (2).


       Tendons become injured because of repeated tensing or from rubbing on nearby
ligaments and bones. Subjected to constant stress, tendons may fray or tear apart, or
become thickened and bumpy. The injured area may calcify. The tendon sheath is also
vulnerable; it may produce excess fluid, causing swelling. The tendon may become locked,
in the sheath and move jerkily, the sheath may become inflamed and press on the tendon.
Inflammation and swelling in the restricted space of the carpal tunnel can put pressure on
the median nerve, leading to the tingling and numbness of the thumb and second finger
which often indicate carpal tunnel syndrome (41).


2.1.4.9. Nerve Injuries
       Nerve injury can result from compression or tensioning of the neural structure.
Nervous tissue is very sensitive to compression and ischemia, and injury may occur
secondary to direct blow, acute swelling of tissue within an enclosed space, or any
pathology that compromises the space through which the nerve courses. Laceration of the
nerve can occur
secondary to fracture, dislocation, penetrating trauma, or excessive tensioning or stretch.
Signs and symptoms of pain, sensation, and motor function can vary considerably


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    depending on the extent of nerve injury. Sensory impairment can range from anesthesia
(no sensation) to parenthesis (tingling, burning, or numbness)to
hyperesthesia(hypersensitivity), and motor function can range from no loss in muscle
strength or function to weakness to complete loss of muscle function (42).


2.1.4.10. Growth Plate Injuries
      In some sports accidents and injuries, the growth plate may be injured. The growth
plate is the area of developing tissues at the end of the long bones in growing children and
adolescents. When growth is complete, sometime during adolescence, the growth plate is
replaced by solid bone. The long bones in the body are the long bones of the fingers, the
outer bone of the forearm, the collarbone, and the hip, the bone of the upper leg, the lower
leg bones, the ankle, and the foot (41).


2.1.4.11. Brain injuries
      Brain injury is the primary cause of fatal sports-related injuries. Concussion can
result from even minor blows to the head. A concussion can cause loss of consciousness
and may affect: balance, comprehension, coordination, hearing, memory, vision (38).


2.1.4.12. Skeletal injuries
       Fractures account for 5-6% of all sports injuries. The bones of the arms and legs are
most apt to be broken. Sports activities rarely involve fractures of the spine or skull. The
bones of the legs and feet are most susceptible to stress fractures, which occur when muscle
strains or contractions make bones bend. Stress fractures are especially common in ballet
dancers, long-distance runners, and in people whose bones are thin Shin splints are
characterized by soreness and slight swelling of the front, inside, and back of the lower leg,
and by sharp pain that develops while exercising and gradually intensifies. Shin splints are
caused by overuse or by stress fractures that result from the repeated foot pounding
associated with activities such as aerobics, long-distance running, basketball, and
volleyball. Compartment syndrome is a potentially debilitating condition in which the
muscles of the lower leg grow too large to be contained within membranes that enclose
them. This condition is characterized by numbness and tingling untreated compartment
syndrome can result in long-term loss of function (38).




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2.1.5. Common injuries to the body parts
        If you have ever suffered an injury related to sport or exercise, you know that an
injury can be quite painful even if it is not serious. Some of the more common minor
injuries related to sports and exercise are sprains, strains, blisters, cuts, and scrapes. More
serious but less common injuries include joint dislocations and bone fractures. The most
common parts of the body injured in physical activity are skin, feel, ankles, knees, and leg
muscles. Injuries to the head arms, body, and internal organs such as the liver and kidneys
are less likely (40).


 2.1.5.1. The Joints
       Abdulkafi Abdulaziz says that joints are the points of contact between the bones,
some joints are complex whereas others are simple, and without these joints the human
body will be fixed and immobile and immovable. Some of joints are themselves
immovable they are called the fixed joints. The other joints have different movements,
some are complex and some are so simple to have only one simple direct joint. In the
cranium we find fixed joints in the form of teeth rims, for the adults these joints are tightly
connected and calcified. The backbone contains a series of joints designed to allow for
leaning, bending and turning, generally fingers operates in the form of a simple joint link
(1).
       Ibrahim Erhuma Zayed says that the joint is the support, convergence or conjunction
of two or more bones of the skeleton. Joints are found in the long bones at the tips and in
the short bones at any surface and in the flat bones. Joints are divided according to their
composition, the type of movement they perform, the work made on them and their
location in the body, into the following groups:
  Firstly/ the fibrous Joints
Where the converging bones are linked with a strong fibrous tissue, they are immobile and
are divided into:
 A) The Sutures
They are found between the cranium bones before the maturity age, the tissue is strong
and linking the two connected bones, it joins with the apparent per cranium of these flat
bones to give a widening in the cranium allowing the growth of the brain.
B) The ligament union
The two bones are connected by a strong fibrous ligament similar to the joint situated
between the two lower tips of the two leg bones (lower tibia- fibula joint) (19).


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 Mohamed Adel Roshdi says that joints are the points of contact between the bones; some
joints are complex whereas others are simple, without these joints the human body will be
fixed and immobile and immovable, Some of joints have different movements, some are
complex and some are so simple to have only one simple direct joint. In the cranium we
find fixed joints in the form of teeth rims, for the adults these joints are tightly connected
and calcified. The backbone generally fingers operate in the form of a simple joint link
(29).


        Mohamed .Anwar says that the joint is the support, convergence or conjunction of
two or more bones of the skeleton. Joints are found in the long bones at the tips and in
the short bones at any surface and in the flat bones. Joints are divided according to their
composition, the type of movement they perform, the work made on them and their
location in the body (30).


   2.1.5.2. The Bones
         The skull is formed by 208 bones which differ in solidity and elasticity, the bones
are considered as supports to muscles as they protect also interior organs. Bones contain
medulla which is considered as the RBC plant and Ca and P stores If bone became
subject to excessive pressure they fracture, and any sliding in pavement and repetitive
hits on the foot can make fracture


There are two types of fractures:
-Complete fracture: where the bone is divided on two parts
-Incomplete fracture: is split without detachment (break up)
When we jump on obstacle or collide solid thing, it causes trauma on the bone and makes
hemorrhage under the external membrane of the bone, in
\spite of that it sometimes severs pains, but they will cure during few days and did not
require treatment and stopping exercises.
But when you feel that the pain increase when you do exercises, it is preferable to see the
doctor (32).




                                                                                           17
2.1.5.3. Muscles
        What Are Muscle Cramps? A cramp is an involuntary and forcibly contracted
muscle that does not relax. Cramps can affect any muscle under your voluntary control
(skeletal muscle). Muscles that span two joints are most prone to cramping. Cramps can
involve part or all of a muscle, or several muscles in a group. The most commonly affected
muscle groups are:
Back of lower leg.
Back of thigh .
Front of thigh .
Cramps in the feet, hands, arms, abdomen (53).


        Abdulkafi Abdulaziz says that the muscles are live muscles linked with bones and
have the ability to move these bones through the contraction of their fibers. The human
body contains more than (600) muscles all linked with (206) bones that from the human
skeleton, through the coordination of the contraction and extension activities of the
different muscles the human skeleton movement occurs. Ibrahim Erhuma Zayed and others
divided the muscles, in terms of their tissue composition, in to the following:
1- Voluntary Muscles
2- Involuntary Muscles
3- Myocardium (1)


2.1.5.4. Ligaments
        Ligament injuries in athletes are common, particularly around the knee and the
ankle. They also occur in the shoulder, elbow, and thumb (36)


        Ligament injuries in athletes are common, particularly around the knee and the
ankle. They also occur in the shoulder elbow, and thumb. Ligaments are injured when
forces exceed the ligaments ability to resist a load, which may depend on the rate of injury.
Ligaments provide more strength when a load is applied slowly: this is why relatively slow
injuries may cause an avulsion facture (where a small piece of bone breaks off at the
ligament attachment rather than tearing the ligament itself. Fast injuries will cause the
ligament to fail before the bone, and resulting in a tear in the midsubstance of the ligament.
When the athlete sprains an ankle the tow bones of the ankle joint, the tibia and talus, are
rapidly forced apart, causing rupture of the ligaments holding the tibia and talus together
(24).
                                                                                           18
       Ligaments are slightly elastic; when under tension, they gradually lengthen. This is
one reason why dislocated joints must be set as quickly as possible: if the ligaments
lengthen too much, then the joint will be weakened, becoming prone to future dislocations.
Athletes, gymnasts and martial artists perform stretching exercises to lengthen their
ligaments, making their joints suppler. The term double-jointed refers to people who have
more elastic ligaments, allowing their joints to stretch and contort further (36).


2.1.5.5. Injury prevention in sports
2.1.5.5.1 In our society today, millions of people are interested in sport and fitness. This
recent increase in organized and recreational sports participation for all ages and both sexes
has been accompanied by a significant increase in the number of injuries sustained by these
athletes. Although sport offer exercise, competition and sportsmanship, with any sort of
physical activity, there is a possibility that an athlete can acquire an injury because of lack
of good equipment (49).


2.1.5.5.2 you probably know that your body is made about 206 bones that connect at
joints. You can see in the diagram that ligaments hold the bones together at the joint. A
ligament is made of tough tissues. The other type of tissue you see in the figure is a tendon,
a tissue that connects muscles to bones. When your muscles contract, the pull your tendons
and make your bones move. The bones act as levers and work with your muscles to allow
body movement. But when your muscles move the bones. These forces can cause medical
problem if you don’t use correct techniques when doing physical activity the same
principles used in physical and engineering to study forces can be applied to help living
organisms function efficiently. These principles, called biomechanical principles, can help
you use the levers of your body ( your bones) to move efficiently and avoid injury to the
joints and other body parts (12)


2.1.5.5.3 The severity of an injury depends mainly on the amount of force involved in the
sport. Football, wresting and ice hockey tend to be high-risk sports and demand a lot of
personal attention to the health of ones body. There is a possibility of sustaining an injury
in almost all types of sports, even those that are relatively safe. In most sports today, it is
mandatory for the athletes to wear a certain amount of equipment. Proper equipment can
make the difference between obtaining a sever injury or a minor injury. Countless hours of
rehabilitation, not mention the pain of an injury, could be avoided if more attention was
given to preventing injuries (49).
                                                                                            19
    As we know many factors can prevent many injuries and may reduce the severity of
other injuries these are part of the responsibilities of coaching and require the trainer to
follow specific guidelines that will ensure safe participation and when necessary the
delivery of the standard of care for injured athletes. The trainees must know and be able to
follow these guidelines (37).


      It has been included. That only the students faculty who practice different types of
sports regularly, and among sport groups who are exposed to casualties during faces or
games, either in individual or group manner.


       On the other face the science of physical education in all activities made a fast
development in all domains. Psychologist, physiologist-method of training- anatomic
science can teach the athlete how to reduce and protect his self from injury for the reason
the researcher wish to shed light on the most common injuries to know the fact reason of
those injuries (33).


2.1.6. Cause of occurrence of sports injuries:
       Injuries in sport activities can occur for many reasons no matter how safe the
environment or how well conditioned the athlete, activity will in vitally produce some
injuries, whether it be by contact with other bodies, the floor or ground or sporting
equipment. Situations that cause a temporary loss or body control may produce injuries
ranging from minor to severe. Usually though these injuries are minor. The scientific
studies and researches performed on the sportive injuries have proved that some injuries
happen due to the non- heating in a right manner, which affects the tissues and muscular
strips leading to an injury in operating strips and muscles and joints. Non –giving the coach
or instructor the right education stages and grading in their learning, as well as the
unknowing of the planning and skill sides to identify the points in which the Injury may
happen. The sportive injuries in the sportive games do not happen with the same rate, that
is to say each sportive game has injuries related thereto which are different from another
sportive activity in the injury rate. There are strong probabilities, as well as less probability,
for such injuries happening (48).




                                                                                               20
        There are many causes leading to injury. Some of them are causes favoring the
occurrence of the injury and others are direct causes to the occurrence of the injury.
Mohamed Adel Roshdi (1992) Ammar A Abdurrahman Kaba (1988). And Zeynab Elalm
mention
Important and main causes in the training that lead to the occurrence of injury:


2.1.6.1. Causes pertaining with training
2.1.6.1.1. Wrong and unstudied training.
2.1.6.1.2. Non – complementarily of the adequacy of all muscular groups joint in
performance.
2.1.6.1.3. Insufficient care in heating
2.1.6.1.4. Bad planning of the training program in the non – appropriateness of the volume
and intensity of training.
2.1.6.1.5. The non- appropriate test of the time of training.
2.1.6.2. Bad sports requirements, such as:
2.1.6.2.1. Non validity of the stadium field
2.1.6.2.2. Non validity of the game requirements
2.1.6.2.3. Bad choice of the appropriate shoe


2.1.6.3. Other causes
2.1.6.3.1. Bad psychological state of the player
2.1.6.3.2. Insufficient rest
2.1.6.3.3. Breaching the sports laws (14).


         Mohamed Subhi Hassanein 1979 said that in some sports if the weight increases by
25% over the supposed sportsman weight it will be a burden and lead to quick feeling of
fatigue. Also the decrease of the sportsman weight is an indicator of the beginning of stress
(36).


         Fatigue and stress have their role in the cause of some sport injuries as they
influence the chemical changes in blood, blood circulation and nervous nutrition of the
muscular system. Also they affect the functional aspects of all organs and system of the
body leading to sports injuries (5)




                                                                                          21
        Sports injuries are one of the obstacles facing the students during their practical
program. Their negative effects may extend to their academic comprehension when they
cannot continue the program and they lose the high functional efficiency required for
them in this field. Or due to their exposure to the fear factor of having the injury repeated
that will affect the professional performance and readiness for education. Negative effects
may extend also to the attempts of some injuries to participate in the program
nevertheless they
Are not healed that will lead to the probability of repeated injury may need surgical
intervention. In general, all of that may affect the physical and educational abilities of the
students due to long time required for recreation and regaining their natural conditions
(28).


        The term sports injury, in the broadest sense, refers to the kinds of injuries that
most commonly occur during sports or exercise. Some sports injuries result from
accidents. Others are due to poor training practices, improper equipment, Lack of
conditioning, or insufficient warm-up and stretching. Although virtually any part of your
body can be injured during sports or exercise, the term is usually reserved for injuries that
involve the musculoskeletal system, which includes the muscles, bones, and associated
tissues like cartilage (50).


        Injury rates have been reduced because of changes in the sport environment
through increased safety regulation. The preseason examination is an opportunity to
diagnose and rehabilitate old injuries and thereby prevent rein jury. However, effective
prevention occurs only when the patient history is accurate and appropriate diagnoses and
rehabilitation programs are initiated by the physician performing the preseason
examination. For the individual patient with a musculoskeletal injury, there are four
phases of rehabilitation:
        1) limiting additional injury and controlling pain and swelling; 2) improving
strength strength, flexibility, proprioception, and endurance of the injured structures until
near-normal function is achieved; and 3) returning to the sport gradually through
functional rehabilitation. Pediatricians should be involved in providing medical care for
children and adolescents when these patients are injured in sports participation. The
overall goal of this article is to increase the competency of pediatricians in sports
medicine care, specifically prevention of sports-related injuries. A framework for
approaching sports injury prevention (18).
                                                                                             22
        Many injuries are caused by weak muscles which simply are not ready to handle
the specific demands of your sport. This is why people who start a running program for
the first time. Often do well for a few weeks but then as they add the mileage on,
suddenly develop foot or ankle problems, hamstring soreness strong enough to cope with
the demands of the increased training load, for this reason, it is always wise to couple
resistance training with regular training (41).


2.2. Physical activity
       Physical activity means moving about. There are, of course, degrees of physical
activity, any physical activity is better for your health. Than none at all, some is better
than little and more is better than some. When you increase your amount or level of
physical activity, you will increase the benefits related to physical activity –to a point.
Too much physical activity can result in overuse injuries, burnout, and other problems
(6).


       The sportive activity aims to contribute in creating the good citizen enjoying high
physical, health and mental sufficiency. And whereas the man is an integrated unit,
consisting of body, mind and soul, then it shall understand the nature of this man and the
manner of keeping his health and safety of his external organs and internal systems,
which facilitates to the operators in the field of sportive education (teachers and trainers)
the performance of their jobs perfectly (30).


        Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the
risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing the amount of bone loss that is associated
with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more
efficiently thereby helping in weight loss and maintenance, it can increase basal
metabolic rate, reduces appetite, and help in the reduction of body fat. Physical activity
should be done at a rate that is appropriate for the person; an evaluation by an exercise
physiologist is helpful to avoid injuries that can occur if physical activity is initiated
without much consideration given to the type, duration of physical activity, and the
physical condition of the person. (56).




                                                                                            23
  Physical activity has a protective effect for health in the most general meaning of word
   Its positive effects maybe summarized as follows:
 Reduces risk of cardiovascular diseases
 . Lowers blood pressure
 . Improves lipoprotein profile by increasing the H D L and reducing the L D L cholesterol
   Levels.
 . Higher energy expenditure helps reduce weight and thus prevents obesity.
 . Reduces glycerin, enhances glucose tolerance, reduces resistance to insulin, and thus
   helps
 Prevent the onset of type II diabetes.
 . Prevents osteoporosis
 . Prevents malignant effect upon the mind (enhances well- being) and helps overcome
 Stress and fatigue.
 .Higher level of physical activity and fitness reduces overall mortality (10).


        Physical activity plays a key role in psychological and social development as well
as linear growth, body size, motor development, and fitness of young children. Therefore,
physical activity is very important at child age, especially because more activities maybe
demanded of children in developing countries (32).


        Physical activity has been shown to improve symptoms of arthritis, and also
critically important to maintaining an appropriate weight. Conversely, however, both
arthritis and over weight are associated with lower levels of physical activity, including
limited leisure time physical activity (LTPA).those with both arthritis and obesity are
especially likely to be physically inactive, this study used date from the behavioral risk
factor surveillance system (B R F SS) to do a population –based assessment of the
relationship between arthritis, obesity, and physical inactivity among Wisconsin adults
(47).




                                                                                             24
 2.2.1. Physical activity epidemiology
       Physical activity epidemiology examines the relationships between physical
activity and various health- related states from a variety of perspectives. The description
provided by Cabperson 1989 concisely summarizes the general domains and goals of
physical activity epidemiology research. Physical activity epidemiology can be defined as
a two-part process. First, it studies (a) the association of physical activity, as a health-
related behavior, with disease and other health outcomes, (b) The distribution and the
determinants of physical activity behavior (s) and (c) the interrelationship of physical
activity with other behavior. Second, it applies that knowledge to the prevention and
control of disease and the promotion of health (15).


      Physical activity to promote good health can be defined in terms of type, frequency,
intensity, duration, and timing of energy expenditure from using large skeletal muscles.
Physical activity is a process, generally measured in kilocalories expended from muscle
use per week (5)


2.2.2. The concept of physical activity
      A physically active lifestyle and active participation in sports and physical activity
is important for all age groups. Reasons to participate in sports and physical activity are
many, such as pleasure and relaxation, competition, socialization, and maintenance and
improvement of fitness and health. However, sports participation also entails a risk for
overuse injuries as well as acute injuries, which may even lead to death or permanent
disability (26).


2.2.3. The nature of physical activity
      Physical activity is the increase of contraction of the muscles, particularly the large
muscles in the leg, e.g. in walking or running; this costs energy and prevents the storage
of too much lipid energy in adipose tissue, an essential part of the prevention of obesity.
In the same way, the energy expended in physical activity can contribute to the creation
of a negative energy balance, thus diminishing energy stores, and contribute to the
treatment of obesity. A negative energy balance can also be accomplished by a decreased
energy intake (26).




                                                                                            25
2.2.4. Physical activity, exercise and sport
      There are important distinctions between the terms, physical activity and exercise.
Physical activity may be considered as any body movement produced by skeletal muscle
that results in energy expenditure, and as such includes dressing, walking to the shops
and gardening as well as participating in sport or attending an aerobics class. Exercise on
the other hand, might be considered one subset of physical activity defined as planned,
structured and repetitive movement aimed at improving or maintaining one or more
components of fitness (26).


2.2.5. Physical activity and health
       Health can be defined in many ways, in part because health can be related to
physical, mental, emotional, social, and spiritual aspects of our lives. Many people think
of good health as the absence of sickness or disease. This is in part true, but it does not
tell the whole story. Good health, might be better defined as the presence of "sufficient
energy and vitality to accomplish daily tasks and active recreational pursuits without
undue fatigue. While other factors are involved, people who are more physically active
tend to be healthier than those who are not very active. The greatest gains in health occur
when a person goes from an inactive lifestyle to being moderately active. In other words,
you don’t have to train around the clock trying to be a great triathlete, to experience the
health benefits of physical activity. You just have to maintain moderate activity (6).


2.2.6. Physical activity and good nutrition
        Chronic diseases account for 7 of every 10 U.S. deaths and for more than 75% of
medical care expenditures. In addition, the prolonged illness and disability associated
with many chronic diseases decrease the quality of life for millions of American.
        Much of the chronic diseases burden is preventable. Physical inactivity and
unhealthy eating contribute to obesity, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes.
Together, these two behaviors are responsible for at least 400,000 deaths each year (46).




                                                                                            26
      Good nutrition habits can help you fell and look your best. Failure to eat properly
can result in many health problems. It has been shown that six of the ten leading causes
of death in North America are linked to improper nutrition. Millions of teenagers and
adults regularly modify their diet in an attempt to assume control of the way they look
and of their have a negative rather than positive impact on health. Making appropriate
changes in eating patterns is the key. Eating properly is a goal that achievable (12).


     Nutrition is, quite literally, the fuel through which we live, good nutrition is
important for health and for optimal performance, be it in recreational activities, daily
living, or sports proper nutrition plays a vital role in how our bodies function: and the
more we ask of our bodies, the more important it is, in terms of reaching optimal
performance, that we provide our bodies with high-performance fuel (6).


2.2.7. Physical fitness assessments
           Physical fitness is the ability to carry out every day tasks without undue
fatigue and with energy left over to enjoy leisure activities and meet unforeseen
emergencies. It included sports –skill-related fitness (balance, agility, power, and
coordination) and aspects of fitness that contribute to health cardio respiratory endurance,
body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility collectively known as
health –related physical fitness. Health –related physical fitness also included metabolic
fitness, the attainment of metabolic improvement, such as normalized blood glucose level
and reduced abdominal fat that lower the risk of chronic disease (35).


2.3. Physical education
       In the most education systems, physical education (PE) also called physical
training Medium of large- muscle activities in a play or movement exploration setting , it
is Almost always mandatory for students in elementary school and often for students in
Middle schools and high schools.


      Mohamed Hassan said that view of physical education as one of the aspects of
education and of its styles has been through the sportive activity using the body of the
player, from this perspective the physical education is considered as an integral with the
education, since its one of the most important means in the education. From the youth,
which deals with the development of individual physical mentally and socially (32).

                                                                                           27
       The primary aim of physical education is to equip students with the knowledge
Skills, capacities, and values along with the enthusiasm to maintain a healthy lifestyle
into adulthood, regardless of their physical abilities. Activities included in the program
are designed to promote physical fitness, to develop motor skills, to instill knowledge and
understanding of rules, concepts, and strategies, and to teach students to work as part of a
team, or as individuals, in a wide variety of play like and competitive activities (52).


2.3.1. The importance of physical education
       Mumar (1986) emphasized the importance of sport. He said that sport, either
private, such as the prayer that the individual performs by himself inside a closed room,
or public, which is performed in a field in groups, is like prayer that is performed in
groups inside the houses of worship. The first type is for the individual, but the second
one is for all people who do not let others perform it for them. Sport is like prayer, food
and breathing. It has many health and recreational benefits (39).


       Anyait 1988) stated that the requirements for the socialized society regarding
physical education for new generations can not be established only by practical scientific
rehabilitation for sport trainers in schools but with inclusion of sport science in schools at
different levels for both trainers and students. However, the science of sport is a relativity
new science. It acquires its importance from the increased importance of physical
education. It is a complex science. It takes its material and subject from sciences such as
the history of physical        education, training, administration        and   organization,
biomechanics, kinesiology, sport psychology, sport medicine and exercise physiology.
Pedagogical teaching methods are related to all the mentioned subjects (8).


2.3.2. The concept of physical education
       Ali said that physical education is a comprehensive education through selected
physical activity which is applied by an educational leadership to establish a balanced
growth for the individual to make him or her good citizen in society (4).


       Mosbah. M said that Mohamed (1992) p70 Bagdadi (1998) p 17 they said that what
is recognized in physical education through movement mentioned that physical education is
one aspect of general education which aims to educate the individual physically, mentally
and socially through selective physical activity and under a specialist leadership in order to
achieve proposed goals (31).


                                                                                             28
      Ahmed Essebahi said that the view of physical education as one of the aspects of
education and of its styles has been through the sportive activity using the body holeyer
from this perspective the physical education is considered as an integral with the education
and its one of the most important means in the education of the youth which deals with the
development of individual physically mentally and socially. One of this facts the physical
education have an increasing importance in all countries. Also it taken the first place
among the different means propos to the development personality. The physical education
is very important means in the preparation of the individuals who are essential element of
the society. The physical education is not limited to elite individuals, but for the total
society (3).
2.3.3. Humanistic sport and physical education
      The social turmoil of the 1960s and 1970s helped create humanistic psychology.
which aimed toward the full development of individual potential growth and self-
development were central to humanistic education affective learning, values clarification,
and social development were considered as important as academic development. For
physical education primary goals were organized around self-expression and interpersonal
relations. This meant an emphasis on cooperation instead of competition, enjoyment
instead of expression instead of obedience (47)
2.3.4. Physical education and training
       Organized instruction in motor activities that contribute to the physical growth
health, and body image of the individual. The historical roots of physical education go back
as far as the ancient Chinese (c.2500 B.C.), who had a well-developed system of exercise
and physical training. In ancient Greece the Athenians were concerned with both physical
and mental development and consequently they accorded gymnastics, sports And rhythms
an important educational role. During the period of the Roman Empire, and later during the
middle Ages, physical education was primarily used as a form of military training. Interest
in physical    education as a part of the total individual's development was revived during
the Renaissance (52).
     Today, physical education is a required part of most school curricula, and a number of
colleges and universities offer degrees in the field. Physical education classes generally
include formal exercises, sports, and contests; although an increasing emphasis has been
given to such Asian techniques as yoga, karate, and judo. The American Alliance for
Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (founded 1885) is concerned with
improving its fields of education and with increasing the public's knowledge and
appreciation of physical education (52).


                                                                                         29
2.3.5. Health and physical education
     The Health and Physical Education learning area focuses on a holistic concept of
health. It recognizes the physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual dimensions of the
health of the individual. It examines the impact of interactions between the individual, the
family, the wider community and the environment on the health of populations. Students
plan, act and reflect in order to develop the essential knowledge and understandings,
attitudes, values and skills which promote health practices, encourage participation in
regular, physical activity and support the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle (56).


      Every day students make decision affecting their health and well being what foods to
eat, what company to keep. what risk taking. What to do for exercise. These decisions often
lead to habits that stay with them throughout life. The students for health education and
physical education can help students make better decision about their health. They learn
that their decision can affect their health set a pattern for their lives. Students learn to
protect their health by acquiring good information, by seeking good advice and friendship,
and by taking responsibility for their own health (5).




                                                                                          30
3. Practical part
 3.1 Aims of research, hypotheses
   Injuries in sports activities can occur for many reasons no matter how safe the environments or
how well conditioned the students, activity will inevitably produce some injuries, whether it be by
contact with other bodies, the floor, or ground or sporting equipment, that’s why the researcher
wants to describe the most frequent injuries


3.1.1 Aims
To describe the most frequent injuries among physical education students in Libyan and Czech
republic.
To describe the main causes of those injuries .
3.1.2 Hypotheses
Libyan physical education students have suffer from sports injuries than Czech students.
Causes of injuries of Libyan students are differing than of Czech students.


3.2 Methods and sample
3.2.1. Methods
  The researcher used the surveying methodology as one of the descriptive methodology
procedures since it will be fit due to the nature of this research.
   The researcher used the most common types of injuries and their causes in two different
samples of physical education students, because injuries are a common problem for physical
education students. In treating these injury issues, the researcher would have great knowledge in
the injuries and their causes in physical education and help in prevention of these injuries in the
future.


A group of fifty students in the faculty of physical Education in the Libyan Jamahiriya, as well as
a group of fifty students in the faculty of sports studies in Czech are made to answer
Questionnaire, concerned with the number and the type of sport casualties, as well as the causes
behind these casualties.
3.2.1.1. Processing of the questionnaire entries
3.2.1.2. Basic personal characteristic
In the questionnaire there are four items (questions) which can be considered as basic personal
characteristics. Their processing and interpretation is non-complicated, according to rules of
descriptive statistics.


                                                                                               31
Age: The respondent is supposed to write his age in years in to empty box.
Height: Respondent is supposed to write his height in to empty box
Weight: Respondent is supposed to write his weight in to empty box.
Years of study: The respondent is supposed to write his year of study as a number in to
empty box.


3.2.2. Samples for the comparative study
     The research sample included 50 male students of the Physical Education Faculties in
the Libyan Jamahiriya and another 50 male students of the Faculty of Sport Studies in
Czech republic .Consequently, 100students were the specimen of the research from both
the Great Jamahiriya and the Czech republic who are equal in all study and university
circumstances during the academic semester 2005-2006 after excluding the sick students
and those who apologized before the start of the actual study at that academic year. Also
the students who participated in the questionnaire were excluded in order to prove the
consistency of the research.
     Czech and Libyan students have answered to the questionnaire of sports injuries , also
they answered to the questionnaire of causes.


3.2.2.1. Description of Libya sample
The first sample included the students of faculty of physical education. The researcher
selected this sample randomly, where the researcher went to Ghat city in Libya Jamahiriya
the students were there at faculty, the researcher went there to know much the content of
the specimen were clear to students who were the sample of the research, also to identify
the problem that may confront the researcher upon applying the specimen of the
questionnaire. The Libyan students answered to the questionnaire in Arabic language.


The average age of Libyan sample is (23.380) with a deviation value of (1.712) and the
ages were between 21 and 29 years.
The average weight or the Libyan sample was (70.28) with deviation of (9.140) it shows
the great difference between the two samples concerning the weight of students.
     The average length of the sample was (173.28) with a deviation of (7.050) the length
of Libyan group were between 160 and 187cm. the average years distributed on the Libyan
sample was (3.18).




                                                                                        32
3.2.2.2. Description of Czech sample
     The second sample included the students of sports studies, the researcher selected this
sample randomly, where the researcher went to Milovy city in Czech Republic the students
where there on summer course. The researcher went there also to know how much the
contents of the specimen were clear to students who were the sample of the research, also
to identify the problems that may confront the researcher upon applying the specimen of
the questionnaire. The Czech students answered to the questionnaire in Czech language


Arithmetical average of the ages of Czech students is (26.68) and its deviation is (4.837).
the highest value for the sample is 20 years and the lowest value is 39 years.
      Concerning weight variable, the average weight of the Czech students sample is
(79.340) with a deviation of (10.092). The sample weights were between 50 and 95
kilograms.
      Concerning the length sample, the average length of the Czech sample, it reached
(180.180) with a standard deviation of (6.438). The lengths of this sample were between
(158 and 196 cm.). the average years distributed on the Czech sample was (2.280).


     As the researcher is an instructor to the students of the faculty of physical education
his attention was drawn to the physical formation of students and suffers from different
types of sports injuries during practical lectures and during the exercise of the evening
activities. Some of them attend the education lessons bearing the pains of that injuries
where others cannot attend which adversely reflected on their academic performance. They
fear in some courses or in the final result and that it will affect their graduation as of the
forgoing. The field problem of this study appears in the attempt to understand the
correlation between some injuries for Czech and Libya students and their causes, that why
the researcher wants to describe these injuries and the main causes of this injuries. Also to
know those injuries the students suffer from during their activities,


     The researcher selected the students sample because injuries have been a common
problem for physical education students threatening their health and causing forced
disruption for their study physical activities,




                                                                                           33
3.2.3 Questionnaire of injuries
       Sports injuries as a phenomenon may be contributed to many factors. The
cornerstone is the academic program and its method of implementation, treatment,
recreation and health services that will reduce injuries and limit its risks if provided on
time. Sports students suffer some sports injuries during their competition whether with
themselves or with their colleagues within limited spaces and upon using certain tools
during the exercise of different sports games. They occur the surveyed injuries during the
Physical Education and sport activity out of college.


      The researcher designated a questionnaire to obtain information about the types of
injuries occurring while students were participating in sport activities, the part or region of
the body where injuries often occur and the frequency of its occurrence. Also another
questionnaire was formed related to the main causes of these injuries. There were two
language versions of questionnaire: Arabic and Czech.


       The researcher distributes the questionnaire to five tables in the following tables.
Each table includes type of injuries. The first table includes the joints : (thigh joints,
shoulder joints, wrist joints, knee joints, ankle joints, elbow joints, and vertebras ), the
second table includes the bones: (upper hand bones, hand bones, thigh bones, leg bones,
foot bones ) The third table includes the muscles : (hand muscles, upper hand muscles,
thigh muscles, leg muscles, chest muscles, Bach muscles, and neck muscles ), the fourth
table includes the ligaments : (shoulder ligaments, elbow ligaments, knee ligaments, hand
ligaments ) and The fifth table for other injuries.


       There are also five columns in each table, horizontally, which represent the number
of injuries. While vertically are the types of injuries suffered by the students.
The researcher put symbol to each question:
Whereas the researcher put symbol to the first question, (symbol A) (A1- A2- A3- A4- A5-
A6-A7). The second question symbol (B) (B1- B2- B3- B4- B5) The third question symbol
(C) (C1- C2- C3- C4- C5- C6-c7) The fourth question symbol (D) (D1- D2- D3- D4- ) The
fifth question symbol (E) (E1- E2- E3- E4- E5).




                                                                                            34
       After determining the major injuries in which sportsman has incurred and divided it
into divisions, in which is formed of questions and explanations for the researcher. The
questionnaire was also presented to a committee of expert teachers in physical education
and sports injuries for amendments of some articles to set the finding of the questionnaire
mainly concerning the number of injuries and the frequency at which it occurred. The
specimen included a table for the calculation of the sport injuries that incurred to the where
such table included:   The student of faculty are exposed to the following casualties:
 Collective games: football, basketball, volleyball.
 Individual games: tennis, gymnastic, track and field


 3.2 .4 Questionnaire of causes
        Also the researcher designated questionnaire for the causes of the injuries , it was
shown to (8) experts in the concerned field to obtain their opinions, as a measure to test the
validity of the questionnaire , and the extent to which the etiological factors under
consideration account for sport injuries affecting the sport faculty students (in Sabha
university) during academic year.
The etiological factors included the following
1. Causes connected with education process
2. Causes connected with diagnosis and rehabilitation.
3. Student related causes.
4 Reasons related to physical side and performance of exercises
5. Causes related to psychological condition


      The researcher put symbol to each question:
Whereas the researcher put symbol to the first question, (symbol A) (A1- A2- A3- A4- A5-
A6)
The second question symbol (B) (B1- B2- B3- B4- B5-B6).
The third question symbol (C) (C1- C2- C3- C4- C5- C6).
The fourth question symbol (D) (D1- D2- D3- D4- D5-D6).
The fifth question symbol (E) (E1- E2- E3- E4- E5-E6).
The questionnaire initially consisting of (40) questions was shown to the experts to obtain
their views on the extent to within the questionnaire represents. The experts could give
maximum of 10 points each question.


                                                                                           35
      The eventually discarded 10 question from the initial content of the questionnaire,
the questionnaire was rated: below average 5 points. Further more with advice questions
were revised and categorized according to the main categories of the questionnaire, and
finally the questionnaire was limited to 30 questions. The researcher has given three
possible answer to each question (yes – to some extent – no) and accordingly adapted a
scale point of 3 point, 2 point, 1 point


     There are several various reasons from a researcher point of view leading to the
sporting injuries, between those reasons as following:
     Reasons connected with education process inherent in the total lack of instructor or
coach to teach or train like extra support training during the daily program and this support
leads the student to many injuries and also the non graduating of the process, to process
skilled from easy to difficult, and also the lack of complete attention of student to the
instructor to avoid mistakes and to correct the instructor, and also the number of students
during the practice.


       Another reason connected with diagnosis and rehabilitation we mean to qualify
again the student after his injury, the instructor has to control the student and qualify him
again in case he was injured after checking the injury. Also the students return to the
activity before recovery from the previous injury, also absence of specialist care and
qualification leads to the injury aggravation, also lack of intervention to the first aid care
and the total lack of follow-up are the reason for the worsening of the injury which happens
to the student.


      Reasons connected with student himself like the perseverance in process training in
spite of the tiredness and breathlessness and as the inadequate weight also lead to injuries
according the opinion of Mohamed Subhi Hassanein 1979: if the weight overtakes 25% of
the required weight, players activity in certain games represents handicap leading him to
rapid tiredness, also if the players weight decreases 1/30, it indicates the proof of tension
beginning. The tiredness and tension have a role in certain sporting injuries leading to the
chemical changes in blood and in the circulation of blood, in the nutrition of the muscular
system and also in the working of all systems of the body and leads to the injury.




                                                                                           36
       From those reasons, properties of the body, shape and composition, reflect on
functional and vital condition of this body and they have an importance in the estimation of
health condition and in the functional and physical capacity which is reflected on the ability
of the motive system and leads to the sporting injury.


      There are reasons related to physical side and performance of exercises like lack of
attention for the ability elements or attention only for a part of them, Lack of follow-up and
observation to the coach giving the instructions, the non involvement of injured student
physically and morally leads to injury and also the incorrect and inadequate using of the
sportive instruments and facilities according to the kind of activity


      Also there is another reason related to psychological condition (psychological side)
like injury of one colleague which prevents the student to continue in training with the
ability on to realize the same ability with incorrect mode, its consequence of the fear to
make the Same mistake like his colleague or the fear of ability itself and his leads him to
the Injury, also the colleagues teasing his performance leads sometimes to injury and
although lack of concentration and the unfriendly behavior against the others and the
feeling of superiority lead also to injury.


Correlation is a measure of the relation between two or more variables. The measurement
scales use should be at least interval scales, but other correlation coefficients are available
to handle other types of data. Correlation coefficients can range from-1.00 to+1.00
represents a perfect negative correlation while a value of +1.00represents a perfect positive
correlation. A value of 0.00represents a lack of correlation.


        The purpose of analysis of variance (ANOVA) is to test for significant differences
between means by comparing (i.e., analyzing) variances. More specifically, by partitioning
the total variation in to different sources groups (or treatment) variability with that due to
the within-group (treatment) variability. Under the null hypothesis (that there are no mean
differences between groups or treatments in the population), the variance estimated from
the within-group (treatment) variability should be about the same as the variance estimated
from between-groups (treatments) variability. if we are comparing two means, then
ANOVA will give the same results as the t-test for independent samples ( if we are
comparing two different groups of cases or observations), or the t-test for dependent
samples (if we are comparing two variables in one set of cases or observations).
                                                                                            37
 3.3 Results
 3.4. Discussion of results
 3.4.1. Introduction to selection sample
      Injuries in sport activities can occur for many reasons no matter how safe the
environment or how well conditioned the student activity will inevitably produce some
injuries, whether it be by contact with other bodies, the floor or ground or sporting
equipment. Situations that causes a temporary. Loss of body control may produce injuries
ranging from minor to severe. Usually though these injuries are minor.


      One of the most important features of our modern era is the competition between
individuals and countries aiming at the development and advancement on all life aspect.
Physical duration and sport sis one of these where many scholars and researchers have
carried out many researches and studies to find out solutions for the problems facing the
humanity.


      The injuries are the damage in one of more types of body different tissues,
organically or chemically. Usually the result of any external sudden effect is tough. In fact,
each sportive team shall have a team of persons interesting in the players.


      It is important to know the kinetic analysis of the types of different sportive
activities. The importance thereof refers to the diversity of injuries ways, forms and degrees
in the field of sportive practices. This refers to the diversity of the standings and its
deference during competitions and matches.


      As the researcher is instructor to the students of the faculty of physical education his
attention was drawn to the physical formation of students who suffer from different types
of sport injuries during the exercise, however, can attend the scientific lectures.
The researcher selected the students sample because injuries are common problem for
physical education students threatening their health and causing forced disruption for their
studies and their physical activities.




                                                                                           38
3.4.2. study programs of PE and sports faculties in the Czech Republic
and Libya:
3.4.2.1. study program of physical education of Ghat faculty.
The study program of the Physical Education faculty, which lasts of experts, study starts
each year on 1st October and finishes on 30 th June with two week- long holidays in the
middle of each year. Nine of the subjects are practical ones totaling twenty hours per
week. The other seven subjects are theoretical totaling fourteen hours per week. In the
second year , students are taught eighteen subjects, 11 of them practical , totaling twenty
three per week, while the other seven are theoretical, totaling fifteen hours per week. In the
third year students are taught eighteen subjects, eleven of them practical totaling twenty –
one hours per week. Seven subjects are theoretical totaling thirteen hours per week. In the
fourth year, student are taught eight practical subjects, totaling twenty hours per week and
eight theoretical subjects, totaling twelve hours per week.
Students are a warded a B.Sc degree after successfully completing four years of study.
Department of the faculty: department of games, department of athletics, department of
exercises, gymnastics and movement expression, department of health and sport science,
department of teaching methods, department of measurements and testing, department of
water sports.


3.4.2.2 Brno Faculty of Sport studies:
       In all its educational activities, the faculty of sports studies at Masaryk university is
targeting the promotion of attributes of a healthy programme as necessary element of
modern lifestyle, as well as training teachers of Physical education, education specialists in
sports and developing knowledge of sports medicine, moreover, the faculty organizes
educational programs for Bachelors, Masters and Doctorate studies levels. The following
are the departments that are currently in the faculty:
department of kinanthropology, department of social sciences, department of sports
education, department of sports medicine and corrective and therapeutic exercises,
department of sports activities (31).




                                                                                             39
      The characteristics of the faculty of sports studies at Masaryk university draw on the
long traditions of sports and PT education in Brno, which has always been provided by
Masaryk university. The setting up of the faculty of sports studies at MU on January,
1.2002 allows further development of sports education in Brno and the entire region of
southern Moravia.


      The mission of the faculty of sports studies at MU is promotion the attributes of
healthy life as an essential part of modern lifestyles in its entire education process.
The masters studies and bachelors studies program are instructed in the Czech language.
Doctorate studies programmed of kinanthropolpgy is instructed in the Czech and English
languages. The entrance examination in the doctorate studies programmer includes
entrance interview, concentrating on the applicants individual interests and work.
Application deadline is 31 May. Entrance exams- June.


      The faculty of sports. Studies has also special of subjects for students from foreign
countries. Some subjects are taught in English. There are subjects:
Sociology of sports activities, adapted physical education, psychometrics, outdoor sports
activities, combat activities, sports management, corrective exercises.


      The faculty of sports studies has also special proposal of subjects for students from
Swimming- windsurfing- aerobic- lce -skating-skiing- snowboarding-dance.
      The faculty of sports studies at Masaryk University offers the combined study
programme. Participants of the combined studies (formerly distance studies) meet regularly
once a week or once in two weeks (on Fridays and Saturdays). The programme is
organized by semester. The standard duration of study is identical to full-time studies. The
following bachelors study programmes a offered:
-Study programme: physical education and sports.
-Study programme: special training of security in sports.
-Study programme: regeneration and nutrition in sports.




                                                                                              40
       Table 1 the basic characteristics of Czech and Libyan variables.
  Czech students    Libya students

          Valid                                                           Standard
                     Average         Median   Sum      Min     Max
          N                                                               Deviation
c-a1      50         1,5800          2        79       1       3          0,57463
c-a2      50         1,9200          2        96       1       4          0,72393
c-a3      50         1,3600          1        68       1       4          0,72168
c-a4      50         2,1400          2        107      1       4          0,75620
c-a5      50         1,3200          1        66       1       3          0,55107
c-a6      50         1,1400          1        57       1       2          0,35051
c-a7      50         1,0400          1        52       1       2          0,19795
c-b1      45         1,0222          1        46       1       2          0,14907
c-b2      50         1,2600          1        63       1       4          0,56460
c-b3      50         1,2600          1        63       1       2          0,44309
c-b4      49         1,9184          2        94       1       3          0,49315
c-b5      49         1,2857          1        63       1       3          0,50000
c-c1      50         1,2600          1        63       1       2          0,44309
c-c2      50         1,2800          1        64       1       4          0,57286
c-c3      50         2,4800          3        124      1       4          0,67733
c-c4      50         1,9000          2        95       1       3          0,73540
c-c5      50         1,1800          1        59       1       2          0,38809
c-c6      50         1,2600          1        63       1       3          0,48697
c-c7      50         1,3000          1        65       1       3          0,54398
c-d1      50         1,9200          2        96       1       4          0,75160
c-d2      50         1,5000          1        75       1       4          0,70711
c-d3      50         2,2000          2        110      1       3          0,69985
c-d4      50         1,1600          1        58       1       3          0,46773




                                                                              41
                                                                                            Standard
              Valid
                            Average         Median         Sum          Min      Max        Deviatio
              N
                                                                                            n
l-a1          20            1,5500          1,5            31           1        3          0,60481
l-a2          43            1,6512          2              71           1        4          0,65041
l-a3          32            1,3125          1              42           1        3          0,53506
l-a4          43            1,7674          1              76           1        4          0,97192
l-a5          23            2,3913          2              55           1        4          0,98807
l-a6          9             2,0000          2              18           1        3          0,86603
l-a7          7             2,4286          3              17           1        3          0,97590
l-b1          6             1,3333          1              8            1        2          0,51640
l-b2          30            1,4000          1              42           1        3          0,56324
l-b3          11            1,5455          1              17           1        3          0,82020
l-b4          38            1,4211          1              54           1        3          0,55173
l-b5          15            1,6000          2              24           1        3          0,63246
l-b6          46            1,3913          1              64           1        4          0,77397
l-c1          17            1,5294          1              26           1        3          0,62426
l-c2          17            1,5294          1              26           1        3          0,62426
l-c3          44            1,4773          1              65           1        3          0,59018
l-c4          37            1,5135          1              56           1        3          0,73112
l-c5          6             2,5000          2,5            15           1        4          1,37840
l-c7          12            1,9167          2              23           1        4          0,99620
l-d1          44            1,5455          1              68           1        3          0,66313
l-d2          9             1,4444          1              13           1        2          0,52705
l-d3          44            1,5455          1              68           1        4          0,72991
l-d4          7             1,8571          2              13           1        3          0,89974



       3.4.3. Discussion of results of injuries
        First variable
               From the table 1 we show that the first axis was the joint casualties and the first
        variable is Thigh joint casualty.
        It is related to the sample around thigh joint casualty. We find out that the average casualty
        of this joint for the Czech sample was (1.580) with a deviation of (1.574) whereas its
        average occurred in the Libyan sample was (1.550) with a deviation of (0.604). It shows
        that the casualty numbers in the two groups are almost close.
        The Second Variable:
                The samples' answers about the casualties related to the shoulder joint. The above
        table clarifies to us that the average casualties in the Czech sample reached (1.920) with a
        deviation of (0.723), while it reached a value of (1.651) in the Libyan sample, with a
        deviation rate of (0.650). From the two averages it appears that there is a difference in the
        average casualties suffered on the shoulders between the two groups



                                                                                                   42
The Third Variable: Wrist joint Casualties.
     The average of wrist joint casualties in the Czech sample reached (1.360) with a
deviation of (0.721), comparing with the Libyan sample we found that the average in this
group reached (1.312) with a deviation of (0.535). This shows that there is similarity in the
number of casualties between the two samples concerning this casualty.


The Fourth Variable: Knee Joint:
      We find that the average knee joint casualties in the Czech sample is (2.140) with a
deviation of (0.756). Whereas the average casualty in the Libyan sample is (1.767) with a
deviation of (0.971). The difference in the number of casualties is clear. That means the
casualties in the Czech sample are more than the Libyan sample.


The Fifth Variable: Ankle Joint:
       The average casualties recorded in the Czech sample was (1.320) with a deviation of
(0.551), while the average ankle joint casualties in the Libyan sample was (2.391) with a
deviation of (0.988) which clarifies the difference between the two groups. This means that
the increase of casualties in the Libyan is samples than the Czech sample.


 The Sixth Variable: Elbow Joint:
      The average casualties for the elbow joint in the Czech sample was (1.140) with a
deviation of (0.350), while the average for the Libyan sample was (2.000) with a deviation
of (0.866).It is clear here the difference between the two groups in the number of
casualties.


The Seventh Variable: Spine =vertebras +joints
       The Czech sample recorded an average of (1.040) with a deviation of (0.197) while
the Libyan sample recorded an average of (2.428) with a deviation of (0.975).It can be seen
from the rates recorded by the respondents that dissimilarity of the rates is due to the type of
injuries among the tow universities student, these variations emerged from the respondents
answers according to the number of participants in each game and group. The values
registered by the two groups, we fond that the difference of values derives from the
difference made by practitioners in each group.




                                                                                           43
    The researcher indicates that the difference comes from the absence of some necessary
equipments and devices used during training, which help for protecting from casualties in
the Libyan group. This matter is concerned with the organization and management of the
program.


The second Axis: Bones casualties:
      From table 6 too, the answers of the Czech and Libyan samples about bone
casualties were as shown.


The first variable: the casualties of the upper limbs bones:
      We find that the average casualties in the Czech sample is (1.022) with a deviation of
(0.149). The average casualties in Libyan sample were (1.333) with a deviation of (0.516)
when we look back at the number of injuries we find that the number of the injured was 45
students from a total of 50 of the Czech students and 6 in the Libyan sample from a total of
50 students too.


The second variable: the Hand Bones casualties,
      The average hand bone casualty in the Czech sample reached (1.260) with a
deviation of (0.564), whereas the average casualties in the Libyan students reached (1.400)
with a deviation of (0.563) and the number of the injured in the Czech sample was 50
students and that of the Libyan sample was 30 students.


The third variable: Thigh bones casualties,
     The average thigh bones casualty in the Czech sample recorded an average of (1.260)
with deviation (o.443) whereas the average casualties in the Libyan sample (1.545) with
Deviation of (0.820).


 The fourth variable: Leg bones casualties,
      The average leg bones casualty in the Czech sample was (1.918) with deviation of
(0.493whereas the average casualties in the Libyan sample (1.421) with deviation of
(0.551) the number of the inured in the Czech sample was (49), whereas the Libyan sample
was (38) Students.




                                                                                         44
The fifth variable: Foot bones casualties,
     The average foot bones casualty in the Czech sample was (1.285) with deviation of
(0.5000) and the Libyan sample was (1.600) with deviation of (0.632).


The Third Axis: Muscle casualties,
The first variable: Hand Muscle casualty:
      The average hand muscle casualty in the Czech sample was (1.260) with a deviation
of (0.443) compared with Libyan sample, whereas the average casualties were (1.529) with
deviation of (0.624).
The second variable: Arm Muscle Casualty,
      The average arm muscle casualty in the Czech sample was (1.280) with a deviation of
(0.572) while the Libyan sample recorded an average casualty of (1.529) with a deviation
of (0.624).


The third variable: Thigh Muscle casualty,
      The average casualty recorded in the Czech sample was (2.480) with a deviation of
(0.677) while the Libyan sample average casualty was recorded at (1.477) with a deviation
of (0.59).


The fourth variable: Leg Muscle casualties,
      The average Leg muscle casualty in the Czech sample was at (1.900) with a
deviation of (0.735) compared with the Libyan sample which recorded the casualty average
of (1.513) with a deviation of (0.731) with reference to the number of the injured, in the
Czech sample it was (50) students compared with the number of (37) students of the
injured in the Libyan sample.


The Fifth Variable: Chest Muscle Casualty:
      The average recorded for the Czech students sample       was (1.180), whereas the
average recorded for the Libyan sample was (2.500) with the deviations of (0.388) and
(1.378) consecutively. The Libyan students' casualties were more than the Czech sample
casualties.




                                                                                       45
The Sixth Variable: Back Muscle Casualty:
      The average bake muscle casualty in the Czech sample was (1.260), whereas the
average for the Libyan sample was (2.461) that means that the Libyan casualties were
more than the Czech group casualties. In reference to the deviations of the Czech and the
Libyan groups were (0.486) and (1.050) successively.


The Seventh Variable: Neck Muscle Casualty:
       The samples answers recorded an average of (1.300)for the Czech sample, whereas
the average for the Libyan sample was (1.916). which refers to differences in the number
of casualties between the two groups.
Therefore from the sample answers, the researcher thinks that the differences between the
two groups result from the dissimilarity in the number of participants in each group.


      The researcher also shows that some sports are characterized with violence, which
expose players to a big extent of casualties, and affect negatively the students, as indicated
by Mohamed Kamel Afifi (1997), there must be a strict link between sport training and the
level performed by players, and the wore the player advances in training, the less casualties
he must have. (35)


The Fourth Axis: Ligament Casualties:
     The answer results in the research sample were as shown:
The First Variable: Shoulder Ligament Casualty:
     The average answer in the Czech students' sample for this casualty was (1.920) with a
deviation of (0.751), compared to the Libyan students' sample where the average casualty
was (1.545) with a deviation of (0.663).


 The Second Variable: Elbow Ligament Casualty:
    The average Czech sample casualty for the elbow joint ligament casualty was (1.500)
with a deviation of (0.707), whereas the average sample casualty for the Libyan sample
was (1.444) with a deviation of (0.527), knowing that the number of the injured in the
Czech sample was (50) students, whereas the number of the injured in the Libyan sample
was just (9) students.




                                                                                           46
 The Third Variable: Knee Ligament Casualty:
       The knee ligament casualty was the highest recorded casualty value for the two
samples, whereby the number of the injured for the Czech sample students was (50)
students, recorded an average of (2.200) with a deviation of (0.699) and 44 injured students
in the Libyan sample recorded an average of (1.545) with a deviation of (0.729). So the
difference is clear between the two groups with close injured number of samples.


The Fourth Variable: Hand Ligament Casualty:
      The hand ligament casualty recorded for the Czech sample was (1.160) with a
deviation of (0.467) compared to the Libyan sample which recorded an average casualty at
(1.857) with a deviation of (0.899).


      The number of casualties found in the research may hinder the training program for
The students of university and restrict the number of participations in different kinds of
Sports, and as a result, students might stop practicing their hobbies because of the high
level of casualties registered, which requires big attention from the organizers of the
program.(17).




                                                                                         47
  Graph 1 percentage of count of injuries (Czech students)


                         Czech



              21%
                                    28%


                                                             joints
                                                             bones
                                                             muscles
                                                             binds


          30%
                                   21%




Graph 2 percentage of count of injuries (Libya students)


                          Libyan


                18%


                                         33%

                                                             joints
                                                             bones
                                                             muscles
                                                             binds
        26%




                             23%




                                                                       48
        The muscles' casualty percentage reached 30% from the total casualties of the Czech
   sample. On the other hand the Libyan sample recorded a percentage of 26%.
   The joint casualty percentage was 28% for the Czech sample and 33% for the Libyan
   sample.
   The bones casualties' percentage was 21% for the Czech sample and 23% for the Libyan
   sample.
   The ligaments casualties' percentage was 21% from the Czech sample and 18% for the
   Libyan
             Total number of injuries (our questionnaire)
                 Czech-1844, Libya-924
              percentage
Czech students            Libya students

                                 %         Czech        Libyan
                             joints          525           310
                            bones            395           209
                          muscles            533           243
                           ligaments         391           162
                                            1844           924

                                 %          Czech       Libyan
                              joints         28,5          33,5
                              bones          21,4          22,6
                            muscles          28,9          26,3
                           Ligaments         21,2          17,5



        The most casualties repeated in the Libyan sample and for its importance (the
   most repeated) Table 3
   Knee Casualties
   Shoulder Casualties
   Shoulder Ligament Casualties
   Knee Ligament Casualties
   Elbow Casualties.
   Vertebras Casualties




                                                                                        49
Table 3 the most and least frequent injuries for both the Czech and the Libyan samples.
   The most frequent injuries                                             Sum
       c-c3                      Thigh Muscle                              124
       c-d3                    Knee ligaments                              110
       c-a4                        Knee Joins                              107
       c-a2                    Shoulder Joins                               96
       c-d1                 Shoulder ligaments                              96
       c-c4                        Leg Muscle                               95
       c-b4                          Leg Bone                               94
       c-a1                        Thigh Joins                              79
        l-a4                       Knee Joins                               76
       c-d2                   Elbow ligaments                               75
        l-a2                   Shoulder Joins                               71
       c-a3                        Wrist Joins                              68
        l-d1                Shoulder ligaments                              68
        l-d3                   Knee ligaments                               68

   Least frequent injuries                                                Sum
    c-c5                             Chest Muscle                           59
    c-d4                           Hand ligaments                           58
    c-a6                              Elbow Joins                           57
    c-a7                                  Vertebra                          52
    c-b1                         Upper Arm Bones                            46
     l-a6                             Elbow Joins                           18
     l-a7                                  Vertebra                         17
     l-b3                             Thigh Bones                           17
     l-c5                            Chest Muscle                           15
     l-d2                         Elbow ligaments                           13
     l-d4                          Hand ligaments                           13
     l-b1                        Upper Arm Bones                             8

       While the most repeated casualties for the Czech sample and for their
  importance (the most repeated) are:
  Thigh muscle casualties
  Knee ligament casualties
  Knee joint casualties
  Shoulder joint casualties
  Shoulder ligament casualties
  Leg bones casualties
  Leg muscle casualties
  Thigh joint casualties
  Elbow ligament casualties
  Wrist joint casualties
                                                                                     50
       The differences between the two groups in casualty size were different. Some were
clear through arithmetical averages, the others were difficult to limit the differences, so the
researcher used (T) test to know if there were significant differences or not, comparing with
(Z) test and the values were as shown.
                                         Table 4
          T-test, comparison variables between Czech and Libyan students, (injuries)

              Average    Average         Rank          Rank
                Czech      Libya         Czech        Libya    U value         Z       p
     a1           1,58       1,55   1,791,500       693,500    483,500     0,215   0,830
     a2           1,92    16,512    2,569,500      1,801,500   855,500     1,691   0,091
     a3           1,36    13,125    2,059,000      1,344,000   784,000    -0,152   0,879
     a4           2,14    17,674    2,665,000      1,706,000   760,000     2,427   0,015
     a5           1,32    23,913    1,488,000      1,213,000   213,000    -4,299   0,000
     a6           1,14          2   1,371,000       399,000     96,000    -2,720   0,007
     a7           1,04    24,286    1,327,000       326,000     52,000    -2,991   0,003
     b1         10,222    13,333    1,128,000       198,000     93,000    -1,228   0,219
     b2           1,26        1,4   1,915,500      1,324,500   640,500    -1,088   0,276
     b3           1,26    15,455    1,508,500       382,500    233,500    -0,779   0,436
     b4         19,184    14,211    2,577,000      1,251,000   510,000     3,603   0,000
     b5         12,857        1,6   1,491,500       588,500    266,500    -1,601   0,109
     c1           1,26    15,294    1,604,000       674,000    329,000    -1,383   0,167
     c2           1,28    15,294    1,600,500       677,500    325,500    -1,434   0,152
     c3           2,48    14,773    3,123,500      1,341,500   351,500     5,672   0,000
     c4            1,9    15,135    2,471,000      1,357,000   654,000     2,327   0,020
     c5           1,18        2,5   1,338,500       257,500     63,500    -2,291   0,022
     c6           1,26    24,615    1,390,000       626,000    115,000    -3,567   0,000
     c7            1,3    19,167    1,464,500       488,500    189,500    -1,969   0,049
     d1           1,92    15,455    2,677,000      1,788,000   798,000     2,288   0,022
     d2            1,5    14,444    1,498,000       272,000    223,000    -0,042   0,966
     d3            2,2    15,455    2,902,000      1,563,000   573,000     3,993   0,000
     d4           1,16    18,571    1,369,000       284,000     94,000    -1,969   0,049




From the above table related to the comparison of averages between the two groups, the
Czech and the Libyan, we find out that (Z value) is taken from (T value) in the research
variables were significant as shown:




                                                                                            51
   .The variable of knee joint casualties reached 2.427 for the Czech group.
   The variable for ankle-joint casualties reached 4.299 for the Libyan group.
   The variable of the elbow joint casualties for the Libyan group reached 2.720.
   The variable of vertebras casualties reached 2.991 for the Libyan group.
   That means, the Libyan group were more than the Czech group in three variables, have
    significant and one for the Czech group.
   The values were significant on the following variables;
   In thigh muscles variable (T) value reached (5.672) for the Czech.
   Leg muscles variable reached (2.327) for the Czech.
   Chest muscles variable reached (2.291) for Libyan group.
   Back muscles variable reached (3.567) for Libyan sample.
   Neck muscle variable reached (1.969) for the Libyan sample.
    In the axis of muscle ligaments casualties, the values were significant in
    This casualty as shown:
   Shoulder ligaments casualties variable reached (2.288) significant for the Czech.
   Knee ligaments variable reached (3.993) significant for the Czech.
   Hand Ligament variable reached (1.969) significant for the Libyan group.


       For knowing the variables connection with each other, the research subject, and the
researcher made variables connection range for every sample and through the connection
co- efficient, the data were as shown.
There were connections referring statistically between some variables and others were not
referring as shown in table 5.




                                                                                        52
Table 5 correlation table of variables injuries (Libyan students)
                wei    heig   year
         age    ght     ht      s    a1     a2     a3     a4     a5     a6     a7     b1     b2     b3     b4     b5     b6     c1          c2   c3     c4     c5     c6     c7     d1     d2     d3     d4

age        1

weight   0,11     1
            -
height   0,04    0,4      1
                          -
years    0,35   0,22   0,12      1

a1       0,21   0,35   0,05   0,13     1
            -
a2       0,17   0,29   0,38   -0,2   -0,2     1
            -      -             -
a3       0,09   0,06   0,06   0,17   -0,3   0,04      1
                   -      -      -             -      -
a4       0,15   0,37   0,25   0,17     0    0,22   0,09     1
            -      -      -      -
a5       0,09   0,01   0,12   0,29   -0,3   0,11   0,68   0,23      1
                   -                           -                    -
a6       0,11   0,11   0,05      0   -0,1   0,49      0     0    0,38     1
                   -      -                    -      -
a7       0,66   0,16   0,32                 0,17   0,75   0,75     0             1
            -      -      -
b1       0,11   0,83   0,41   -0,5   -0,5     1    0,61   0,43                          1
                   -      -                           -             -
b2        0,4   0,08   0,05   0,21   0,16   0,18   0,17   0,25   0,13   0,14   0,58     1      1
                   -      -      -
b3        0,2   0,16   0,43   0,27   0,06   0,26   0,31   0,43   0,02     1                  0,77     1
                                                             -      -
b4       0,05   -0,1    0,1   0,11   0,29   0,04   0,18   0,13   0,27   0,33   -0,7          -0,1    0,5     1
                                 -             -
b5       0,24   0,01   0,12   0,35   -0,7   0,19   0,14   0,39   0,43                        -0,5   -0,5   -0,5     1
                   -      -      -                    -             -
b6       0,02   0,38   0,31   0,11   -0,2   0,14   0,16   0,46   0,12   0,18    0,5   0,76   0,45   0,68   0,07   -0,2      1
            -             -                    -             -      -                                                       -
c1       0,22   0,08   0,25   0,08   -0,7   0,13   0,23   0,23   0,72                        -0,1   0,58   -0,5   0,54   0,11     1
            -                                         -
c2       0,36   0,03   0,18   -0,4   0,48    0,1   0,16   0,02   -0,2     0    -0,5          -0,1   0,32   0,34   -0,3   0,11   -0,3         1
            -      -      -                    -                    -                                                              -
c3       0,08   0,17   0,12   0,14   -0,3   0,02   -0,2     0    0,16     0    -0,4   0,41   -0,2   -0,1   0,22   -0,2   0,08   0,15    -0,6       1
                   -      -
c4       0,26   0,11   0,19   -0,1   -0,2   0,27   0,19   0,31   0,42   0,46   0,94   0,87   0,15    0,7   -0,2   0,11   0,13   0,49         0   -0,3     1
            -      -
c5       0,26   0,24   0,03   -0,1   -0,8   0,43    0,5   0,25   0,39   -0,9                   0           -0,4   0,54    0,3                      0    -0,3     1
            -      -             -
c6       0,33   0,01      0   0,48   -0,2   0,24   0,25   0,42   0,06    0,7   0,65   0,87   0,14   0,56   -0,2   0,12    0,4           -0,5     0,14   0,41    0,5     1
                   -      -                    -      -             -
c7       0,77   0,42   0,35   0,25   -0,6   0,18   0,04   0,44   0,17   0,74          0,87   0,63   0,64   0,56   -0,6   0,69           -0,4     0,56   0,33   -0,9   -0,1     1
                                                      -                                                                            -
d1       0,14   0,15   0,15   0,15   0,21   0,24   0,05   0,01     0      0    0,26   0,22     0    -0,5   0,04   -0,1   0,21   0,22    -0,2     -0,1   -0,2   0,95   -0,2   0,06     1
                                 -                           -                                                              -
d2          0   0,87   0,57   0,06   -0,7   0,36     1    0,59   0,15   -0,5                 -0,6          -0,7     1    0,57   0,71             -0,5   0,26   0,87     1    -0,9   0,24     1
            -      -      -      -                                  -                                                                                                                  -
d3       0,01   0,19   0,04   0,13   -0,2   0,07   0,19   0,06   0,04   0,39     0    0,15   0,41   0,76    0,3   -0,3    0,3   0,04    0,17      0,1   0,18   -0,5   -0,1   0,69   0,48   -0,6     1
                          -                           -
d4       0,31   0,28   0,14   -0,2   -0,5   0,11   0,25   0,87   -0,5   0,87     1             1    0,71   0,87          0,54     0     -0,2     0,11   0,62          0,95                        0,16    1



                                                                                                                                       53
       According to table 5 there is a connection between age and hand bones casualty
   Age and neck casualties.
   There is a connection referring significantly between weight and knee joint casualties.
   Weight and the casualties of the upper limb bones.
   There is a connection between the height and shoulder joint casualties.
   There is a connection between the wrist joint casualty and ankle joint casualty.
   There is a connection between the knee joint casualty and the hand ligaments casualties.
   There is a connection between the ankle joint casualty and the hand ligaments casualty.
   There is a connection between the hand bones casualty and neck muscles casualty.
   There is a connection between hand bones casualty and neck ligament casualty.
   There is a connection between the thigh bones casualty and the knee Ligament.




                                                                                              54
    Table 6 correlation table of variables injuries (Czech students)
         Age    weight   height   years    a1     a2     a3     a4     a5     a6     a7     b1     b2     b3     b4     b5     b6     c1     c2     c3     c4     c5     c6     c7     d1     d2     d3    d4   d5
  age      1
weight   0,15       1
            -
height            0,61       1
         0,19
            -
 years           -0,11     0,14      1
         0,06
   a1    0,12    -0,12    -0,07   -0,24     1
            -
   a2            -0,04    -0,12   -0,31   0,14     1
         0,15
                                                    -
   a3    0,18     0,09     0,15    0,09   0,15            1
                                                 0,04
            -                                              -
   a4            -0,38    -0,14   -0,02   0,16   0,09            1
         0,32                                           0,38
            -
   a5            -0,14     0,06   -0,12   0,28     0    0,25   0,29     1
         0,04
                                             -      -                    -
   a7    0,15     0,02     0,06    0,17                 0,15    0,1          -0,1     1
                                          0,22   0,13                 0,13
            -                                -             -      -
   b1            -0,12      0,2    0,13          0,03                 -0,1   0,35     0      1
         0,15                             0,16          0,08   0,04
                                                    -
   b2    0,12     0,13     0,13    0,11   0,02          0,05   -0,3    0,1   -0,1   -0,1   -0,1     1
                                                 0,02
            -                                -      -      -      -      -
   b3            -0,18    -0,14   -0,06                                      0,29   -0,1   -0,1   -0,1     1
         0,08                             0,11   0,02   0,11   0,11   0,17
                                                    -                                                       -
   b4    0,21     0,03     0,03    0,27   0,06          0,07   0,27   0,01   0,08   0,04   0,02   -0,2            1
                                                 0,09                                                    0,28
            -                                              -                                                -
   b5            -0,04    -0,09   -0,14   0,27   0,06          0,26   0,35   0,01   -0,1   -0,1    0,1            0      1
         0,05                                           0,13                                             0,03
            -                                                     -
   b6             0,08     0,17    0,08   0,16   0,27   0,24          0,33    0,1   0,08   -0,1   0,43   0,16   -0,1    0,2     1
         0,05                                                  0,14
            -                                -      -      -      -                                         -                    -
   c1            -0,13     0,02    0,13                               0,02   -0,1   -0,1   -0,1   0,12          -0,1   -0,1            1
         0,04                             0,03   0,04   0,02   0,04                                      0,14                 0,38
            -                                -                    -
   c2             0,15     0,34   -0,01          0,12   0,33          0,26   0,04   -0,1   -0,1   0,03   0,01   -0,2   -0,1   0,01   0,29     1
         0,25                             0,09                 0,02
                                             -      -      -             -                                  -                    -      -      -
   c3     0,1     -0,1    -0,22    0,06                        0,08          -0,2   0,28   0,13     0           0,07   0,03                          1
                                          0,05   0,02   0,21          0,31                               0,33                 0,23   0,13   0,34
                                             -             -             -                                  -                    -             -
   c4    0,27    -0,18     -0,3    0,16          0,02          0,03          -0,2   0,17   0,01    0,2            0    0,11          0,02           0,3     1
                                          0,03          0,22          0,17                               0,18                 0,18          0,26
                                                    -                                                       -                           -      -
   c5      0     -0,02     0,05    0,21   -0,1          0,12   0,16   0,04     0    0,44   -0,1   0,12          -0,1   -0,1    0,2                 0,13     0      1
                                                 0,17                                                    0,04                        0,04   0,02
            -                                       -                    -                                  -
   c6             0,01      0,2    0,25   0,14          0,12     0           -0,2   -0,1   -0,1   0,38          0,28     0    0,02   0,19   0,03   0,02   0,08   -0,1     1
         0,02                                    0,04                 0,03                               0,02
                                             -                    -      -                                                                     -
   c7    0,08     0,06     0,16    0,15          0,13   0,26                 0,26   0,16   0,25   0,02   0,05   -0,1   -0,1   0,28   0,05          -0,2   -0,2   0,09   -0,1     1
                                          0,05                 0,35   0,09                                                                  0,03
            -                                              -                                                -                                  -                                  -
   d1            -0,12    -0,08   -0,19   0,38   0,33          0,17   0,06   0,15   -0,3   0,22     0             0    0,23    0,1   -0,1          0,07   0,08   -0,1   -0,1            1
         0,14                                           0,16                                             0,03                               0,02                               0,05
            -                                              -                                                                     -      -      -                                  -
   d2            -0,12     -0,1    0,09   0,13   0,14          0,13   -0,1   -0,1   0,02   0,15   0,09   -0,1   0,13   0,25                        0,18   0,37   -0,2   0,08          0,29     1
         0,01                                           0,16                                                                  0,02   0,02   0,02                               0,23
            -                                -             -                                                -                    -             -                                  -
   d3             -0,4     -0,2    0,03          0,05          0,37   0,22   -0,1   -0,2   -0,1   0,04          0,04   0,34          0,19          0,18   -0,1   0,09   0,16          0,03   -0,2     1
         0,17                             0,04          0,29                                             0,01                 0,05          0,01                               0,12
            -                                -      -             -                                         -                                         -                                                -
   d4             0,33     0,33    0,23                 0,35          -0,1   -0,2   0,23   -0,1     0           0,06   -0,2   0,03   0,07   0,08          -0,1     0    -0,1   0,26   -0,3   -0,2           1
         0,03                             0,28   0,21          0,23                                      0,22                                      0,18                                             0,51




                                                                                                                              55
   The data taken from the connection range show high connections of the Libyan sample
    variables.
    In the following lines the most important connections:
   Significant connections between age and knee joint casualties.
   Significant connection between weight and knee casualties.
   Significant connections between height and casualties of the upper limbs muscles.
   Significant connections between height and hand ligaments casualties.
   Significant connection between the number of studying years and shoulder joint
    casualties.
   Significant connection between thigh joint casualties and the casualties of hand joint
    ligaments.
   Significant connection between shoulder joint casualties and shoulder ligament.
   Significant connection between wrist joint and the upper limbs muscles.
   Significant connections between knee joint casualties and knee ligaments casualties.
   Significant connection between foot joint casualties and foot bone casualties.
   Significant connections between foot joint casualties and the thigh muscle casualties.
   Significant connections between elbows joint casualties and the casualties of the upper
    limbs bones.
   Significant connections between elbow joint casualties and thigh muscle casualties.
   Significant connection between knee ligaments casualties and thigh muscle casualties.
   Significant connections between foot bones casualties and knee ligaments casualties.
   Significant connections between the casualties of the upper limbs muscles and vertebras
    casualties.
   Significant connection between hand muscles casualties and the casualties of the upper
    limbs muscles.
   Significant connections between the casualties of the upper limbs muscles and the thigh
    muscles.
   Significant connections between the shoulder ligament casualties and the casualties of the
    elbow joint ligaments.
   There are other connections between a number of variables and not clear and significant
    referring statistically.




                                                                                             56
       After becoming clear to the researcher , the distinction between research samplers in
casualties , its kind, its size and the connection between each other , the researcher wanted to
know the distinctions of the exposed to casualty according to the number of studying years in
the college which contains three groups: two years , three years and four years. The researcher
used the distinction analysis test (ANOVA) for knowing the variables on casualties according
to the studying time in the college.
                                             Table 7
               Table 7 ANOVA table of answers from questionnaire (injuries)
                       SS              SV                F                  p
      a1            0,021               1         0,055670           0,816139
      a2            0,895               2         1,060680           0,355756
      a3            0,408               2         0,699311           0,505114
      a4            1,606               2         0,843874           0,437554
      a5            2,230               2         1,158777           0,334067
      a6            0,000               1         0,000000           1,000000
      a7            0,000               0         0,000000
      b1            0,333               1         1,333333           0,312500
      b2            0,198               2         0,296994           0,745445
      b3            0,927               2         0,639498           0,552530
      b4            0,191               2         0,301392           0,741689
      b5            1,378               2         1,957895           0,183704
      c1            0,169               2         0,194570           0,825377
      c2            1,251               2         1,757212           0,208509
      c3            0,588               2         0,837112           0,440224
      c4            0,427               2         0,385392           0,683117
      c5            0,167               1         0,071429           0,802482
      c6            3,556               1         4,042735           0,069522
      c7            0,893               2         0,400831           0,681149
      d1            0,383                2        0,423681           0,657466
      d2            0,008                1        0,025090           0,878617
      d3            0,841                2        0,781153           0,464572
      d4            0,357                2        0,158730           0,858348
     aa1            0,184                2        0,145864           0,864665
     aa2            2,181                2        1,515880           0,230157
     aa3            1,713                2        1,382670           0,260925
     aa4            0,213                2        0,170136           0,844067
     aa5            2,904                2        2,891854           0,065396
     aa6            2,568                2        3,040093           0,057331
     bb1            0,080                2        0,082456           0,920985
     bb2            0,768                2        0,544509           0,583742
     bb3            0,506                2        0,370681           0,692264
     bb4            0,702                2        0,446274           0,642692
     bb5            2,657                2        1,941375           0,154843
     bb6            0,320                2        0,275458           0,760442


                                                                                            57
                      SS             SV                F                 p
      cc1            0,335            2            0,328042          0,721969
      cc2            1,028            2            0,964459          0,388605
      cc3            0,981            2            0,743582          0,480917
      cc4            0,217            2            0,136144          0,873060
      cc5            0,113            2            0,092169          0,912116
      cc6            0,136            2            0,108929          0,897020
      dd1            0,237            2            0,200640          0,818904
      dd2            3,389            2            2,735687          0,075183
      dd3            0,095            2            0,076345          0,926611
      dd4            1,061            2            0,774238          0,466845
      dd5            0,404            2            0,252340          0,778027
      dd6            0,480            2            0,413187          0,663918
      ee1            0,593            2            0,635672          0,534071
      ee2            0,895            2            0,663659          0,519722
      ee3            3,073            2            2,241904          0,117500
      ee4            0,324            2            0,257027          0,774428
      ee5            0,036            2            0,028868          0,971562
      ee6            0,024            2            0,020788          0,979436



       The data in the statistical table related to the (F) value and through ANOVA law F
values were not all significant, that means, there were no significant differences; refer
statistically, between the three groups in casualty size which is exposed to the members of the
research sample.


       Casualties as mentioned in a lot of studies follow any sportive or physical work and
increase in sports which have friction with others, where mentions all of (Steven J Fleck,
William J Kraewr 1997) that the evidences proved through years that casualties occurred as a
result of training followed by augmentation or shortening for muscles, and it often occurs
because of the relations between shortening trainings and jumping from high places or on not
suitable land or wrong falling. So these trainings should be preceded by primary trainings and
simple resistance before starting training (45).




                                                                                           58
  3.4.4. Discussion of results of Causes
       The answers of the injuries about the causes of sportive injuries in Physical Education
colleges in Libya and Czech.
The injury degree was distributed as follows:
One point for the targeted that hadn't had an injury.
Two points for the targeted who had suffered injuries sometimes.
Three points for the targeted who had suffered repeated injuries.
Thus we can explain the results of the sample answers from the Libyan and Czech samples.


                                           Table 8
                           Basic characteristics of our variables (causes)
                          Czech students          Libya students

                         Valid N Average Median Standard Deviation
                 c-a1      50     2,0200   20        ,84491
                 c-a2      50     1,8000   20        ,72843
                 c-a3      50     1,8000   20        ,78246
                 c-a4      50     1,8400   20        ,76559
                 c-a5      50     1,8400   20        ,88893
                 c-a6      50     1,6800 1,5000      ,76772
                 c-b1      50     2,2000   20        ,78246
                 c-b2      50       20     20        ,80812
                 c-b3      50     1,8200   20        ,77433
                 c-b4      50     1,7600   20        ,79693
                 c-b5      50     1,9600   20        ,83201
                 c-b6      50     1,8800   20        ,79898
                 c-c1      50     2,0400   20        ,80711
                 c-c2      50     2,2200   20        ,76372
                 c-c3      50     1,4800   10        ,61412
                 c-c4      50     1,6400   20        ,66271
                 c-c5      50     1,9000   20        ,81441
                 c-c6      50     1,4200   10        ,67279
                 c-d1      50     1,8800   20        ,74615
                 c-d2      50     1,7600   20        ,77090
                 c-d3      50     1,8400   20        ,68094
                 c-d4      50     1,9600   20        ,80711
                 c-d5      50     1,7400   20        ,77749
                 c-d6      50     1,9200   20        ,77828
                 c-e1      50     1,9600   20        ,72731
                 c-e2      50     1,7000   20        ,73540
                 c-e3      50     1,5800   10        ,70247
                 c-e4      50     1,8600   20        ,72871
                 c-e5      50     1,6000   20        ,63888
                 c-e6      50     1,6200 1,5000      ,69664


                                                                                           59
                     l-a1   50        2,3800     30          ,779586
                     l-a2   50        2,2000     20          ,857143
                     l-a3   50        1,9400     20          ,793082
                     l-a4   50        1,9200     20          ,778276
                     l-a5   50        1,9000     20          ,735402
                     l-a6   50        2,4600     30          ,676425
                     l-b1   50        2,3200     20          ,683329
                     l-b2   50        2,0400     20          ,832013
                     l-b3   50        2,2200     20          ,815413
                     l-b4   50        1,9200     20          ,876915
                     l-b5   50        2,0600     20          ,842978
                     l-b6   50        2,2600     20          ,750782
                     l-c1   50        2,4400     30          ,704504
                     l-c2   50        2,2800     20          ,729551
                     l-c3   50        1,6000     10          ,808122
                     l-c4   50        1,9200     20          ,876915
                     l-c5   50        2,0600     20          ,766918
                     l-c6   50        1,8200     20          ,774333
                     l-d1   50        2,2000     20          ,755929
                     l-d2   50        2,1000     20          ,814411
                     l-d3   50        2,1200     20          ,773014
                     l-d4   50        2,1200     20          ,824126
                     l-d5   50          20       20          ,880631
                     l-d6   50        2,3800     30          ,752953
                     l-e1   50        2,3000     20          ,677631
                     l-e2   50        1,7800     20          ,815413
                     l-e3   50        1,8800     20          ,848528
                     l-e4   50        2,0400     20          ,781417
                     l-e5   50        2,0200     20          ,769044
                     l-e6   50        1,9400     20          ,739829



First Axis: Causes connected with Education Process:
First Variable:
       The Czech sample recorded an average of (2.020) with a deviation of 0.844, whereas the
average for the Libyan sample was 2.380 with a deviation of 0.799 and it is concerned with the
load and two averages seem similar.


Second variable: Feeling tired without developing the programmed.
      The average for the Czech sample was 1.800 with a deviation of 0.729, whereas the
Libyan sample recorded an average of 2.200 and a deviation of 0.857 and the dalliance of the
average are clear.



                                                                                          60
The third variable: Warming Up- Work Start:
       The average for the Czech sample concerning this variable was 1.800 with a deviation
of 0.765 whereas the Libyan sample reached an average of 1.940 and a deviation of 0.793.


The Fourth Variable: Avoiding difficult movement's performance:
       The Czech sample answers about neglecting performing the difficult movement
concerning and to be the cause of injury, and it recorded an average of 1.840 whereas the
average for the Libyan sample was 1.920.
The Fifth Variable: does the number of students help in causing injury?
       The average for the Czech sample was 1.840, whereas the Libyan sample recorded an
average of 1.900.


The Sixth Variable: Tool and Equipment Satisfaction.
       The average for the Czech sample was 1.680, whereas the Libyan sample average was
2.460 with deviations of 0.767 and 0.676 respectively.


The Second Axis: Causes connected with Diagnosis and Rehabilitation:
The First Variable: Returning to training before recovery:
        The Czech sample average was 20.00 with a deviation of 0.782, whereas the Libyan
sample was 2.320 with a deviation of 0.683.


The second variable: absence specialty medical and rehabilitation:
        The Czech sample answers average was 20.00 with a deviation 0.808, whereas the
Libyan sample average was 2.040 with a deviation 0.832.


The Third Variable: Weakness and Diagnosis
       The Czech sample average of the answer was 1.820, whereas the Libyan sample average
was 2.220. The two averages indicated difference between the two researched samples in
response.
The fourth Variable: Neglecting First Aid at beginning of the injury:
       The average of the Czech sample was 0.760, whereas the Libyan average was 1.920 and
it is a difference in points.




                                                                                           61
 The Fifth Variable: Shortage of Curing Duration:
        The average of the Czech sample was 1.960 with a deviation of 0.822, whereas the
Libyan sample was 2.060 with a deviation of 0.842 which indicated the difference between the
two groups.
The Sixth Variable: Shortage of Medical Heal and Rehabilitation:
        The Czech average of answers was 1.880 with a deviation of 0.798, whereas the Libyan
sample answers average was 2.260 with a deviation of 0.750, which means an existence of
differences between the two groups


Third Axis: Causes related to students:
The First Variable: Injury phobia during performance lead to injury.
        The Czech sample answers average was 2.040, whereas, the Libyan sample was 2.440.


The Second Variable: Continuation of training in spite of the feeling of tired.
        The Czech sample average answers were 2.220, whereas the Libyan sample answers
average was 2.800.


The Third Variable: Fear of absence from training in spite of injury,
        Or tiredness, students continued in attending training and lectures, because of their fear
which causes injury due to fineness and the average for the Czech sample was 1.480, whereas
the Libyan was 1.600.


The Fourth Variable: Fat and over weight:
         The average of the Czech sample answers was 1.640, whereas the Libyan average was
  1.920.
The Fifth Variable: The average of the Czech sample answers
Was 1.900, whereas the Libyan average was 2.060 which mean there is a difference between
the two groups.
The Fourth Axis: Reasons Related to Physical side and Training:
The First Variable: Undervaluing Physical Fitness:
        The Czech sample answers average was 1.880 with a deviation of 0.746, whereas the
Libyan sample average was 2.200 with a deviation of 0.755 which means the lack of concern
was bigger in the Libyan sample than the Czech sample which extends in increasing the
injuries in it.


                                                                                               62
The Second Variable: No follow up of coach to the physical and psychological factors:
      The Czech sample answers average was1.760, whereas the Libyan sample answers
average was 2.100 which is an obvious difference indicates to the no following up was bigger
in the Libyan group.


The Third Variable: Validity of the playground:
       The Czech sample answer average was 1.840 and the Libyan sample answer average
was 2.120 which indicate a difference between the two groups due to the one validity of the
playground and its affect on sportive injuries.


The Fourth Variable: Misuse of tools and Equipments.
       Misuse of tools, equipments and sportive necessities has an effect on some injuries, so
in the Czech sample answers the average was 1.960 and the Libyan sample average was 2.120
which indicate a difference between the two groups.


The Fifth Variable: Variable food factor and the unsuitable diet.
      The average for the Czech sample was 1.740 and the average for the Libyan sample was
2.000, which shows the big difference between the two groups ion injuries caused by food
factor and the effect of food value in preventing injuries.


The Sixth Variable: Shortage of the break between training duration:
      None orderliness of training on scientific basis and applying load principles and load
leads to injuries , whereas the Czech sample answers average was 1.920 and the Libyan sample
average answers was 2.380 which means that the difference between the two groups as per the
two averages


The Fifth Axis: Causes Related to the Psychological and willingness preparing:
The First Variable: Do fear of Practicing the Skill leads to injury?
       The answers of the Czech sample group was 1.960, whereas the Libyan sample average
was 2.300 and the dragonets were 0.727, 0677. The difference is obvious.




                                                                                          63
The Second Variable: the injury of your colleague makes you slow down your desire to
practice the skill? And if get injured due to that reason?
         The answer average for the Czech sample was 1.700, whereas the Libyan sample was
1.780.


The Third Variable: concerned with, Do high self trust load to irony with injury?
         The average for the Czech sample answers was 1.580, whereas the Libyan sample
average was 1.880.


The Fourth Variable: Do depression and nervousness cause
Injury?
         The response for this variable for the Czech sample was at the average of 1.860 with a
deviation of 0.728, whereas for the Libyan sample it was 2.040 and a deviation rate of 0.781.


The Fifth variable: Do motion accuracy and coherence of depression and nervousness
lose lead to injury?
         The answers were at statistical averages of 1.600 for the Czech sample and 2.020 for the
Libyan sample. This shows that the Libyan students answers were mostly based on the third
field (yes) which is correspondent to the value of (30 three points.


The Sixth variable: Does your colleague's aggression in cases on injury lead to laughter?
         The average for the Czech sample was 1.620 and a deviation of 0.694, whereas the
Libyan sample recorded an average of 1.940 and a deviation rate of 0.739.Its worth mentioning
here that the answers for all the variables were taken from a sample of 50 fifty students in each
group.
         As the researcher has indicated from the analysis of the results, the differences between
the two groups, the reasons for injuries derived from the sample answers, the researcher carried
out an experiment to find out the differences in deciding injury reasons.




                                                                                              64
    Table 9 T test comparison variables between Czech and Libyan students (causes)
                  Average     Average     Rank       Rank
                                                              U value      Z       p
                   Czech       Libya     Czech      Libya
             a1     2,02        2,38    2232,000   2818,000    957,000   -2,020   ,043
             a2      1,8         2,2    219,000    286,000     915,000   -2,309   ,021
             a3      1,8        1,94    2403,500   2646,500   1128,500    -,838   ,402
             a4     1,84        1,92    2455,000   2595,000   118,000     -,483   ,629
             a5     1,84         1,9    2454,000   2596,000   1179,000    -,489   ,625
             a6     1,68        2,46    1877,500   3172,500    602,500   -4,464   ,000
             b1      2,2        2,32    2433,000   2617,000   1158,000    -,634   ,526
             b2      20         2,04    2491,000   2559,000   1216,000    -,234   ,815
             b3     1,82        2,22    2189,000   2861,000    914,000   -2,316   ,021
             b4     1,76        1,92    2405,000   2645,000   113,000     -,827   ,408
             b5     1,96        2,06    2443,000   2607,000   1168,000    -,565   ,572
             b6     1,88        2,26    22,500     2849,500    925,500   -2,237   ,025
             c1     2,04        2,44    2184,000   2866,000    909,000   -2,351   ,019
             c2     2,22        2,28    2476,000   2574,000   1201,000    -,338   ,736
             c3     1,48         1,6    2475,000   2575,000   12,000      -,345   ,730
             c4     1,64        1,92    2318,000   2732,000   1043,000   -1,427   ,154
             c5      1,9        2,06    2386,000   2664,000   1111,000    -,958   ,338
             c6     1,42        1,82    2162,000   2888,000    887,000   -2,502   ,012
             d1     1,88         2,2    224,000    281,000     965,000   -1,965   ,049
             d2     1,76         2,1    2239,000   2811,000    964,000   -1,972   ,049
             d3     1,84        2,12    2271,000   2779,000    996,000   -1,751   ,080
             d4     1,96        2,12    239,000    266,000    1115,000    -,931   ,352
             d5     1,74         20     2323,500   2726,500   1048,500   -1,389   ,165
             d6     1,92        2,38    2127,500   2922,500    852,500   -2,740   ,006
             e1     1,96         2,3    2211,000   2839,000    936,000   -2,165   ,030
             e2      1,7        1,78    2471,000   2579,000   1196,000    -,372   ,710
             e3     1,58        1,88    2289,500   276,500    1014,500   -1,623   ,104
             e4     1,86        2,04    2366,000   2684,000   1091,000   -1,096   ,273
             e5      1,6        2,02    2152,000   2898,000    877,000   -2,571   ,010
             e6     1,62        1,94    223,000    282,000     955,000   -2,034   ,042



The First Aspect: Education
The First variable: Rising training degree:
      The T calculated value was 2.020 which have a spiritual statistical value in favor of the
Libyan group, and this means that rising training degree affects members of the Czech group
more than the Libyan group.


The Second variable: Injury as a result of tiredness.
      The calculated T value was 2.309 which has statistical indication in favor of the Libyan
group and hence means that the Libyan group suffers lack of fitness more than that of the Czech
group. And thus it is more exposed to tiredness during training and teaching.



                                                                                           65
 The Third Variable: Insufficient warming up.
         The T value indicates that there is no difference in statistical indications between the two
groups. The results were similar for the fourth and fifth variables, which were about skills and
students training. Though the two may form and provide good conditions for injury for the two
samples. Many studies have indicated and proved the importance of warming up programmes on
avoiding and preventing injuries (8)     The statistical T value was 4.464 in favor of the Libyan
group.


  The Sixth variable: Lack of facilities:
         Which means that there is lack of facilities exceeding that in the Czech group and hence
 increases the possibilities of injuries among the Libyan group.


 The Second Aspect
 The First variable: Resuming training before total or complete recovery:
         The statistical value for T was the same for the first variable and also for the second
 variable concerning rehabilitation for the two groups.


 The third variable: Specialist inadequate warming up.
          The statistical T value for this variable was 2.316 in favor of the Libyan group. This
 indicates the effect of this variable on the Libyan group more than the Czech group.


 The Fourth and Fifth variables:
          The statistical T values for these two variables were not in favor of any of the groups.
 The two variables were about First Aid and Treatment period.


 The Sixth variable:
          The statistical T value for this variable for the two groups was 2.237. This indicates the
 availability of differences between the two groups for the short period of psychotherapy
 treatment.




                                                                                                66
The third Aspect: Reasons connected with students:
The First Variable: (Fear)
      The statistical T value for the two groups was 2.351 in favor of the Libyan group which
means that the element of fear was the cause of some of the injuries among students and hence
Libyan group injuries were more than the Czech group.
       The statistical T values for the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th variables were the same. The above
variables were concerned with the questions of the continuation of training in spite of tiredness,
the fear and absence of training and teaching staff, putting on weight and the ignorance of the
past injuries.


Elements the Sixth variable: The role of depression and Nervousness on injuries:
      The statistical T value for this variable for the two samplers was at the average of 20502
in favor of the Libyan sample. This indicates that this variable is dominant in the Libyan
samples.


The Fourth Aspect: Performance (Physical Aspect)
The First Variable: Neglecting the development of the of physical fitness:
    The statistical T value average for the two samples was 1.965 in favor of the Libyan group.


The Second Variable:
      The statistical T value for this variable which was concerned with the lack of
psychological and physical follow up that lead to injury from the side of the trainer or the
teacher was 1.972. This indicates that there is a big difference between the two groups in
answering this question.
The statistical T values for the 3rd, 4th and 5th variables concerning the playground, misuse of
tools and appliances and inadequate food and warming up, were not in favor of any of the two
samples.




                                                                                             67
 The Sixth Variable: Absence of time breaks during training:
         The statistical T value for this variable was 2.740 in favor of the Libyan sample and
hence it suffers this variable more than the Czech sample.


The Fifth Aspect: Psychological and Training Readiness.
         The first variable which was concerned with fear was in favor of the Libyan group with
statistical T value of 2.165.


The statistical T values were not in favor of the two samples for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th variables,
which were concerned with (colleagues' injury, self confidence and depression) and this means
that there are similarities in the two samples for the above variables.
For the fifth variable which was concerned with the lose of physical fitness and motion in cases
of injury, the statistical T value was 2.571.
The physiological and readiness training helps the student and athletes to do their performance
(22).
        The last point which is related to the influence of the colleague's irony and its relationship
with the casualty. The value of T 2.034 between the averages of the two groups this shows the
influence of this element to decrease or reduce the movement of the student, so he is exposed
to casualty which results from feeling of unsuitable remarks from the colleagues.
To know the connective relationship between the research variables which are related to the
reasons which lead to casualties and the connections of the reasons among each other?
The Researcher used connective range and the results as full.




                                                                                                 68
     Table 10 correlation table of variables causes (Libyan students)
         age   weight   height   years    a1    a2    a3    a4    a5    a6    b1    b2    b3    b4    b5    b6    c1    c2    c3        c4    c5    c6    d1    d2    d3    d4    d5    d6    e1    e2    e3    e4    e5    e6
age       1
weight   ,11     1
height    0     ,40       1
years    ,35    ,22      -,12      1
a1        0     ,04      ,04       0      1
a2       -,1    ,08      ,19      ,05    ,24     1
          -
a3              -,15     -,22    -,17    ,050   ,17    1
         ,10
          -                                            -
a4              ,11      -,01    -,06    -,34   ,03          1
         ,10                                          ,20
                                                 -           -
a5       ,22    ,04      -,03    -,04    ,15          ,15         1
                                                ,20         ,09
                                                       -     -
a6        0     ,01      ,14      ,13    ,17    ,33               0      1
                                                      ,10   ,09
                                                             -           -
b1        0     ,08      ,05      ,03    ,10    ,05   ,22         ,08         1
                                                            ,01         ,19
          -                                                        -     -
b2              -,07     ,04     -,14    -,04   ,03   ,03    0                ,06   1
         ,20                                                      ,34   ,21
          -                                                        -     -
b3              ,13      -,06    -,06    -,06   ,17   ,13   ,01               -,1   ,23    1
         ,10                                                      ,18   ,18
                                                                         -           -
b4       ,08    -,05     -,11     ,07    -,07   ,06   ,04   ,06   ,12         ,1          ,53    1
                                                                        ,23         ,14
          -                                                  -           -
b5              ,09      ,09     -,05    ,19    ,10   ,15         ,14         ,23   ,17   ,27   ,42    1
         ,10                                                ,24         ,32
                                                 -           -     -     -           -
b6       ,20    ,19      -,07     ,13    -,30         ,02                     ,22         ,28   ,21   ,02   1
                                                ,20         ,03   ,02   ,17         ,03
          -                                            -     -     -     -
c1              ,18      -,03     ,04    ,08    ,09                           -,1   ,02   ,26   ,12   ,27   ,07   1
         ,20                                          ,10   ,22   ,03   ,03
          -                                                                                            -           -
c2              -,03     -,20    -,21    -,04   ,10   ,29   ,22   ,02   ,13   ,02   ,14   ,07   -,2         0            1
         ,10                                                                                          ,14         ,20
                                                                   -     -           -                 -                 -
c3       ,20    ,06      ,09     -,13    -,12    0    ,02   ,11               ,04         ,20   ,12         ,33   ,05          1
                                                                  ,09   ,24         ,13               ,17               ,06
                                                       -           -     -                                               -
c4       ,03    ,05      -,04     ,07    ,12    ,27         ,04               ,18   0     ,24   ,17   ,19   ,21   ,19         ,09        1
                                                      ,10         ,02   ,02                                             ,33
          -                                            -     -           -                                   -           -     -
c5              ,16      ,09     -,01    -,12   ,11               0           ,07   ,37   ,34   ,32   ,40         ,18                   ,35    1
         ,10                                          ,10   ,07         ,19                                 ,10         ,18   ,33
                                                             -     -     -                                               -                     -
c6        0     -,16     ,10     -,06    ,08    ,04   ,13                     ,03   ,19   ,10   ,06   ,10   ,12   ,02         ,26       ,11          1
                                                            ,21   ,05   ,26                                             ,31                   ,04
          -                                            -     -     -     -                                   -           -     -
d1              -,11     -,23     ,10    ,19    ,15                           ,01   ,16   ,35   ,35   ,18         ,27                   ,14   ,14   ,32    1
         ,20                                          ,10   ,01   ,15   ,10                                 ,10         ,11   ,04
                                                       -           -     -                                               -     -
d2        0     ,08      -,10     ,32    -,09   ,18         ,01               -,1   ,05   ,33   ,32   ,11   ,14   ,24                   ,31   ,39   ,13   ,55   1
                                                      ,20         ,15   ,21                                             ,17   ,07
                                                 -     -                 -                                               -
d3       ,04    ,07      ,03      ,05    -,19               ,15   ,03         0     ,01   ,16   ,30    0    ,10   ,11         ,12       ,28   ,28   ,07   ,08   ,27    1
                                                ,10   ,10               ,05                                             ,14
                                                 -     -                 -           -     -                             -
d4       ,22    ,28      ,36      ,12    ,15                ,10   ,16         ,34               ,27   ,13   ,20   0           ,14       ,16   ,19   ,09   ,15   ,22   ,24    1
                                                ,10   ,30               ,03         ,09   ,10                           ,30
                                                             -     -     -                       -     -           -     -     -         -
d5       ,15    -,07     ,17      ,08    ,09     0    ,06                     ,27   ,22    0                ,09                                0    ,29   ,13   ,31   ,07   ,16    1
                                                            ,24   ,15   ,02                     ,10   ,03         ,20   ,04   ,05       ,02
                                                       -                 -                                                     -
d6        0      0       ,17     -,09    -,18   ,15         ,16   ,05         ,14   ,28   ,22   ,18   ,15   ,18   ,13   ,01             ,34   ,27   ,17   ,26   ,32   ,29   ,22   ,19   1
                                                      ,10               ,16                                                   ,03
                                                                   -                                                     -                     -                       -
e1       ,12    ,24      ,11      ,09    ,09    ,17    0    ,14         ,02   0     ,04   ,17    0    ,09   ,18   ,32         ,03       ,18         ,08    0    ,20         ,14   ,06   ,14    1
                                                                  ,17                                                   ,12                   ,03                     ,10
                                                       -     -     -                                   -                 -     -
e2       ,01    ,13      ,07      ,13    -,01    0                      ,24   ,07   ,03    0     0          ,06   ,40                   ,10   ,04    0     0    ,21   ,22   ,11   ,03   ,16   ,29    1
                                                      ,10   ,16   ,07                                 ,08               ,09   ,03
                                                             -                             -                             -
e3       ,22    ,24      ,21      ,24    ,05    ,19   ,09         ,02   ,07   ,26   ,01          0    ,12   ,19   ,08         ,11       ,06   ,05   ,25   ,24   ,21   ,24   ,40   ,13   0     ,05   ,27   1
                                                            ,11                           ,10                           ,16
                                                       -           -           -                             -                 -                     -                       -                             -
e4       -,1    -,07     -,16     ,02    ,06    ,06         ,17         ,16         ,03   ,39   ,24    0          ,05   ,20             ,07   ,13         ,15   ,08   ,03          0    ,20   ,13   -,1          1
                                                      ,10         ,03         ,10                           ,20               ,32                   ,39                     ,20                           ,48
                                                                   -           -                             -     -                     -           -                 -           -     -                 -
e5       ,10    -,06     -,25    -,03    ,04     0    ,07   ,15         ,16         ,19   ,21    0     0                ,08   ,02             ,07         ,13   0            0                ,04   -,2         ,27    1
                                                                  ,14         ,20                           ,10   ,10                   ,03         ,13               ,10         ,10   ,20               ,21
                                                                   -                 -                 -                 -                     -
e6       ,15    ,12       0      -,01    ,02    ,13   ,06   ,09         ,01   ,03         ,32   ,30         ,31   ,07         ,30       ,19         ,18   ,27   ,32   ,12   ,38   ,06   ,34   ,21   ,11   ,09   ,07   ,04   1
                                                                  ,02               ,19               ,09               ,04                   ,01



                                                                                                                                   69
         There is static connective relationship between over – training and feeling tired during
         training.


        There is static connective relationship between over training and the useless playground.


        There is a static connective relationship between feeling tired and the carelessness to cure
         the previous casualties.


        There is static connective relationship between the reduction of warming up and not
         paying attention to difficult skills.


        There is a static relationship between the negligence of the difficult skills and the variable
         of fear.


        There is a static connective relationship between the lack of needs and not being able to
         recognize casualty.


        There is a static connective relationship between the absence of remedy and the re-
         qualification and not being able to diagnose.


        There is a static connective relationship between the absence of remedy and re-
         qualification and over weight.


        There is a static connective relationship between the absence of remedy and re-
         qualification with the misuse of tools.
.
        There is a static connective relationship between the bad diagnosis and the negligence of
         the First Aid when you have a casualty.




                                                                                                    70
   There is a static connective relationship between negligence of the first aid and the
    reduction of physical therapy.


   There is a static connective relationship between the weakness of the physical therapy
    and the negligence of the previous casualty.


   There is a static connective relationship between the elements of fear and the negligence
    of physical fitness and the incorrect use of tools.


   There is a static connective relationship between the elements of physical fitness which
    aren't developed and the variable which the teacher or the coach isn't following the
    physical or Psychological sides.


   There is a static connective relationship between the following of the coach for the
    Psychological and physical sides and the bad condition of playground.
   There is a static connective relationship between the bad conditions of playground and
    there is no time for comfort (rest) during training or teaching.


   .There is a static connective relationship between the variable of food and there is no
    comfort or rest during training.


   There is a connective relationship between the variable of fear and the casualty of
    colleague.


   There is a connective relationship between the variable of tension and the lost movement
    and fitness results from nervous stress.


   There is connective relationship between the reduction of movement and the variables of
    colleague's irony.




                                                                                              71
Table 11 correlation table of variables causes (Czech students)

         age   weight   height   years    a1    a2     a3      a4     a5    a6     a7     b1     b2     b3    b4     b5     b6          c1   c2     c3     c4     c5    c6    c7     d1     d2     d3    d4   d5
    age 1
 weight 0,15   1
  height -0,19 0,61     1
  years -0,06 -0,11     0,14     1
     a1 0,12   -0,12    -0,07    -0,24   1
     a2 -0,15 -0,04     -0,12    -0,31   0,14   1
     a3 0,18   0,09     0,15     0,09    0,15   -0,04 1
     a4 -0,32 -0,38     -0,14    -0,02   0,16   0,09   -0,38 1
     a5 -0,04 -0,14     0,06     -0,12   0,28   0      0,25   0,29   1
     a6 0,04   0,02     0,19     0,13    0,01   0,08   -0,06 0,02    -0,13 1
     a7 0,15   0,02     0,06     0,17    -0,22 -0,13 0,15     0,1    -0,13 -0,1    1
     b1 -0,15 -0,12     0,2      0,13    -0,16 0,03    -0,08 -0,04 -0,1     0,35 -0       1
     b2 0,12   0,13     0,13     0,11    0,02   -0,02 0,05    -0,3   0,1    -0,1   -0,1   -0,1   1
     b3 -0,08 -0,18     -0,14    -0,06   -0,11 -0,02 -0,11 -0,11 -0,17 0,29 -0,1          -0,1   -0,1   1
     b4 0,21   0,03     0,03     0,27    0,06   -0,09 0,07    0,27   0,01   0,08 0,04 0,02 -0,2         -0,28 1
     b5 -0,05 -0,04     -0,09    -0,14   0,27   0,06   -0,13 0,26    0,35   0,01 -0,1     -0,1   0,1    -0,03 -0     1
     b6 -0,05 0,08      0,17     0,08    0,16   0,27   0,24   -0,14 0,33    0,1    0,08 -0,1     0,43 0,16    -0,1   0,2    1
     c1 -0,04 -0,13     0,02     0,13    -0,03 -0,04 -0,02 -0,04 0,02       -0,1   -0,1   -0,1   0,12 -0,14 -0,1     -0,1   -0,38 1
     c2 -0,25 0,15      0,34     -0,01   -0,09 0,12    0,33   -0,02 0,26    0,04 -0,1     -0,1   0,03 0,01    -0,2   -0,1   0,01    0,29     1
     c3 0,1    -0,1     -0,22    0,06    -0,05 -0,02 -0,21 0,08      -0,31 -0,2    0,28 0,13 -0         -0,33 0,07 0,03 -0,23 -0,13 -0,34 1
     c4 0,27   -0,18    -0,3     0,16    -0,03 0,02    -0,22 0,03    -0,17 -0,2    0,17 0,01 0,2        -0,18 -0     0,11 -0,18 0,02         -0,26 0,3     1
     c5 0      -0,02    0,05     0,21    -0,1   -0,17 0,12    0,16   0,04   -0     0,44 -0,1     0,12 -0,04 -0,1     -0,1   0,2     -0,04 -0,02 0,13       -0     1
     c6 -0,02 0,01      0,2      0,25    0,14   -0,04 0,12    0      -0,03 -0,2    -0,1   -0,1   0,38 -0,02 0,28 -0         0,02    0,19     0,03   0,02   0,08 -0,1   1
     c7 0,08   0,06     0,16     0,15    -0,05 0,13    0,26   -0,35 -0,09 0,26 0,16 0,25 0,02 0,05            -0,1   -0,1   0,28    0,05     -0,03 -0,2    -0,2   0,09 -0,1   1
     d1 -0,14 -0,12     -0,08    -0,19   0,38   0,33   -0,16 0,17    0,06   0,15 -0,3     0,22 0        -0,03 -0     0,23 0,1       -0,1     -0,02 0,07    0,08 -0,1   -0,1   -0,05 1
     d2 -0,01 -0,12     -0,1     0,09    0,13   0,14   -0,16 0,13    -0,1   -0,1   0,02 0,15 0,09 -0,1        0,13 0,25 -0,02 -0,02 -0,02 0,18             0,37 -0,2   0,08 -0,23 0,29 1
     d3 -0,17 -0,4      -0,2     0,03    -0,04 0,05    -0,29 0,37    0,22   -0,1   -0,2   -0,1   0,04 -0,01 0,04 0,34 -0,05 0,19             -0,01 0,18    -0,1   0,09 0,16 -0,12 0,03 -0,2        1
     d4 -0,03 0,33      0,33     0,23    -0,28 -0,21 0,35     -0,23 -0,1    -0,2   0,23 -0,1     -0     -0,22 0,06 -0,2     0,03    0,07     0,08   -0,18 -0,1    -0   -0,1   0,26   -0,3   -0,2   -0,51 1
     d5 -0,04 0,17      0,24     0,17    -0,22 -0,3    0,31   -0,05 0,09    -0,1   -0     -0     0,13 -0,12 0,04 -0,1       -0,13 0,11       0,35   -0,27 -0,1    0,17 0,12 -0,12 -0,3      0,02 -0,2   0,23 1




                                                                                                                                   72
   There is a static connective relationship between the length and the misuse of tools.


   There is a static relationship between over training and the negligence of difficult skills.


   There is a static connective relationship between over training and the lack of physical
    therapy.


   There is a static connective relationship between the number of students and the absence
    of physical therapy for qualification.
   There is a static connective relationship between the bad diagnosis and the negligence of
    the first aid.
   There is a static connective relationship between the length and the misuse of tools.


   There is a static relationship between over training and the negligence of difficult skills.


   There is a static connective relationship between the negligence of first aid and the short
    period of remedy.


   There is a static connective relationship between the short period of remedy and the
    negligence of pervious casualty.


   There is a static connective relationship between the fear and the casualty of the
    colleague.


   There is a static connective relationship between the fear to be late in the lecture and the
    colleague's irony.


   There is a static connective relationship between over weight and the negligence of the
    previous casualty.


   There is a static connective relationship between the weight and the lack of rest (comfort)
    during the training.




                                                                                                   73
   There is a static connective relationship between the negligence of the previous casualty
    and the teacher or the coach's follow up for all the aspects of physical fitness and the
    psychological sides.


   There is a static connective relationship between the negligence of the development of
    the aspects of physical fitness and the negligence of the physical and psychological sides.


   There is a static connective relationship between the misuse of tools and self confidence
    which lead casualty.


   There is a static connective relationship between self confidence which leads to casualty
    and the high tension which leads to casualty when the programmed is carried out
    correctly, it decreases casualties and puts for their danger.




                                                                                             74
       "Jim H. Railey, Peggy Railey, Ts Chaunery 1993" he            says the main purpose of
organizing is the successful results and to make the correct thing is common. Simply we can
say that the success of the programme is to be effective (20).
  After we had known the differences between the two groups of research samples concerning
the kind of casualties which the sample is exposed to during the period of study in the College
of Physical Education, comparisons were set up concerning the reasons for casualties, we knew
the connections and the size among the different variables. The researchers should make
comparison of variables." The Topic of the Study" among the periods which the students spend
in the study which was between one year – two years and three years. To achievement that the
researcher used "ANOVA" among the three years to understand the size of differences through
getting the value of F. The table shows that.
                    Table 12 ANOVA table of answers from questionnaire (causes)
                                    Dear. of
                          SS                    SS error         F          p
                                    freedom
               a1       0,858571        2       15,32143     1,316876     0,277675
               a2       2,697857        2       22,98214     2,758648     0,073654
               a3       0,430714        2       25,08929     0,403431     0,670315
               a4       0,002143        2       28,01786     0,001797     0,998204
               a5       0,630000        2       14,25000     1,038947     0,361810
               a6       0,109286        2         5,91071    0,434502     0,650162
               a7       0,062857        2         1,85714    0,795385     0,457389
               b1       0,019444        2         0,95833    0,426087     0,655851
               b2       0,691429        2       14,92857     1,088421     0,345084
               b3       0,548571        2         9,07143    1,421102     0,251631
               b4        1,584184       2        10,08929    3,611378     0,034929
               b5       0,404762        2       11,59524     0,802875     0,454217
               b6       0,494237        2       16,60780     0,684464     0,509423
               c1       0,280714        2         9,33929    0,706348     0,498605
               c2       0,097857        2       15,98214     0,143888     0,866365
               c3       0,051429        2       22,42857     0,053885     0,947599
               c4       0,767857        2       25,73214     0,701249     0,501080
               c5       0,326429        2         7,05357    1,087544     0,345373
               c6       0,762857        2       10,85714     1,651184     0,202755
               c7       0,589286        2       13,91071     0,995507     0,377193
               d1       1,715714        2       25,96429     1,552875     0,222301
               d2       0,428571        2       24,07143     0,418398     0,660527
               d3       0,053571        2       23,94643     0,052573     0,948841
               d4       0,595000        2       10,12500     1,380988     0,261340
               d5       0,062857        2         1,85714    0,795385     0,457389
              aa1       2,872857        2       32,10714     2,102714     0,133467
              aa2       1,767857        2       24,23214     1,714444     0,191132
              aa3       0,303571        2       29,69643     0,240229     0,787408
              aa4       1,630714        2       27,08929     1,414647     0,253168
              aa5       1,291429        2       37,42857     0,810840     0,450605
              aa6       1,076429        2       27,80357     0,909814     0,409572
              bb1       0,482143        2       29,51786     0,383848     0,683351
              bb2       1,767857        2       30,23214     1,374188     0,263024
              bb3       2,647857        2       26,73214     2,327709     0,108662
              bb4        7,030714       2        24,08929    6,858725     0,002435
              bb5       0,527143        2       33,39286     0,370973     0,692065
              bb6       0,458571        2       30,82143     0,349641     0,706759
              cc1       0,259286        2       31,66071     0,192453     0,825580
              cc2       0,115714        2       28,46429     0,095533     0,909064
              cc3       0,015714        2       18,46429     0,020000     0,980207
                                                                                           75
              cc4      0,716429       2        20,80357      0,809288       0,451281
              cc5      1,535714       2        30,96429      1,165513       0,320609
              cc6      0,465714       2        21,71429      0,504013       0,607329
              dd1      0,726429       2        26,55357      0,642892       0,530330
              dd2      3,441429       2        25,67857      3,149458       0,052050
              dd3      0,630714       2        22,08929      0,670994       0,516028
              dd4      2,205714       2        29,71429      1,744423       0,185869
               d5      1,316429       2        28,30357      1,093009       0,343574
              dd6      0,322857       2        29,35714      0,258443       0,773343
              ee1      0,420000       2        25,50000      0,387059       0,681196
              ee2      0,160714       2        26,33929      0,143390       0,866794
              ee3      0,590714       2        23,58929      0,588478       0,559210
              ee4      1,234286       2        24,78571      1,170259       0,319163
              ee5      0,857143       2        19,14286      1,052239       0,357235
              ee6      2,065714       2        21,71429      2,235592       0,118179




        From the chart above we know the value of "F" was good. These shows static
differences among student of the some year, the two years and the three years except one value
where there is no big difference among the three groups and thesis the variable of knee
casualty?
       The value of "F" in the other variables was "3.643" it is a good static value Z".
This clarifies that all students suffer from different casualties but they differ according to the
number of the study years. The more the study years increase the more casualties increase. The
reasons were different.
       The value of "F" in all variables which are related to the reasons were not good except
the special reasons which was concerned with the negligence of the first aids which was in the
questionnaire for reasons under the symbol "b4). Although the study gave clear information
about casualties and their reasons for the students of the College Of Physical Education in
Libya and Czech. Because of the conditions which surround the programmed, the aim and type
of the activity differ according to the programmers, because the prepared for training and
teaching has a privacy which physical burden (volume, speed and capacity) controls (44).


     We notice that casualties are repeated. The casualties of joints in this efficiency are not
the same in the other efficiency. The muscles of leg are shown in football, but the muscles of
the shoulder are shown in handball. So the kind of efficiency (game) states and determines the
type of casualty. Among casualties which were repeated in the study (1).




                                                                                             76
    The practical programmed which distinguishes the study in the College of Physical
Education; the student is exposed during the study periods for casualties in different parts of
the body (45).
        The study shows the topic of research, the most important casualties which the student is
exposed to in the College of Physical Education in the Republic of Czech or The Great
Jamahiriya. It was clear that the most casualties among students are joint bones and muscles
casualties because of the pressure resulted from training and the physical burden. Hayat Aid
1977 says that all workers, teachers in the field of teaching and training should appreciate the
importance of sport casualties and their impact on the progress of sports and sportsmen (17).


         Casualties have connections with each other despite the damaged organs. The casualty
which the muscle is exposed to sometimes will be one of the reasons for the joint bone
casualties, so we should give comprehensive care for the sportsmen health and building the
physical fitness to the extent which we can reduce the casualty as possible or prevent it.
Mohammed Kamal Afifi, 1997 points out that a sports training has a positive relationship with
the sportsmen achievements and this is connected with the development of physical elements
(35).


         Football players are sometimes exposed to the casualty of knee cartilage and this leads
to prevent them from competition, Mr. Ahmed El Sabahy Awad Alla1998.The casualty of the
cartilage occurs to football players because of the strong bending in knee in the position of
Bending. This affects the parts surrounded the knee and causes the cartilage casualty (3).


         The sample size issue : it is obvious, that the sample size (50+50) was relatively small.
But, on other side, we must see that the recruitment of respondents becomes gradually one of
the biggest problems in research generally, and the bigger problem it was even for foreign
students. the main purpose of the dissertation was to show that the students is able to manage
the research work methodologically, and this aim can be accomplished with relatively small
sample. There is still possibility to continue with the research in future, and actually the author
of dissertation plans to do that.




                                                                                              77
4. Conclusions and Recommendations
4.1 Conclusions
1. There are statistical differences between the Czech and Libyan students in height- weight
and age.


2. Similarity in injuries suffered by students in both countries during their period of study with
differences in the extent of injury and organ.


3. Joint injuries contribute the highest percentage for the two samples.


4. Shoulder and knee joint injuries are the most common among Czech samples whereas elbow
and foot joint injuries are the most common among the Libyan samples.


5. Common bone injuries among the Czech sample and the leg bones, whereas the arm bone
Injuries are the commonest among the Libyan sample.


6. Among the Libyan sample, chest, back and neck muscles injuries are the most while the
Leg muscles injury is the most common among the Czech sample.


7.Shoulder and knee joint are the most common injuries among the Czech Sample where As
hand joints is the most suffered injury among the Libyan Sample. But elbow joint Injury is
almost similar in both samples.


8. Weaknesses in the diagnosis of injuries to the students imposed and the lack of equal
      Opportunities for physiotherapy students Czech biography which obstruct students
school.


 9.The fear of injuries and tensile strength are important factors in the occurrence of injuries to
the Libyan sample percentages of the Czech sample which limit the abilities of the student
actors and skills kind of risk.


10.Shortcomigs in the preparation than physical constraints of physical preparation for Czech
students because of he budget in the development of all the elements of physical fitness and
weak role of the teacher and neglect of the breaks during training.


                                                                                              78
4.2 Recommendations

1. Selling a standard for the admission of students in physical education colleges which
enables them to carry out various activities.


2. Providing first aid and therapy treatment within the college building for the urgent treatment
of injuries.


3. Periodical version of the physical training programmed so as to avoid past failures.


4. Preparation of the play grounds and sports sites to enable the easy implementation of the
programmers set for.


5. Setting teaching and training programmers on scientific bases and that should fit student's
capabilities and readiness.


6. Encourage injured students and make them participate in teaching and training programme


7. Providing good standard facilities and tools to grantee student's safety and good performance


8. Spread of health culture and training to prevent some simple injuries.( audio and visual aids)


9. Training students to the use of first aid facilities so as to use when necessary.


10. Giving importance and care for the psychological and administration side in forming
student's personality and the development of their abilities so as to dead with serious situation
which may happen during the implementation of the programme.




                                                                                             79
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/cgi /content Full 2005 pp 1-3
52. Physical education:http://www.answers.com 2004
53.Pay attention to high school sport injuries, American Academy of
orthopedic surgeons, http://www.orthoin of aaos.org 2005
54.Physical Activity Epidemiology: http://www.aje.exford journals of sports
activity org 2004 pp 4
55. Physical activity and injuries:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.2005 pp 1-2
56. Physical activity and injury: http://www.fitness for life.org/student/2004
pp 2-5

                                                                             83
List of publications of Author
1. Abdulkarim B: The occurrence of sport injuries among female students of exercises and
gymnastics at the faculty of physical education , proceeding of articles and abstracts of
international conference 10-11 November 2005 in Brno. Faculty of sports Studies.ISBN 80 -
210-3863-2 P24


2. Abdulkarim B: The relationship of some aspects of attentiveness with the accuracy of the
throw in basketball faculty of physical education, Proceeding of articles and abstracts of
international conference 10-11 November 2006 in Brno. Faculty of Sports Studies.ISBN: 80
210 -4145-5 P 22




                                                                                       84
Appendixes




             85
Appendix
1. Questionnaire of injuries
Information

Name _____________________ Age ___________ Weight _____________

Class ______________ Years of study _________________

Social Status:       Married:          Single:

2 – its hope to specify, the injuries number that you contracted
during the period of study in the faculty, as per the following injuries
and notify in the column reserved for parts suffered, how many times
it is occurred, in the following tables:


    Part suffered                                 Number of Injuries
      (Joints)                 1         2          3         4        more
   Thigh Joints
  Shoulder Joints
   Wrist Joints
    Knee Joints
   Ankle Joints
   Elbow Joints
  Spine=vertebra
      joints



                                                  Number of Injuries
       (Bones)                 1         2          3         4         more
  Upper arm bones
    Hand Bones
    Thigh Bones
     Leg bones
     Foot bones




                                                                               86
                             Number of Injuries
    (Muscles)        1   2     3         4        more
  Hand Muscles
 Forearm hummers
  Thigh Muscles
   Leg Muscles
  Chest Muscles
  Bach Muscles
   Neck Muscle



                             Number of Injuries
   (Ligaments)       1   2     3         4        more
Shoulder Ligaments
 Elbow Ligaments
 Knee Ligaments
 Hand Ligaments


                             Number of Injuries
     (Others)        1   2     3         4        more




Comments:




                                                         87
2. Questionnaire of causes
               Questionnaire form for common injuries and cause
 S/N                              Theme                                                   Yes     To     No
                                                                                                 some
                                                                                                extent
  *                      Causes connected with education process
  1                     Increase in exercise load during daily program
  2           Fatigue in psychical exercise without graduation in performance
  3       In attention to special body heating (in quality and quantity), duration or
                                            connect.
  4                     In attention to proper support in difficult skills.
  5    Excessive student number plus confined space for practical courses application.
  6              Shortage of tools and equipments used in practical courses

                         Causes connected with diagnosis and
                                     rehabilitation:
  1                         Return to activity before recovery.
  2                  Absence of specialized treatment and habilitation.
  3                          Inaccuracy of injury diagnosis.
  4                          Ignorance of first aid methods.
  5                              Short treatment duration
  6                  Lack of Medicare-habilitation (physical therapy)
                                  during convalescence

                                  Student related causes
  1      Fear from recommence during performance that has led to original injury.
  2                        Continued exercise in spite of fatigue.
  3                                Fear to loose audience.
  4                                Overweight (obesity).
  5                           Non-care to the previous injury.
  6            Stress and anxiety accompanying the practice of final exercise

                   Reasons related to physical side and performance
                                        of exercise
  1                  Non-care to development off all physical fitness
                            Elements but to someone of them.
  2                Non following and observing by coach of not to let
                            Practice to psychologically injure.
  3                               Non-suitability of the field ground such as non-flat.
  4                 Improper use of sport tools as per relevant activity.
  5                  Improper selection of diet as per relevant activity
  6                 Lack of sufficient rest and relax between exercises
                        Causes related to psychological condition
  1               Do fears from performing skills expose you to injury?
  2                 Does injury to colleague force you to abstain from
                                 Performing same skills?
  3                 Do yourself confidence lead you to neglect injury?
  4               Are tense completions during lectures and activities be
                                     Causes to injury.
  5             Do you loose motor accuracies and conditions with tension?
  6              Are your colleague, coaches and also opponents causes
                                         For injury.
                                                                                                 88
89
90
91
                                            ‫استبيان حول اإلصابات الشائعة واألسباب‬
‫ال‬   ‫إلى حد ها‬   ‫ىؼن‬                        ‫الهوضوع‬                            ‫ر.ث.‬

                                            ‫األسباب المرتبطة بعملية التربية‬
                               ‫اهزيادت في حيل اهحيريً خالل اهةرٌايج اهيويي‬      ‫1‬
                            ‫اهحؽب في اهحيريً اهةدٌي يً دوً حدرج في األداء‬       ‫2‬
                                ‫إهيال اهحسخيً اهخاص هوجسى (يً حيخ اهنى‬          ‫3‬
                                                ‫واهجودت)، اهيدت أو اهيححوى‬
                                    ‫إهيال دؼى اهخاص في اهيهاراج اهصؽةث‬          ‫4‬
                            ‫ؼدد يفرظ هوظوةث يػ حيز طيق هحظةيق اهدوراج‬           ‫5‬
                                                                  ‫اهييداٌيث.‬
                              ‫ٌلص األدواج واهيؽداج اهيسحؽيوث في اهدوراج‬         ‫6‬
                                                                  ‫اهييداٌيث.‬

                              ‫األسثاب المرتثطح تالتشخيص وإعادج التأهيل‬
                                                                                ‫1‬
                                        ‫اٌزجىع إًٌ إٌشاط لثً االطرزجاع‬
                                                                                ‫2‬
                                     ‫غُاب اٌّعاٌجح وإعادج اٌرأهًُ اٌخاص‬
                                                                                ‫3‬
                                                 ‫عذَ دلح تشخُض اإلطاتح‬
                                                                                ‫4‬
                                 ‫اٌجهً تخظىص طزق اإلطعافاخ األوٌُح‬
                                                                                ‫5‬
                                                         ‫ِذج عالج لظُزج‬
                                                                                ‫6‬
                       ‫ٔمض إعادج اٌرأهًُ اٌطثٍ (اٌعالج اٌثذٍٔ) خالي فرزج‬
                                                                   ‫إٌماهح‬

                                                 ‫األسثاب المتعلقح تالطالة‬
                                                                                ‫1‬
                       ‫اٌخىف ِٓ إعادج اإلطاتح خالي األداء اٌذٌ أدي إًٌ‬
                                                   ‫ولىع اإلطاتح األطٍُح‬
                                                                                ‫2‬
                                        ‫اطرّزار اٌرّزَٓ تاٌزغُ ِٓ اٌرعة‬
                                                                                ‫3‬
                                                ‫اٌخىف ِٓ ضُاع األٔظار‬
                                                                                ‫4‬
                                                 ‫اٌفزط فٍ اٌىسْ (اٌظّٕح)‬
                                                                                ‫5‬
                                               ‫عذَ اٌعٕاَح تاإلطاتح اٌظاتمح‬
                                                                                ‫6‬
                        ‫اإلجهاد واٌمٍك اٌّزافمُٓ ٌّّارطح اٌرّارَٓ إٌهائُح.‬
                                                                                ‫29‬
    ‫األسثاب المتعلقح تالاابة الثذب وددا التماين‬



                                                    ‫1‬
‫عذَ اٌعٕاَح ترطىَز وً عٕاطز اٌٍُالح اٌثذُٔح وٌىٓ‬
                               ‫تعٕظز واحذ ِٕهُ‬


                                                    ‫2‬
   ‫عذَ اتثاع وِزاعاج اٌّذرب ٌعذَ تزن اٌّّارطح‬
                                ‫ٌٍّظاب ٔفظُا‬
                                                    ‫3‬
     ‫عذَ ِالءِح أرضُح اٌُّذاْ ِثال غُز ِظرىَح‬
                                                    ‫4‬
‫اطرعّاي غُز طٍُُ ٌألدواخ اٌزَاضُح حظة إٌشاط‬
                                     ‫اٌخاص‬
                                                    ‫5‬
  ‫اخرُار طٍُُ ٌٍحُّح اٌغذائُح حظة إٌشاط اٌخاص‬
                                                    ‫6‬
     ‫ٔمض اٌزاحح واالطرزخاء اٌىافٍ تُٓ اٌرّارَٓ‬

                ‫األسثاب المتعلقح تالحالح النفسيح‬
                                                    ‫1‬
    ‫هً تخاف ِٓ أداء اٌّهاراخ َعزضه ٌإلطاتح‬
                                                    ‫2‬
‫هً اإلطاتح اٌالحمح تاٌشًُِ تجعٍه تحجُ عٓ أداء‬
                                   ‫ٔفض اٌّهارج‬
                                                    ‫3‬
      ‫هً اٌثمح اٌذاتُح تؤدٌ ته إًٌ إهّاي اإلطاتح‬
                                                    ‫4‬
‫هً االطرىّاي اٌّرىتز خالي اٌذروص واألٔشطح هٍ‬
                              ‫أطثاب ٌإلطاتح‬
                                                    ‫5‬
          ‫هً تفمذ اٌذلح واٌحاٌح اٌحزوُح ِع اٌرىتز‬
                                                    ‫6‬
    ‫هً سٍُِه، ِذرتىن وأَضا اٌّعارضُٓ أطثاب‬
                                   ‫ٌإلطاتح.‬




                                                    ‫39‬
                             ‫اسجهارة اسجبياو اإلصاباث الرياضيت‬

                                                                                   ‫1 -الهؼموهاث .‬
                         ‫االسى .............. اهؽير ...................اهوزً............ اهظول ........‬
                                  ‫اهسٌث اهدراسيث ................... ؼدد سٌواج اهدراسث ...............‬
    ‫2 -اهغرض هو ححديد ؼدد اإلصاةاج اهحي حؽرطج هها خالل فحرت اهدراسث ةاهنويث حسب اإلصاةاج‬
‫اهحاهيث وذنر ذهم في اهؽيود اهيخصص هألجزاء اهيؽرطث هإلصاةث , يا هو ؼدد يراج اهوكوغ , في‬
                                                                                ‫اهجداول اهحاهيث :‬
                                                                                                 ‫3 -‬


                                ‫ػدد هراث حدوح اإلصابت‬                                             ‫هوضغ اإلصابت‬
                                                                                                       ‫( الهفاصل )‬
      ‫أكخر‬           ‫4‬                 ‫3‬                  ‫2‬                 ‫1‬

                                                                                                       ‫هفصل الفخذ‬
                                                                                                   ‫هفصل الكجف‬
                                                                                                   ‫هفصل الرسغ‬
                                                                                                   ‫هفصل الركبت‬
                                                                                                   ‫هفصل الكاحل‬
                                                                                                  ‫هفصل الهرفق‬
                                                                                                           ‫الفلراث‬




                                ‫ػدد هراث حدوح اإلصابت‬                                             ‫هوضغ اإلصابت‬
                                                                                                         ‫( الؼظان )‬
      ‫أكخر‬           ‫4‬                  ‫3‬                 ‫2‬                 ‫1‬

                                                                                            ‫ػظان الؼضد والساػد‬
                                                                                                         ‫ػظان اليد‬
                                                                                                       ‫ػظان الفخذ‬
                                                                                                       ‫ػظان الساق‬
                                                                                                        ‫ػظان اللدن‬



                                                                                                 ‫49‬
           ‫ػدد هراث حدوح اإلصابت‬                     ‫هوضغ اإلصابت‬
                                                          ‫( الؼضالث)‬
‫أكخر‬   ‫4‬          ‫3‬                ‫2‬   ‫1‬

                                                          ‫ػضالث اليد‬
                                                ‫ػضمت الؼضد والساػد‬
                                                        ‫ػضمت الفخذ‬
                                                       ‫ػضمت الساق‬
                                                       ‫ػضمت الصدر‬
                                                       ‫ػضمت الظهر‬
                                                      ‫ػضالث الركبت‬




           ‫ػدد هراث حدوح اإلصابت‬                     ‫هوضغ اإلصابت‬
                                                           ‫( األربطت)‬
‫أكخر‬   ‫4‬         ‫3‬                 ‫2‬   ‫1‬

                                                       ‫أربطت الكجف‬
                                                      ‫أربطت الهرفق‬
                                                       ‫أربطت الركبت‬
                                                           ‫أربطت اليد‬
                                                   ‫أيت إصاباث أخري‬



                                           ‫أيث يالحعاج :-‬




                                                     ‫59‬

				
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