The 2012 Summer Olympic Games by stariya


									The 2012 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad, are due to take place in
London, United Kingdom, from 27 July to 12 August 2012.[1] London will become the first city to officially host the
modern Olympic Games three times,[2][3] having previously done so in 1908 and in 1948.[4][5]

London was elected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating Moscow,
New York City, Madrid and Paris after four rounds of voting.[6] The successful bid was headed by former Olympic
champion Sebastian Coe.

The Olympics prompted a redevelopment of many of the areas of London in which the games are to be held –
particularly themed towards sustainability [7] – while the budgetary considerations have generated some

Developments since the 2005 bid

Main article: 2012 Summer Olympic development

The London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games was created to oversee the staging of the Games after
the success of the bid, and held their first board meeting on 7 October 2005. The committee, chaired by Lord Coe,
is in charge of implementing and staging the games, while the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) is in charge of the
construction of the venues and infrastructure.

The Government Olympic Executive (GOE), a unit within the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), is the
lead Government body for coordinating the London 2012 Olympics. The GOE reports through the DCMS Permanent
Secretary to the Minister for the Olympics, Paralympics and London, Tessa Jowell. It focuses on oversight of the
Games, cross-programme management and the 2012 legacy before and after the Games that will benefit London
and the UK.

Various aspects of the Games have developed since the time of the initial bid.

Venues and infrastructure

Main article: 2012 Summer Olympics venues

Wembley Stadium, the most expensive stadium ever built at the time,[23] will be a venue for football.
The O2 will be a venue for gymnastics and basketball.

The All England Club at Wimbledon will be a venue for tennis.

The 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games will use a mixture of new venues, existing and historic facilities, and
temporary facilities, some of them in well-known locations such as Hyde Park and Horse Guards Parade. In the
wake of the problems that plagued the Millennium Dome, the organisers' intention is that there will be no white
elephants after the Games and instead that a "2012 legacy" will be delivered. Some of the new facilities will be
reused in their Olympic form, while others, including the 80,000 seater main stadium, [24] will be reduced in size
and several will be relocated elsewhere in the UK. The plans are part of the regeneration of Stratford in east
London which will be the site of the Olympic Park, and of the neighbouring Lower Lea Valley.

This has required the compulsory purchase of some business properties, which are being demolished to make
way for Olympic venues and infrastructure improvements. This has caused some controversy, with some of the
affected proprietors claiming that the compensation offered is inadequate. In addition, concerns about the
development's potential impact on the future of the century-old Manor Garden Allotments have inspired a
community campaign, and the demolition of the Clays Lane housing estate was opposed by tenants.

The majority of venues have been divided into three zones within Greater London: the Olympic Zone, the River Zone
and the Central Zone. In addition to these are those venues that, by necessity, are outside the boundaries of
Greater London, such as the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy on the Isle of Portland in Dorset
(which will host the sailing events), Tring in Hertfordshire (which will host the start of the 50 km walk) and other
stadia across the UK.

Public transport
The London Underground will transport spectators to the Olympic venues.

Lord's Cricket Ground will be the venue for archery.

Public transport, an aspect of the bid which scored poorly in the IOC's initial evaluation, needs to see numerous
improvements, including the expansion of the London Overground's East London Line, upgrades to the Docklands
Light Railway and the North London Line, and the new "Javelin" high-speed rail service, using Hitachi 'bullet'

They also plan to have 80% of athletes travel less than 20 minutes to their event. The Park would be served by 10
separate railway lines with a combined capacity of 240,000 passengers per hour. Park and ride schemes also
feature amongst the many plans aimed at reducing traffic levels during the games.

Concerns have been expressed at the logistics of spectators travelling to the venues outside London. In
particular, the sailing events on Portland are in an area with no direct motorway connection, and with local roads
that are heavily congested by existing tourist traffic in the summer. There is also only limited scope for extra
services on the South Western Main Line beyond Southampton, without new infrastructure. Games organisers say
that having analysed past Games sailing events, they would expect fewer spectators than have attended recent
events such as the Carnival and Tall Ships Race, this despite Great Britain topping the sailing medal table at the
previous three Olympics.


The costs of mounting the Games are separate from those for building the venues and infrastructure, and
redeveloping the land for the Olympic Park. While the Games are privately funded, the venues and Park costs are
met largely by public money.

On 15 March 2007 Tessa Jowell announced to the House of Commons a budget of £5.3 billion to cover building the
venues and infrastructure for the Games, at the same time announcing the wider regeneration budget for the
Lower Lea Valley budget at £1.7 billion.
On top of this, she announced various other costs including an overall additional contingency fund of £2.7 billion,
security and policing costs of £600 million, VAT of £800 million and elite sport and Paralympic funding of nearly
£400 million. According to these figures, the total for the Games and the regeneration of the East London area, is
£9.345 billion. Then Mayor Ken Livingstone pledged the Games Organising Committee would make a profit. [25]

The costs for staging the Games (£2 billion) are funded from the private sector by a combination of sponsorship,
merchandising, ticketing and broadcast rights. This budget is raised and managed by the London 2012 Organising
Committee. According to Games organisers, the funding for this budget broadly breaks down as:

        63% from Central Government;
        23% from National Lottery
        13% from the Mayor of London and the London Development Agency

On 18 August 2007 The Belfast Telegraph reported that jubilation over winning the right to stage the Olympic
Games was becoming more muted as realisation dawns on the public of the enormous costs involved in creating
facilities for the athletes.[26] Grassroot sport cuts will fund the Olympics, government figures suggested on 19
August 2007.[27]

In November 2007, Edward Leigh MP, criticised the organisers for significantly under-estimating the cost of
staging the games, suggesting they had either "acted in bad faith or were incompetent". [28]

On 10 December 2007 Tessa Jowell announced confirmation of the budget announced earlier in 2007. In June
2007, the Ministerial Funders’ Group (established to manage the allocation of contingency to the ODA within the
overall budget) met and agreed a first allocation of contingency to the ODA, being £360m out of the £500m of
initial contingency announced in March, to enable the ODA to manage early cost pressures.

Following its second meeting on 26 November 2007, the Funders’ Group has now agreed a baseline budget and
scope proposed by the ODA. The total budgeted base cost to be met by the public sector funding package remains
at £6.090bn including tax and excluding general programme contingency as announced in March. This includes the
allocation to the ODA of the remaining £140m from the initial £500m contingency announced in March. [29]

There have, however, been concerns over how the Olympics are to be funded. In February 2008, a London
Assembly culture and sport committee report expressed concerns over the funding of the games taking away
money from London's sports and arts groups.[30] There have also been complaints that funding towards the
Olympics has been to the detriment of funding other areas of the UK. In Wales, there has been criticism from Plaid
Cymru about the games depriving Wales of money, by using UK-wide funding rather than English funding.[31] The
Wales on Sunday newspaper claimed former UK Prime Minister , Tony Blair broke his promise not to use National
Lottery funding for the Olympic games.[32][33]


To help fund the cost of the games the London Olympic organisers have agreed partnership deals with major
companies. "Tier One" partners already announced include Lloyds TSB, EDF Energy, BT, British Airways, BP and
Adidas."Tier Two" supporters already announced include Deloitte, Cadbury's, Adecco, Cisco and UPS.

Organisers estimate that some 7.7 million tickets would be available for the Olympic Games, and 1.5 million tickets
for the Paralympic Games. They will be going on sale in 2011, with at least 50% of these priced under £20. To
reduce traffic, ticketholders would be entitled to free use of London's public transportation network on the day of
the event.[34] It is estimated that 82% of available Olympic tickets and 63% of Paralympic tickets will be sold.
There will also be free events: for example, the marathon, triathlon and road cycling.

Scheduling issues

Some representatives of Muslim countries have complained that the 2012 Olympic Games will take place during
the month of Ramadan, which in 2012 occurs from 20 July to 19 August. During Ramadan, Muslims are to fast from
sunrise to sunset, which may put Muslim athletes at a disadvantage during the Games. Some Muslims have called
for the Olympics to be rescheduled outside this period.[35]


There have been two London 2012 logos: one for the bidding process created by Kino Design and a second as the
brand for the Games themselves. The latter, designed by Wolff Olins, was unveiled on 4 June 2007 and cost
£400,000.[36] This new logo is a representation of the number 2012, with the Olympic Rings embedded within the

This will be the first time that the same essential logo is to be used for both the Olympic and Paralympic

The standard colours are green, magenta, orange and blue; however the logo has incorporated a variety of
colours, including the Union Flag to promote the handover ceremony.[39] The flexibility of the logo has also enabled
sponsors to incorporate their corporate colours into a personalised version, such as Lloyds TSB,[40] British
Airways,[41] and Adidas.[42]

London 2012 has stated that the new logo is aimed at reaching young people. Sebastian Coe stated that it builds
upon everything that the organising committee has said "about reaching out and engaging young people, which is
where our challenge is over the next five years". One observer, a managing director of an advertising agency,
noted that the logo bore a strong resemblance to the logo for children's television programme Tiswas,
commenting that appealing to young people is difficult, and that they will see right through attempts to patronise

Early public reaction to the logo, as measured by a poll on the BBC website, was largely negative: more than 80%
of votes gave the logo the lowest possible rating.[44] Several newspapers have run their own logo competitions,
displaying alternative submissions from their readers. The Sun displayed a design by a macaque monkey.[45] It
was suggested that the logo resembles the cartoon character Lisa Simpson performing fellatio[46] and others
have complained that it looks like a distorted Swastika.[47]

The Paralympics logo (far left) and the different official colour combinations for the Wolff Olins main logo design.
A segment of animated footage released at the same time as the logo was reported to trigger seizures in a small
number of people with photosensitive epilepsy. The charity Epilepsy Action received telephone calls from people
who had had seizures after watching the sequence on TV. In response, a short segment was removed from the
London 2012 website.[48] Ken Livingstone, then London Mayor, said that the company who designed the film should
not be paid for what he called a "catastrophic mistake". [49]

A blogger at the BBC admitted that "London 2012's new logo has got the country talking [although] not in the
manner the organisers would have hoped".[50] One employee at a design firm described it as "well thought out"
and anticipated it would "become a source of pride for London and the Games." [51]

In October 2008, it was reported that clothing branded with the logo accounted for 20% of sales at Adidas'
flagship Oxford Street store, despite occupying just 5% of floor space. [52]

Handover ceremony

Main article: 2008 Summer Olympics closing ceremony

The handover ceremony marked the moment when the previous games in Beijing in 2008 handed over the Olympic
Flag to the new host city of London.[53] Mayor of London Boris Johnson received the flag from Mayor of Beijing Guo
Jinlong, on behalf of London. The handover ceremony featured the urban dance group ZooNation, the Royal Ballet
and Candoco, a disabled dance group, all dressed as typical London commuters waiting for a bus by a zebra
crossing. A double-decker bus drove around the stadium to music composed by Philip Sheppard eventually
stopping and transforming into a privet hedge featuring famous London landmarks such as Tower Bridge, The
Gherkin and the London Eye. Jimmy Page and Leona Lewis then performed the Led Zeppelin classic Whole Lotta
Love and David Beckham kicked a football into the crowd of athletes accompanied by violinist Elspeth Hanson and
cellist Kwesi Edman.[54]

For the London Games, the handover was also celebrated in a UK-wide series of events. The BBC broadcast "The
Visa London 2012 Party" on BBC One and Radio 2, the free concert on The Mall in central London had 40,000
tickets available.[55] In nations and regions around the UK there were live screens that showed the activities from
Beijing, the Closing Ceremony and then the concert itself. Local communities around the UK also hosted their own

See also: Category:2012 Summer Olympics events

The 2012 Summer Olympic programme features 26 sports and a total of 38 disciplines. The 2012 Paralympic
Games programme has 20 sports and 21 disciplines. London's bid featured 28 sports, in line with other recent
Summer Olympics, but the IOC voted to drop baseball and softball from the 2012 Games two days after it selected
London as the host city. The IOC reinforced its decision to drop both sports during the Turin Games after they lost
votes for reconsideration. They will remain Olympic sports, despite being scheduled for the last time at Beijing in
2008.[56] Following the decision to drop the two sports, the IOC held a vote on whether or not to replace them. The
sports considered were karate, squash, golf, roller sports and rugby sevens. Karate and squash were the two
final nominees, but neither received enough votes to reach the required two-thirds majority.[57] The IOC has given
the approval for the addition of golf and sevens rugby for the 2016 games. [58][59]

The International Olympic Committee executive board met on 13 August 2009 and approved the addition of
women's boxing to the programme. The International Boxing Federation has proposed that 40 athletes compete in
five different weight classes.[60]

Murad Qureshi, a member of the London Assembly, is pushing for a Twenty20 cricket showcase tournament to be
included in London.[61] Twenty20 cricket did originally bid for inclusion in 2012, but was not one of the finalist
sports.[62] Netball is being drafted as a possible demonstration sport at the 2012 games. This idea was backed by
Prime Minister Gordon Brown, suggesting that it would encourage more young girls into playing sport. [63] The IOC
eliminated demonstration sports following the 1992 Summer Olympics, [64] however, special tournaments have
been run for non-Olympic sports during the games, such as the Wushu tournament at the 2008 Summer
Olympics.[61] There has been speculation that the London Sevens tournament held at Twickenham as part of the
IRB Sevens World Series could be put back to coincide with the Olympics.[65]

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