Study Guide to Final 09 10

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					Chemistry Study Guide to Final Exam: 2009-2010

Matching

             Match each item with the correct statement below.
             a. molar volume
             b. molar mass
             c. atomic mass
____    1. the number of grams of an element that is numerically equal to the atomic mass of the element in amu
____    2. the mass of a mole of any element or compound
____    3. the volume occupied by a mole of any gas at STP

             Match each item with the correct statement below.
             a. representative particle                     d. percent composition
             b. mole                                        e. standard temperature and pressure
             c. Avogadro's number                           f. empirical formula
____    4.   the number of representative particles of a substance present in 1 mole of that substance
____    5.   an atom, an ion, or a molecule, depending upon the way a substance commonly exists
____    6.   the SI unit used to measure amount of substance
____    7.   0 C and 1 atm
____    8.   the percent by mass of each element in a compound
____    9.   the smallest whole number ratio of the atoms in a compound

             Match each item with the correct statement below.
             a. product                                     d. balanced equation
             b. reactant                                    e. skeleton equation
             c. chemical equation
____   10.   a chemical equation that does not indicate relative amounts of reactants and products
____   11.   a new substance formed in a chemical reaction
____   12.   a starting substance in a chemical reaction
____   13.   a concise representation of a chemical reaction
____   14.   an equation in which each side has the same number of atoms of each element

             Match each item with the correct statement below.
             a. activity series of metals                   c. combustion reaction
             b. single-replacement reaction                 d. decomposition reaction
____   15.   a reaction in which a single compound is broken down into simpler substances
____   16.   a reaction in which oxygen reacts with another substance, often producing heat or light
____   17.   a reaction in which the atoms of one element replace the atoms of a second element in a compound
____   18.   a list of metals in order of decreasing reactivity
             Match each item with the correct statement below.
             a. actual yield                                e.   limiting reagent
             b. percent yield                               f.   mass
             c. theoretical yield                           g.   number of molecules
             d. excess reagent                              h.   volume
____ 19. This quantity can always be used in the same way as moles when interpreting balanced chemical equations.
____ 20. This is conserved only in reactions where the temperature is constant and the number of moles of gaseous
         reactants is the same as that of gaseous products.
____ 21. This is conserved in every ordinary chemical reaction.
____ 22. the reactant that determines the amount of product that can be formed in a reaction
____ 23. the maximum amount of product that could be formed from given amounts of reactants
____ 24. the reactant that is not completely used up in a reaction
____ 25. the amount of product formed when a reaction is carried out in the laboratory
____ 26. the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield

             Match each item with the correct statement below.
             a. calorimeter                                 d. enthalpy
             b. calorie                                     e. specific heat
             c. joule                                       f. heat capacity
____   27.   quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 C
____   28.   SI unit of energy
____   29.   quantity of heat needed to change the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 C
____   30.   quantity of heat needed to change the temperature of an object by 1 C
____   31.   device used to measure the heat absorbed or released during a chemical or physical process
____   32.   heat content of a system at constant pressure

             Match each item with the correct statement below.
             a. heat of reaction                            d. heat of fusion
             b. heat of formation                           e. heat of solution
             c. Hess's law of heat summation
____   33.   the enthalpy change for a chemical reaction exactly as it is written
____   34.   the enthalpy change caused by dissolving a substance
____   35.   the energy required to melt a solid at its melting point
____   36.   the change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of a compound from its elements
____   37.   states that if you add two or more thermochemical equations to give a final equation, you can also add the
             heats of reaction to give the final heat of reaction


Chemical Quantities – Chapter 10

____ 38. How many hydrogen atoms are in 5 molecules of isopropyl alcohol, C H O?
         a. 5 (6.02 10 )                             c. 35
         b. 5                                        d. 35 (6.02 10 )
____ 39. Which of the following elements exists as a diatomic molecule?
         a. neon                                         c. nitrogen
         b. lithium                                      d. sulfur
____ 40. Avogadro's number of representative particles is equal to one ____.
         a. kilogram                                     c. kelvin
         b. gram                                         d. mole
____ 41. All of the following are equal to Avogadro's number EXCEPT ____.
         a. the number of atoms of bromine in 1 mol Br
         b. the number of atoms of gold in 1 mol Au
         c. the number of molecules of nitrogen in 1 mol N
         d. the number of molecules of carbon monoxide in 1 mol CO
____ 42. How many moles of tungsten atoms are in 4.8 10 atoms of tungsten?
         a. 8.0 10 moles                             c. 1.3 10 moles
         b. 8.0 10 moles                             d. 1.3 10 moles
         dd

____ 43. How many atoms are in 0.075 mol of titanium?
         a. 1.2 10-25                                 c. 6.4      10
         b. 2.2 10                                    d. 4.5      10
         Show work:




____ 44. How many molecules are in 2.10 mol CO ?
         a. 2.53 10 molecules                           c. 3.49   10   molecules
         b. 3.79 10 molecules                           d. 1.26   10   molecules
           Show work:




____ 45. The atomic masses of any two elements contain the same number of ____.
         a. atoms                                       c. ions
         b. grams                                       d. milliliters
____ 46. What is true about the molar mass of chlorine gas?
         a. The molar mass is 35.5 g.
         b. The molar mass is 71.0 g.
         c. The molar mass is equal to the mass of one mole of chlorine atoms.
         d. none of the above
____ 48. What is the molar mass of (NH ) CO ?
         a. 144 g                                       c. 96 g
         b. 138 g                                       d. 78 g
         Show work:




____ 49. What is the mass in grams of 5.90 mol C H ?
         a. 0.0512 g                                 c. 389 g
         b. 19.4 g                                   d. 673 g
         Show work:




____ 50. What is the number of moles in 432 g Ba(NO ) ?
         a. 0.237 mol                                c. 1.65 mol
         b. 0.605 mol                                d. 3.66 mol
         Show work:




____ 51. The volume of one mole of a substance is 22.4 L at STP for all ____.
         a. gases                                       c. solids
         b. liquids                                     d. compounds
____ 52. Which combination of temperature and pressure correctly describes standard temperature and pressure, STP?
         a. 0 C and 101 kPa                             c. 0 C and 22.4 kPa
         b. 1 C and 0 kPa                               d. 100 C and 100 kPa
____ 53. What is the volume, in liters, of 0.500 mol of C H gas at STP?
         a. 0.0335 L                                      c. 16.8 L
         b. 11.2 L                                        d. 22.4 L
____ 54. What is the percent composition of chromium in BaCrO ?
         a. 4.87%                                         c. 20.5%
         b. 9.47%                                         d. 25.2%
____ 55. Which of the following is NOT an empirical formula?
         a. C N H                                         c. BeCr O
         b. C H O                                         d. Sb S
____ 56. What is the empirical formula of a compound that is 40% sulfur and 60% oxygen by weight?
         a. SO                                         c. SO
         b. SO                                         d. S O


Chemical Reactions – Chapter 11

____ 57. Chemical reactions ____.
         a. occur only in living organisms                c. only occur outside living organisms
         b. create and destroy atoms                      d. produce new substances
____ 58. What does the symbol in a chemical equation mean?
         a. Heat is supplied to the reaction.             c. yields
         b. A catalyst is needed.                         d. precipitate
____ 59. In the chemical equation H O (aq)  H O(l) O (g), the           is a ____.
         a. catalyst                                      c. product
         b. solid                                         d. reactant
____ 60. This symbol (       ) indicates that ____.
         a. heat must be applied
         b. an incomplete combustion reaction has occurred
         c. a gas is formed by the reaction
         d. the reaction is reversible
____ 61. When the following equation is balanced, what is the coefficient for HCl?
         Mg(s) HCl(aq)        MgCl (aq) H (g)
         a. 6                                             c. 1
         b. 3                                             d. 2
____ 62. Which of the following statements is NOT true about what happens in all chemical reactions?
         a. The ways in which atoms are joined together are changed.
         b. New atoms are formed as products.
         c. The starting substances are called reactants.
         d. The bonds of the reactants are broken and new bonds of the products are formed.
____ 63. Chemical equations must be balanced to satisfy ____.
         a. the law of definite proportions               c. the law of conservation of mass
         b. the law of multiple proportions               d. Avogadro’s principle
____ 64. In every balanced chemical equation, each side of the equation has the same number of ____.
         a. atoms of each element                         c. moles
         b. molecules                                     d. coefficients
____ 65. Which of the following statements is true about single-replacement reactions?
         a. They are restricted to metals.                c. Two reactants produce two products.
         b. They involve a single product.                d. Any metal replaces any other metal.
____ 66. Use the activity series of metals to complete a balanced chemical equation for the following single
         replacement reaction.
         Ag(s) KNO (aq) 
         a. AgNO        K
         b. AgK NO
         c. AgKNO
         d. No reaction takes place because silver is less reactive than potassium.
____ 67. The complete combustion of which of the following substances produces carbon dioxide and water?
         a. C H                                           c. CaHCO
         b. K CO                                          d. NO
____ 68. The reaction 2Fe 3Cl       2FeCl is an example of which type of reaction?
         a. combustion reaction                           c. combination reaction
         b. single-replacement reaction                   d. decomposition reaction
____ 69. The equation Mg(s) 2HCl(aq)         MgCl (aq) H g is an example of which type of reaction?
         a. combination reaction                          c. decomposition reaction
         b. single-replacement reaction                   d. double-replacement reaction
____ 70. The equation H PO      3KOH      K PO        3H O is an example of which type of reaction?
         a. double-replacement reaction                   c. decomposition reaction
         b. combination reaction                          d. single-replacement reaction
____ 71. The equation 2C H OH 9O            6CO      8H O is an example of which type of reaction?
         a. combustion reaction                           c. double-replacement reaction
         b. single-replacement reaction                   d. decomposition reaction
____ 72. A double-replacement reaction takes place when aqueous cobalt(III) chloride reacts with aqueous lithium
         hydroxide. One of the products of this reaction is ____.
         a. Co(OH)                                        c. LiCo
         b. Co(OH)                                        d. LiCl
____ 73. If a combination reaction takes place between rubidium and bromine, the chemical formula for the product is
         ____.
         a. RuBr                                         c. RbBr
         b. Rb Br                                        d. RbBr


Stoichiometry – Chapter 12

____ 74. If 1 egg and 1/3 cup of oil are needed for each bag of brownie mix, how many bags of brownie mix do you
         need if you want to use up all 3 eggs and 1 cup of oil?
         a. 1                                             c. 3
         b. 2                                             d. 4
____ 75. In every chemical reaction, ____.
         a. mass and molecules are conserved              c. mass and atoms are conserved
         b. moles and liters are conserved                d. moles and molecules are conserved
____ 76. In a chemical reaction, the mass of the products ____.
         a. is less than the mass of the reactants
         b. is greater than the mass of the reactants
         c. is equal to the mass of the reactants
         d. has no relationship to the mass of the reactants
____ 77. In the reaction 2CO(g) + O (g)  2CO (g), what is the ratio of moles of oxygen used to moles of CO
         produced?
         a. 1:1                                           c. 1:2
         b. 2:1                                           d. 2:2
____ 78. Which of the following is true about the total number of reactants and the total number of products in the
         reaction shown below?
         C H (l) + 8O (g)  5CO (g) + 6H O(g)
         a. 9 moles of reactants chemically change into 11 moles of product.
         b. 9 grams of reactants chemically change into 11 grams of product.
         c. 9 liters of reactants chemically change into 11 liters of product.
         d. 9 atoms of reactants chemically change into 11 atoms of product.
____ 79. How many moles of aluminum are needed to react completely with 1.2 mol of FeO?
         2Al(s) + 3FeO(s)  3Fe(s) + Al O (s)
         a. 1.2 mol                                       c. 1.6 mol
         b. 0.8 mol                                       d. 2.4 mol
____ 80. Hydrogen gas can be produced by reacting aluminum with sulfuric acid. How many moles of sulfuric acid are
         needed to completely react with 15.0 mol of aluminum?
         2Al(s) + 3H SO (aq)  Al (SO ) (aq) + 3H (g)
         a. 0.100 mol                                     c. 15.0 mol
         b. 10.0 mol                                      d. 22.5 mol
____ 81. The equation below shows the decomposition of lead nitrate. How many grams of oxygen are produced when
         11.5 g NO is formed?

         a. 1.00 g                                     c. 2.88 g
         b. 2.00 g                                     d. 32.0 g
____ 82. Mercury can be obtained by reacting mercury(II) sulfide with calcium oxide. How many grams of calcium
         oxide are needed to produce 36.0 g of Hg?
         4HgS(s) + 4CaO(s)  4Hg(l) + 3CaS(s) + CaSO4
         a. 1.80 g                                     c. 10.1 g
         b. 7.56 g                                     d. 13.4 g
____ 83. Methane and hydrogen sulfide form when hydrogen reacts with carbon disulfide. Identify the excess reagent
         and calculate how much remains after 36 L of H reacts with 12 L of CS .
         4H (g) + CS (g)     CH (g) + 2H S(g)
         a. 3 L CS                                     c. 9 L CS
         b. 6 L CS                                     d. 12 L H
____ 84. Lead nitrate can be decomposed by heating. What is the percent yield of the decomposition reaction if 9.9 g
         Pb(NO ) are heated to give 5.5 g of PbO?
         2Pb(NO ) (s)      2PbO(s) + 4NO (g) + O (g)
         a. 44%                                       c. 67%
         b. 56%                                       d. 82%
Solutions – Chapter 16

____ 85. Which of the following usually makes a substance dissolve faster in a solvent?
         a. agitating the solution
         b. increasing the particle size of the solute
         c. lowering the temperature
         d. decreasing the number of particles
____ 86. What is the maximum amount of KCl that can dissolve in 200 g of water?
         (The solubility of KCl is 34 g/100 g H2O at 20 C.)
         a. 17 g                                             c. 68 g
         b. 34 g                                             d. 6800 g
____ 87. What is the solubility of silver nitrate if only 11.1 g can dissolve in 5.0 g of water at 20 C?
         a.                                                  c.
                          at 20 C                                            at 20 C

            b.                                              d.
                            at 20 C                                          at 20 C

____ 88. If a crystal added to an aqueous solution causes many particles to come out of the solution, the original
         solution was ____.
         a. unsaturated                                   c. an emulsion
         b. saturated                                     d. supersaturated
____ 89. Which of the following occurs as temperature increases?
         a. Solubility decreases.                         c. Solubility remains the same.
         b. Solubility increases.                         d. Molarity doubles.
____ 90. In a concentrated solution there is ____.
         a. no solvent                                    c. a small amount of solute
         b. a large amount of solute                      d. no solute
____ 91. What is the molarity of a solution containing 7.0 moles of solute in 569 mL of solution?
         a. 81M                                           c. 12M
         b. 0.081M                                        d. 4.0M
____ 92. What is the number of moles of solute in 250 mL of a 0.4M solution?
         a. 0.1 mol                                       c. 0.62 mol
         b. 0.16 mol                                      d. 1.6 mol
____ 93. What mass of sucrose, C H O , is needed to make 500.0 mL of a 0.200M solution?
         a. 34.2 g                                        c. 17.1 g
         b. 100 g                                         d. 68.4 g
____ 94. What does NOT change when a solution is diluted by the addition of solvent?
         a. volume of solvent                             c. number of moles of solute
         b. mass of solvent                               d. molarity of solution


Thermochemistry – Chapter 17

____ 95. What happens to the energy produced by burning gasoline in a car engine?
         a. The energy is lost as heat in the exhaust.
         b. The energy is transformed into work to move the car.
         c. The energy heats the parts of the engine.
         d. all of the above
____ 96. A piece of metal is heated, then submerged in cool water. Which statement below describes what happens?
          a. The temperature of the metal will increase.
          b. The temperature of the water will increase.
          c. The temperature of the water will decrease.
          d. The temperature of the water will increase and the temperature of the metal will decrease.
____ 97. How does a calorie compare to a joule?
          a. A calorie is smaller than a joule.            c. A calorie is equal to a joule.
          b. A calorie is larger than a joule.             d. The relationship cannot be determined.
____ 98. What would likely happen if you were to touch the flask in which an endothermic reaction were occurring?
          a. The flask would probably feel cooler than before the reaction started.
          b. The flask would probably feel warmer than before the reaction started.
          c. The flask would feel the same as before the reaction started.
          d. none of the above
____ 99. If heat is released by a chemical system, an equal amount of heat will be ____.
          a. absorbed by the surroundings                  c. released by the surroundings
          b. absorbed by the universe                      d. released by the universe
____ 100. Which of the following is transferred due to a temperature difference?
          a. chemical energy                               c. electrical energy
          b. mechanical energy                             d. heat
____ 101. In an exothermic reaction, the energy stored in the chemical bonds of the reactants is ____.
          a. equal to the energy stored in the bonds of the products
          b. greater than the energy stored in the bonds of the products
          c. less than the energy stored in the bonds of the products
          d. less than the heat released
____ 102. The quantity of heat required to change the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 C is defined as ____.
          a. a joule                                       c. a calorie
          b. specific heat                                 d. density
____ 103. A piece of candy has 5 Calories (or 5000 calories). If it could be burned, leaving nothing but carbon dioxide
          and water, how much heat would it give off?
          a. 500 calories                                  c. 5000 joules
          b. 5 kilocalories                                d. Not enough information is given.
____ 104. What is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 200.0 g of aluminum by 10 C? (specific heat
            of aluminum = 0.21       )
          a. 420 cal                                       c. 42,000 cal
          b. 4200 cal                                      d. 420,000 cal
____ 105. What is the specific heat of a substance if 1560 cal are required to raise the temperature of a 312-g sample by
          15 C?
          a.                                               c.
             0.033                                              0.99
            b.                                              d.
                 0.33                                            1.33

____ 106. Which of the following is a valid unit for specific heat?
          a.                                                c.

            b. cal                                          d.   C
____ 107. How can you describe the specific heat of olive oil if it takes approximately 420 J of heat to raise the
          temperature of 7 g of olive oil by 30 C?
          a. greater than the specific heat of water      c. equal to the specific heat of water
          b. less than the specific heat of water         d. Not enough information is given.
____ 108. The amount of heat transferred from an object depends on which of the following?
          a. the specific heat of the object              c. the mass of the object
          b. the initial temperature of the object        d. all of the above
____ 109. Calculate the energy released when 24.8 g Na O reacts in the following reaction.
          Na O(s) + 2HI(g)      2NaI(s) + H O(l)
            H = –120.00 kcal
          a. 0.207 kcal                                   c. 48.0 kcal
          b. 2.42 kcal                                    d. 3.00 10 kcal
____ 110. The amount of heat needed to melt one mole of a solid at a constant temperature is called ____.
          a. molar heat of fusion                         c. heat of reaction
          b. molar heat of solidification                 d. enthalpy
____ 111. During a phase change, the temperature of a substance ____.
          a. increases                                    c. remains constant
          b. decreases                                    d. may increase or decrease
____ 112. What is the heat of solution?
          a. the amount of heat required to change a solid into a liquid
          b. the amount of heat absorbed or released when a solid dissolves
          c. the amount of heat required to change a vapor into a liquid
          d. the amount of heat released when a vapor changes into a liquid
____ 113. The H       is ____.
          a. always negative
          b. always positive
          c. sometimes positive, sometimes negative
          d. always 0
____ 114. When 1.0 g of solid NaOH ( H        = –445.1 kJ/mol) dissolves in 10 L of water, how much heat is released?
          a. 445.1 kJ                                     c. 11.1 J
          b. 405.1 kJ                                     d. 11.1 kJ


Acids and Bases – Chapter 19

____ 115. When an acid reacts with a base, what compounds are formed?
          a. a salt only                                  c. metal oxides only
          b. water only                                   d. a salt and water
____ 116. Which of the following is a property of an acid?
          a. sour taste                                   c. strong color
          b. nonelectrolyte                               d. unreactive
____ 117. What is a property of a base?
          a. bitter taste                                 c. strong color
          b. watery feel                                  d. unreactive
____ 118. The formula of the hydrogen ion is often written as ____.
          a. H O                                          c. H
          b. OH                                           d. H N
____ 119. Which hydroxide compound yields the lowest concentration of hydroxide ions in aqueous solution?
          a. sodium hydroxide                              c. calcium hydroxide
          b. potassium hydroxide                           d. magnesium hydroxide
____ 120. What is an acid according to Arrhenius?
          a. a substance that ionizes to yield protons in aqueous solution
          b. a substance that is a hydrogen ion donor
          c. a substance that accepts an electron pair
          d. a substance that is a hydrogen ion acceptor
____ 121. Which of these is an Arrhenius base?
          a. LiOH                                          c. H PO
          b. NH                                            d. CH COOH
____ 122. What is transferred between a conjugate acid-base pair?
          a. an electron                                 c. a hydroxide ion
          b. a proton                                    d. a hydronium ion
____ 123. In the reaction CO     +H O         HCO + OH , the carbonate ion is acting as a(n) ____.
          a. Arrhenius base                               c. Brønsted-Lowry base
          b. Arrhenius acid                               d. Brønsted-Lowry acid
____ 124. What are the acids in the following equilibrium reaction?
          CN + H O          HCN + OH
          a. CN , H O                                     c. CN , OH
            b. H O, HCN                                     d. H O, OH
____ 125. What is the charge on the hydronium ion?
          a. 2–                                             c. 0
          b. 2–                                             d. 1+
____ 126. If the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution is 10 M, is the solution acidic, alkaline, or neutral?
          a. acidic                                        c. neutral
          b. alkaline                                      d. The answer cannot be determined.
____ 127. In a neutral solution, the [H ] is ____.
          a. 10 M                                           c. 1 10 M
          b. zero                                           d. equal to [OH ]
____ 128. What is the best description for a solution with a hydroxide-ion concentration of 1 10 M?
          a. acidic                                         c. neutral
          b. basic                                          d. The answer cannot be determined.
____ 129. What is pH?
          a. the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
          b. the positive logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
          c. the negative logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration
          d. the positive logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration
____ 130. Which of these solutions is the most basic?
          a. [H ] = 1 10 M                                  c. [H ] = 1 10 M
          b. [OH ] = 1 10 M                                 d. [OH ] = 1 10 M
____ 131. What characterizes a strong acid or base?
          a. polar covalent bonding
          b. complete ionization in water
          c. ionic bonding
          d. presence of a hydroxide or hydrogen ion
____ 132. With solutions of strong acids and strong bases, the word strong refers to ____.
          a. normality                                     c. solubility
          b. molarity                                      d. degree of ionization
____ 133. The process of adding a known amount of solution of known concentration to determine the concentration of
          another solution is called ____.
          a. neutralization                                c. titration
          b. hydrolysis                                    d. buffer capacity
____ 134. In a titration, when the number of moles of hydrogen ions equals the number of moles of hydroxide ions,
          what is said to have happened?
          a. The equivalence point has been reached.
          b. The end point has been reached.
          c. The point of neutralization has been reached.
          d. The titration has failed.


Short Answer

     135. If the [H ] in a solution is 1   10   mol/L, what is the [OH ]?




     136. If the pH is 9, what is the concentration of hydroxide ion?




     137. If the hydroxide-ion concentration is 1    10   M, what is the pH of the solution?




     138. If the hydrogen-ion concentration is 1    10    M, what is the pOH of the solution?




     139. What is the hydrogen-ion concentration if the pH is 3.7?




     140. List the seven elements that exist as (homonuclear) diatomic molecules.
141. What is the importance of the coefficients in a balanced chemical reaction?




142. What is the limiting reagent when 150.0 g of nitrogen react with 32.1 g of hydrogen?
     N (g) + 3H (g) 2NH (g)

				
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