Large Animal Digestion by Zb0cdQt3

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									             Large Animal
             Digestion
               Worth County Middle School
                     Donald Gilman
               Georgia Agriculture Education Curriculum Office
                                 May, 2004




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             Introduction
                There are two types of digestion
                 systems in large animals (I.e.
                 Cows, Horses,Hogs)
                Ruminants and Nonruminants




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             Topics of Discussion
              Ruminants are multi compartment
             Animals.
             Their stomachs consist of four
               compartments.




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             Ruminants
                Consist of Cattle, Sheep and
                 Goats
                They are cud chewers
                They eat rapidly and through the
                 intake of fiber, they bring their meal
                 back up and chew it again.
                This process takes place 8 –10
                 times a day.

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             Ruminants
                Usually eat fibrous feeds like hay
                 and pasture
                Occasionally eat concentrates that
                 are low fiber and high energy like
                 grains and high protein foods




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             Parts of the System
                Mouth- entry
                Esophagus/gullet- tube like passage
                 from the mouth to the stomach
                Stomach- receives the food,adds
                 chemicals that helps in the process of
                 digestion
                Small intestine- long folded tube
                 attached to the bottom of the stomach;
                 aids further in the process of digestion
                Large intestine- Larger in diameter than
                 the S.I. but shorter in length. The end of
                 the L.I. is the rectum
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             Continued
                Anus- the point of the body where
                 undigested food (feces) leaves the
                 body.
                NOTE: the stomach of the
                 ruminant is primarily where most of
                 the digestion takes place.




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             The Ruminant Stomach
                Rumen- the largest
                 compartment;catches the solid foods.
                Reticulum-catches liquids and foreign
                 objects( wire and nails).
                Omasum-Strong muscle that grinds food
                 sent from the rumen
                Abomasum-this is the true
                 stomach;contains digestive(gastric)
                 juices and works the same as a
                 Nonruminant.

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             Continued
                Ruminants eat rapidly; the animal
                 then lays down and the food is
                 forced back into the mouth where it
                 is chewed again; this is known as
                 their cud.




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             Non Ruminants
                Horses and Hogs
                All parts are the same as the ruminant
                 EXCEPT the stomach.
                N.R. stomach is a single compartment -
                 Monogastric
                When food enters the stomach,gastric
                 juices stat to break down the food.
                Require a large amount of concentrates
                 in their diet (high protein grains)


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             Continued
                Gastric juices contain enzymes: Pepsin
                 and rennin
                Both enzymes work in conjunction with
                 the squeezing action of the stomach to
                 digest the food
                The small intestine helps to further digest
                 any food left
                The large intestine completes this
                 process by the process of absorption
                 and passes the fecal matter out to the
                 rectum.

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             Summary
                Digestion is the breaking down of feed
                 into simple substances that can be
                 absorbed into the blood stream.
                Ruminants need a lot of roughage
                Nonruminants need more concentrates .
                Most digested feed is absorbed in the
                 small intestine.
                Non absorbed food is passes from the
                 body.


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