Infrastructure 2008 by ghkgkyyt

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 24

									                          Infrastructure
                          for geografisk Spatial Data
                                    The information
                                                      2008 Review



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              Contents                               the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008
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                              Geodata – the                     backbone of
                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                   the geographic foundation                                                    Development prospects for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
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                             efficient eGovernment
                                                                                                                                      96d
                                                                                                                                   of national environmental
                                                                                                                                                       
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                the spatial Data                                                                                          

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                                                              
                            The Spatial Data Infrastructure Review 2008                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                                                           98
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
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                              Published by: the national survey and Cadastre, Ministry of the environment Text: the national survey and Cadastre                                                                                                                                            
           87 g




                             Photographs:
                                  
                                    87
                                           
                                              l                      
                                                                     97e  
                                             polfoto, scanpix and Mikkel Østergaard Printed by: sangill Grafisk produktion Year of publication: 2009
                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        -161 
                              Number printed: 300 ISBN: 87-92107-13-3
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                                  97                              
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  87fo                        this booklet can be downloaded from www.kms.dk/english
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 a
                                                                         the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008      foreworD




Foreword




spatial information forms a basis for environmental policy        financial barriers and allow data to flow freely across the
and has become a cornerstone in the development of                public sector. this would benefit both citizens and private-
eGovernment.                                                      sector companies.

for many years, development of Denmark’s spatial Data             a new framework has opened the flow of spatial data
infrastructure has been characterised by strong collaboration     between the institutions of our central government. in
across the public sector, with the private sector as an impor-    several areas, an equivalent formal collaboration has also
tant partner. the spatial Data infrastructure act will support    been established between the central and local governments.
further development - not just nationally, but also internatio-   finally, technological development is contributing to
nally. and not just for the benefit of nature and the environ-    improvements in our geodata maintenance, storage and
ment, but broadly across the public sector.                       access.

i underline the objectives of achieving the greatest possible     our ambitions to create a shared and easily accessible
benefit for society from the stakeholders’ collective efforts.    foundation for public spatial administration are within reach.
Data used in public administration should only be collected
once, and must be maintained and updated where it is least        internationally, the “Danish model” of coordination and
expensive and easiest to do so. we must avoid duplicating         collaboration is unique among those working with spatial
each other’s work. at the same time, data must be compati-        information. i believe that further development of this model
ble and useable -- without hurdles -- regardless of their         for collaboration, together with the new legal framework,
origins.                                                          will continue to support Denmark’s position at the forefront
                                                                  of eGovernment.
the spatial Data infrastructure will only acquire real value
when it becomes an integrated part of eGovernment.
therefore, we must work actively to remove technical and



December 2008




troels lund poulsen
Minister for the environment
04   the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008




     Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI)
     on the agenda


     2008 was a year of conceptual change in the development of    Milestones in the development of SDI:
     a sDi in Denmark. new legislation supplements the hitherto    - effective implementation of the inspire Directive
     consensus-based development of sDi with a legal               - removed barriers to public authorities’ use of the sDi
     framework. this legislation will strengthen the development   - integration between the sDi and public authorities’
     of eGovernment in Denmark and simultaneously underpin           work
     the shared sDi for environmental administration in europe.
                                                                   - increased cooperation across the public sector for
                                                                     defining and maintaining the sDi




                                In 2008, the spatial data infrastructure (SDI) has been placed
                                effectively on the agenda. Denmark has come a long way in the area,
                                and its organisational structure and cross-agency collaboration have
                                attracted international attention.
           
     
     
     
     
     
     


                                                                                                                                                     the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008                  05




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06   the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008




     The future framework for the Danish
     Spatial Data Infrastructure




     The Spatial Data Infrastructure Act transforms the
     requirements of the INSPIRE Directive into Danish law.


     whether one works in Denmark, in another eu country or          A cornerstone of Danish eGovernment
     for the eu institutions, there is often a mutual need to know   the spatial Data infrastructure act creates a foundation for
     which data are associated with a particular place, to access    the continued development of the Danish sDiin several
     these data and to utilise them.                                 ways.

     the inspire Directive fosters the establishment of a euro-      the builds on the same definition of as the Directive does.
     pean sDi based on the member states’ own sDis. the              this definition is generally applicable to both the public and
     european sDi will provide the environmental field with          private sectors in Denmark.
     much-needed data.
                                                                     the Directive covers a range of data that are important to
     the spatial Data infrastructure act, which transforms the       environmental issues. some of these data are used broadly
     Directive’s requirements into Danish law, was passed by the     in Danish eGovernment, public administration and emer-
     Danish parliament on December 9, 2008 and takes effect on       gency response. the act thus covers more than environmen-
     May15, 2009.                                                    tal area and will be one of the cornerstones of Danish
                                                                     eGovernment and emergency management.

       Over the course of the coming years, the Act will provide:
       1. harmonised metadata for data sets and services               the sDi consists of methods and technologies that ensure
       2. services for searching, displaying, downloading and          data can be found, combined and displayed, making it
          transforming data                                            faster and easier to carry out diverse applications.
       3. harmonised rules for access to data
       4. as a minimum, access to the geodata sets identified
          under the Directive’s 34 data subjects
                                                                                     the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008   07




                                                                   Definitions
                                                                   Geodata: any data with a direct or indirect reference to a
                                                                   specific location or geographical area;

                                                                   Geodata set: An identifiable collection of geodata;
                                                                   Geodata services: the operations which may be performed,
                                                                   by invoking a computer application, on the geodata data
                                                                   contained in geodata data sets or on the related
                                                                   metadata;

                                                                   Metadata: means information describing geodata sets and
                                                                   geodata data services and making it possible to discover,
                                                                   inventory and use them;
From consensus to legislation
the spatial Data infrastructure act constitutes a paradigm         Interoperability: the possibility for geodata data sets to be
shift in the development of this area. the hitherto consen-        combined, and for services to interact, without repetitive
sus-based development process has been supplemented by a           manual intervention, in such a way that the result is co-
minimum scope that is safeguarded in the legislation.              herent and the added value of the data sets and services is
although the new act will regulate the area in the future,         enhanced
interorganisational collaboration must continue to be the
key basis of ongoing sDi development.
                                                                   The legislation’s broad impact
Advising the Minister                                              Many institutions will be affected, directly or indirectly, by
the act contains provisions that make it possible to streng-       the implementation of the spatial Data infrastructure act.
then eGovernment with geodata. first, more geodata sets
can be included than are identified in the inspire Directive.      public authorities that are responsible for geodata must also
second, it is possible to indicate which geodata can be            produce metadata. they must make their geodata available
shared as a common resource within eGovernment.                    through internet-based geodata services, where users can
                                                                   visualise or download entire or partial geodata sets.
furthermore, the act provides for the establishment of a
coordinating committee. this committee will advise the             the Ministry of the environment, through the national
Minister for the environment on ways to promote develop-           survey and Cadastre, is responsible for establishing and
ment of the sDi and assist the Minister on the reporting           running a national geodata access point, in the form of an
obligations that stem from the inspire Directive.                  inspire Geoportal. this portal will include a central meta-
                                                                   data resource and some common geodata services. the
                                                                   access point will also link the european inspire Geoportal
     General principles for SDI2                                   with the Danish geodata sets that the Directive requires.
     1. Data should be collected once and maintained at the
        level where this can be done most effectively.             the spatial Data infrastructure act also activates the
     2. it should be possible to combine seamlessly spatial data   conditions of the inspire Directive related to public authori-
        from different sources and to share the data between       ties that maintain geodata. under the act, these authorities
        many users and applications.                               are now required to make geodata sets and services availa-
     3. spatial data should be collected at one level of govern-   ble to other authorities for integration into their administra-
        ment and shared between all levels.                        tive work.
     4. spatial data needed for good governance should be
        available on conditions that do not restrict their         the act does not change the relationship between those
        extensive use.                                             who produce geodata and those who own or administer it.
     5. it should be easy to discover which spatial data are
        available, to evaluate their fitness for purpose and to    read more about inspire at
        know which conditions apply for their use.                 http://www.inspire-danmark.dk/ and at
                                                                   http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu/




2
    these principles were the basis for the inspire Directive.
08   the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008




     Digital context in the
     Danish public sector


     a stronger digital framework must be created through          coordinated across the subject areas and administrative
     increased joint decision-making and binding collaboration     levels of the public sector, making location a foundation for
     between stakeholders. their decisions must draw on a better   public administration.
     overview and greater insight into which services and
     activities would be most valuable to digitise, and which      as an example of these new initiatives, a digital mapping
     solutions can be used by several different bodies.            application was launched in 2008 on the citizen portal
                                                                   Borger.dk and the commercial portal virk.dk. Borger.dk is
     the spatial Data service Community is developing a fra-       run by the Ministry of science, technology and innovation at
     mework for geodata development in Denmark. this fra-          the national it and telecom agency; virk.dk is run by the
     mework ensures that access to geodata sets and services is    Danish Commerce and Companies agency.




                                Pressure on the public sector to provide better service while
                                using fewer resources is so great that no public body can meet the
                                challenge alone. Increased cross-agency collaboration, though, will
                                make it possible.
                                                                                                                                            the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008                          09
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                              central government’s infrastructure                   - reference network data                                            
    87hborganisation for maps and geodata.4  87fm             87e
                                                                                     - the Danish Digital elevation Model  87u
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                                                                                                                                                                                                 87b




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                                                                                                               
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                                                                                                                                                             95

                                                                                     - property register maps and  
                                                                                                                        data            
                                                         87h




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                                                                                                                              
             the establishment of a new national coordination forum                  - nautical chart
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                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                    87f




                                                                       
                                               -116  87ez
                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                     -332
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                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                        -331
                                                                                                                                                        
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                                                   
             will ensure that the development of the Danish sDi takes                - web services for retrieving and displaying geodata,
                                                                                                                                                               87g




                                                     
                       87g




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                                                                                                                                                                   87g




      87hn
                                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                                  87g




             account of emerging    technological opportunities and the
                                                                                                the
                                                                                       including Digital Map supply                                             
                                                                                                                                                                    -330
                                                                                                                                                                                         d




                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                         87cg
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                                        -115
                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                      87e




                                                                                                                      
             needs of central government users. the national survey and
                                                                       87d




                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         -27
                                                                                    n




                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                              94a
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                                                                                                                                                                
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                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                  
                  see page 12 about “show the location” 
                                   "n"                               87e
                3
                                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                          87dt
                                                                                                                               
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                                                                                 
                                                                       87gn                    87ev                                                                       a
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                                          has
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 pf                                                    -118        
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                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                              
           8
               10         the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008



7ic                                           
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                                                    
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                                                                                                                                 
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    "z
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                                                                                   
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        "     
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                                                                                       
                                                          87 f




                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                           
                       is
            Geodata  a common foundation for eGovernment. By using          with the advance promise of co-financing from the
                                                                                                                                     
b




                        
    87ig a common geographic basis for administration, it is possible
                                                                                          
                                                                            Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of transport and the
                                                                                             
                                    -106
                                                                                                                                    
                                                                     87hu Ministry of the environment, the national survey and
                                      the environment, traffic, health,
                                                                                      
     
             to link relevantdata about                                                              
                                                                                                                                         87c
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                                                                                                                  
                            -317 companies and people, for example, in
  87m




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                                                                                                                     
                                  z




                                                                                            
                                                              "y"
                                                 i




             geography, property,                                           Cadastre purchased a new digital elevation model (DeM)




                                                                                                                                                                   87
                                             87d




                                                                                                                              
                              87g




                                                                                                                                         




                                                                                                                                                                              b
                                                                                                                            




                                                                                                                                                                      pc
                            -318
                          meaningful ways.                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                            in 2007, following a public tender. the DeM will be
                                                                                                                                                87hk
                                                                                                        




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                                                                                                                                                                             87p
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                                                                                                                                            available to all central government authorities through                             -104
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     h




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    s




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                                                                                                                                                                                      7o
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                                    to
                          according Danish law, public authorities must ensure that
                                     
                                                                                                                                            the new framework for access to geodata in the central
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                                                                                                                                                                                     
                          their administrative work is fully disclosed and that all                                                         government.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                        z




                                                                                                                                                                                             87


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                                                        
                                                                                                    87d




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                    87d




                                                                                                                                             
                         relevantinformation is taken into account in case proces-
                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                                                           -319
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                    87dø
                                                                                                                                                           
                               87dh                           
                          sing. therefore, it is important to develop a strong founda-                                                      Quality assurance of the DeM will be complete by the 
                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                    -320
                                                                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                        k




                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                    p
                                                                          m
                                                                        r




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                                                                              
                             that ensures that the data these authorities use are
                          tion                                                                                                              start of 2009. the national 
                                                                                                                                                                                  -105 
                                                                                                                                                                                          has
                                                                                                                                                                        survey and Cadastre
                                                                    87a




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                87g


     
                                                                                                                                                          r
                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                             "a assurance in collabo-
                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                      
                                                                       87a




                                                              
                                                                                                                                                        87g

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                            developed new methods of quality a
                                                                                                                                                                                          
                          harmonised, standardised, easily accessible and low-cost in                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                               " 
                                                                                                                                                                                     
     m




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                                                                                                                                             
                          the long-term. Data can also serve as a visual, easily accessi-                                                   rationwith the supplier. these methods have attracted
                                                                                                                                                           87oa 
                               
 87d




                                                                                                                                       87a




                                       -109
                   t




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                                                                                                                                                                                     
               87c




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                 u




                                                                     
                                                                      and
                          ble presentation tool for the public, businesses  public
                                                                                                                                           international attention.
                                                                                                                                                                                  87bu
                                                                                                                          87r




                                                                                                                                                      
              87c

                                    s




                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                      87t
                                                                               
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                                                      -039
                          administration.
                                 87c




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                                                      d




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         
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                                                     87 b




                                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                    -324                                                 a central government DeM coordination forum has been



                                                                                                                                                                                               ny
                                                                                                -323
                                                                       æ




                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                8
                                                                                   
                                                                                    

                                             2,5m                                                                                                    87n  7b 
                                                                                                                                           provisionally established with members from the Ministry
                                                                                                                           
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                                                                                                                                          of the environment, the Ministry of transport, the
                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                             87 h




         
                                             2,5m
                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                                    bo




                                                                                                                                                 of
                                                                                                                                           Ministry Defence and the Ministry of Climate. the
                                                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                           "bi" -040 will include sharing
                                                                                                                                                                       
 87fq




                                                                                                                                                                                        
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             87eæ




                                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                                  87
                                                                                                     87g




                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                           forum’s activities
                                                                                                                                                                              their experiences
                                                                                                                                                                       87
                                                                                                                87f




                                             87cc              87a 87hv                                                                                                                   
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                                                                                                                                        n




                                                         
                        87em                                      n
                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                the -325  
                                                                                                                                           with  DeM, updating the model and identifying how
                                                                                                                                                                                    cæ




                                                                                                                                                            -326
                                                                                                                          87e




                                                                                         87fu
                                                                                                                                   87p




                                                                        
                        -333
        
        
                                                             87a                  
                                                                                                                                                                 met.
                                                                                                                                           future needs can be  the forum will be open to
                                                                                                                                                      -133
                                                                                                                                                                                              
              
                                                                 o                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                  87




                                                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                    
                           -334                        87a                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                         interested central government parties.
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               
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                                                                                                                              
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                         87aa
                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                 87d 
                                                                                                                                                                      z




                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                  
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
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                                                                                                                                                           
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                                                                                                                                   Currently, 85 of the Danish municipalities have elected to
                                                                                                                87b




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                                                                                
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                                  87c




 87fv
                                     f




                                                                                                                                            
                                 87d




                                        u                                           acquire rights to the same DeM as the central government
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                 by




                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                   87 z




                                                                                            
                                                                                                     
                          
                                87a                                                  parties. a new nordic collaboration has also been initiated          87cm
                                                                                                                                           87y



                                                                                                                                                               87




                                                         
                                      v                                                                               
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                                                                                                                                                              bx




                           
                         
                                                                               b




                                                                                    between the   national mapping institutions on DeMs.
                                                                                                                                                     
                               87b                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                            n




                                                                                                                        
                                                                            87a




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                                                                                                     
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                                     87 d




         
                                                                                                        8 7a




                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                            87
 
    -110                          f
                                                                                                                         
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                                                                                                                                        
                             8
                            7bg
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                                                                                                                                
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                                                                    
                                                           
                FOT, which encompasses central and local government                                                   
                                                                                                                          6 e  -041
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                       

                                                                         87d
                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                        9
                                                                                                                                                    
                                             8
                                                                     
                                                                                                                                   a              
                                                                                    87ff




                authorities, has as its objectiveag establishment and  c
                                        7 the
                                                                                                                               96
                                                                                           87ce
                                                                                                    e




                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                       87er
                                                                                                                                                   -328
                                                                                                87a




                                                                                                               96c
                                                                                                103




                                                                       
                operation of
             87ex 87 a shared geographicadministrative basis for
                                                                                                                            
                                   -098
                                                                           
                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                
                             bh
                                                                                                                     q
                                                                                                                    87e




               public administration. the stakeholders work locally through
                                                        
                                                                                                        96d             
                                                                                                                            -102
           87e municipal collaboration with the national survey     and 87u                                                                 -327 
                                                                                                                                                q




                                                               
                y                
                         87binationally through fotdanmark.
                                                                                                                                            87b




                                                                        
                                                                                                                   
               Cadastre and
                                                                                                   95                                    100
                                                                               
                                                                
                                        87bk                               -099 
                                                                  
                                                                                 
                                                                                         87g ø




                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                               
                                                                                            a




                                                                                        
                                                                                      87f




                    
6  87ez there has been
                                                                                                
                               a marked increase in membership of            -332
                                                                              
                                                                                                        b




                                     
                                                                            p





                                                                                -331
                                                                                               
                                                                                                             c
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                                                                                the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008   11




Access to the data foundation                                   authorities are now also able to access geodata and to use
a number of public portals have been, or are being,             Gis in the execution of their work.
established. typically, these are cross-agency initiatives in
the public sector, where information and functionality          these authorities’ control room systems can be equipped
transcend public authorities’ areas of work. among the          with Gis, which enables the continual display of their own
significant portals are Borger.dk, virk.dk and the Danish       data on a map as well as those of other authorities.
nature and environment portal. (www.dmp.dk)

the large joint public portal projects in the geodata area        NOST (the National Operative Staff) is the coordinating
underline the need for shared, unambiguous geographic             body between the defence, police and other civil
information. this will support the portals’ aims of promo-        authorities for large incidents, catastrophes, crises and
ting improved efficiency, better execution of work and            security threats, including incidents of terrorism in
higher-quality information. the Danish nature and environ-        Denmark. led by the national police, the staff obtains
ment portal illustrates how a subject-specific portal can         and maintains an overview of a given situation in order
provide data to professionals and to citizens in general. the     to generate a basis for decision-making, coordination
portal also gives other sectors access to environmental data,     and the prioritisation of task execution and resources.
thus contributing to greater knowledge and a better basis
for decision-making.

through a public portal, a public body can straightforward-       SINE (the security network) is the emergency
ly display geodata and maps combined with its own data.           Management’s new shared radio system that ensures a
this fulfils a prerequisite for effective eGovernment in that     basis for better collaboration and coordination between
all public bodies use the same geodata and maps. users also       authorities involved in managing an emergency.
experience a uniform functionality, independent of which
public body maintains the portal.                                 SINE consists of:
                                                                  - the radio net, which is the infrastructure in the new
Challenges remain concerning data exchange and updating.            radio system
Data can be found, but their various formats cannot be            - terminals or radios, which are used for the actual
immediately integrated. for the vision to be fulfilled, data        communications
and information must be standardised and interoperable.           - Control room software, which is used for controlling
this requires clear agreements about the division of work,          the communication between an emergency manage
the adaptation of work processes, the organisation of work          ment unit’s central control room and its staff or units
tasks, the level of ambition, etc. these activities must be         in the field. extra functionality such as Gis can be
undertaken across organisational boundaries to ensure that          utilised as an add-on. Gis integration enables
geodata are maintained as efficiently as possible.                  continuous display of resources on a map, as well as
                                                                    integration with other digital data.
in the emergency Management area, geodata has become a
routine tool for handling crises and emergencies. the
national operative staff (nost) makes use of geodata to an
increasing degree. together with other information,
geodata contribute to a common operational picture based
on which all involved authorities can react. with the
establishment if sine (the emergency Management’s
security network), individual emergency management
12   the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008




     Millions of searches in the Digital Map Supply
     100


         80


         60


         40


         20


         0
                 2005        2006       2007        2008


     Digital Map Supply                                               Vis Stedet (”Show the location”)
     the Digital Map supply is the business and technical             in 2008, the Digital taskforce developed ”show the
     framework for the national survey and Cadastre’s                 location” in collaboration with the national survey and
     distribution of maps and geodata via the internet.               Cadastre. the goal was to provide the public and
                                                                      businesses with a mapping application and facilitate
     there continues to be a growing demand on the Digital Map        cross-agency access to geographic presentation.
     supply, coming partly from a large number of requests from
     the Danish nature and environment portal, where the              ”show the location” makes it easy to access basic
     Digital Map supply supplies the maps of environmental data       geodata and to overlay individual authorities’ own
     for public administration and the public in general.             geodata on the map. this enables public bodies to
                                                                      display their own geographic information on their
     over the course of 2008, the Digital Map supply has              websites in a standardised map window.
     developed towards integration with the new cadastral
     system (MiniMaKs) and the shared geodata from fot. there
     has also been emphasis on how to combine the Digital Map         FOT2007 is a database system of services for fotdan-
     supply with new services such as “show the location”. in         mark’s members. fot data are validated in fot2007,
     2009, this focus will continue as relates to the development     edge matched and assembled in a nationwide database
     of a Georeference Database5 and the distribution of digital      from which members can retrieve geodata for use in
     maps from the archive.                                           their administrative work.

                                                                      in 2008, the consolidation of fot2007 and its adaption
          The Public Information Server                               to the specific needs of the association’s members have
          the public information server (ois), administered by the    been in focus. the first browser-based solutions for upda-
          Danish enterprise and Construction authority (eBst),        ting data in fot2007 are expected to be in place at the
          maintains a vast amount of information on properties in     start of 2009.
          Denmark. using ois, property owners have free online
          access to their own data, and businesses gain access to
          digital property data.                                      The Danish Nature and Environment Portal (DMP) is a
                                                                      gateway to relevant and up-to-date geodata about
          in 2008, the eBst has worked to incorporate new data        Denmark’s nature and environment, aimed at public and
          sets from energy labelling schemes and the planning         environmental professionals.
          system. it has also modified how data are distributed. in
          addition, it is now possible to retrieve property owners’   the DMp has come a long way with providing access to
          notices from the Building and Dwelling register (BBr)       data and services through the internet via an open
          through ois. preparatory work has been undertaken           architecture. the DMp management committee is
          with the ois’ interfaces to the new BBr as well as the      currently reviewing the strategy for the further
          property register.                                          development of the portal.

                                                                      work is ongoing to establish public access to a number of
                                                                      specialist systems on water and to a new soil pollution
                                                                      database, to be launched at the start of 2009.




     5
         see page 14 about the electronic land register.
                                                                               the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008   13




Geodata – the backbone
of efficient eGovernment




The 2007 structural reform granted new responsibilities to new
authorities. The reform’s implementation has illustrated geodata’s
contribution to the efficient functioning of the public sector in
Denmark in the new administrative units.


the public sector is large and complex, with numerous          a more comprehensive oversight of which services and work
citizen- and commercial- services, numerous staff and          processes are most valuable to digitise would address which
correspondingly high numbers of administrative processes.      solutions can be used by several different bodies across the
having a complete overview of authorities’ digitalisation is   public sector. in this light, the continued development of
increasingly critical amidst this complexity and the growing   Denmark’s sDi must be based on the geodata sets that are
desire for a modular it architecture in the public sector.     most valuable to the public and to staff across the public
                                                               sector.
                 14        the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008


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                                                                                  for a new approach to property registration has begun
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               of developing a reference architecture for geodata.                  Construction authority. technical implementation must
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          87hb national survey and 87fm  the committee.
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                                                                        
                        8
                                                                           the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008    15




The Electronic Land Register                                Addresses – Denmark’s most important guide
the Courts of Denmark are currently undertaking a           addresses are put to good use in Denmark, particularly
major conversion of the land registration system in order   in various it systems used by the public as well as
to introduce paperless registration. the new system is      businesses and public administrative bodies.
expected to be launched in 2009.
                                                            over many years, a great effort has been made to
alongside the electronic land register, a database of       standardise and georeference the official addresses that
easements will be established. on behalf of the Courts of   local authorities enter into the BBr register. it is advanta-
Denmark, the national survey and Cadastre is                geous for all parties to use the local authorities’ registers
responsible for the development and operation of this       of existing addresses and locations. for example,
database, which will provide nationwide access to a map     emergency management authorities can find an address
of geographically referenced easements for the first        on an electronic map within seconds because they have
time. all new property easements must be                    access to local authorities’ address information.
geographically referenced to the property register map.
some existing easements will be geographically              the official addresses continue to be improved and, in
referenced when they are part of new property               2008, the enterprise and Construction authority, which is
registration cases. this is long-term work, and the         responsible for the address area, took the initiative to
national survey and Cadastre is working to locate all       resolve a number of conflicts where existing street names
existing easements on the property register map.            and addresses could be confused. the human costs of an
                                                            ambulance being delayed or not arriving at the correct
                                                            address are difficult to determine.

MiniMAKS                                                    assessments have shown that address ambiguity has cost
MiniMaKs is a new update- and quality-assurance-            businesses, citizens and the public sector approximately
system for the property register. MiniMaKs transforms       DKK 20 million per annum.
property registration into a digital process between
national survey and Cadastre and chartered surveyors        as a significant contribution to improving the official
and internally in the national survey and Cadastre.         addresses, a new address web service (aws) is expected
                                                            to be launched in the first quarter of 2009. the aim of
implementing MiniMaKs will reduce registration              the aws project is to standardise Danish address
handling times because the system will simplify the         information and its use. the official postcodes, street
transfer of register data between various authorities’      names, addresses and their geographic coordinates will
respective systems.                                         become available free of charge via web services for
                                                            integration it solutions in the public and private sectors.
16   the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008




     The geographic foundation of national
     environmental management




     In the environmental sector, we face challenges that occur
     irrespective of national and local boundaries. This requires
     solutions that cut across authoritative bodies, national borders
     and specialist divisions. In environmental management, geography
     is a factor in nearly all tasks.

     strong and effective environmental management requires           need to display and utilise diverse information together,
     easy and unrestricted access to illustrations of the issues in   irrespective of administrative or sectoral sources. a founda-
     current and relevant ways. the environmental sector is           tion for this type of work must be in place if qualified and
     assumed to be the largest user of geographic data – and this     transparent decisions are to be made.
     was a factor in emergence of the inspire Directive from the
     environmental field.                                             a number of activities require organisations in the environ-
                                                                      mental sector to work together. in addition to the inspire
     Qualified and transparent decisions                              Directive, the implementation of the floods Directive, the
     with the government’s desire for a vision for green develop-     water framework Directive and the pesticide action plan
     ment, environmental, nature and agricultural issues are          will invoke cross-agency collaboration.
     being increasingly viewed in tandem. this has created a
                                                                                                                                                            the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008                            17

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                  access to shared geodata where authorities can record,
                                                                                                                                                                         reservoirs.
                                                                                                                                   infiltration and pollution of groundwater 
                                                  87gm




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             87o
                                                                                                                                                          87 b




                                                                                                                                                                                   -324
                              87go
                  monitor and report on their
                                             respective activities is a                                                                                                                        -323
                                                                                                                                                                        æ



                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                              87gva precise2,5m also important for monitoring coastal  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                     87k




                                                                                                                                                                                               
                                             and fast
              prerequisite for easy, secure  exchange of information
                                                                                               DeM is                             
                                                                                                          87l  protection measures. the
                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                                           87k


   87iv  between them. this also makes it             87fs 
                                                   possible to convey                erosion and evaluating coastal
                                                                                                2,5m  
                                                                                                                                                                                         87 h
          87oe                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                               "bi" -04
    
                                                                                                          87fq




                                                                                 
             information to the public and other interested parties in a             DeM will thus be  used in planning coastal reinforcements,                     
                                                                                                                  87eæ




                                                                                                                                                                                                87g
                                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                                                                                              87f
                                                                                                87cc
                                              
             uniform
             g  and recognisable form across the country.                            future construction and the fortification of
                                                                                                              87a v87h             coastal works. it
       87o                            87gf   87gy       will also be applied to the identification of areas where


                                                                                                                                                                                                                               n
                                                                                                        
                                                                                  87em                                                                              
                         87gg
                                                     
                                                                                                                  n                                                   -


                                                                                                                                                                                                                        87e
                                                                                                                               87fu




                                                                                                                                                                                                                              87p
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                  -333
                 
                                                                                                           87a            
              in the environmental sector, deliberations  under way
                                                           are             about
                                                                                    
                                                                                                                   o                    
                                                                                      climate change may lead to increased wind pressure, greater
                                                                                                                                          
           of
          87                                          
                                                                  
                                                                                      -334            87asea 
                                                                                      precipitation and higher p levels.
                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                              
                7ip and nature plans. accessed through the sDi, geodata on 
                                                                                                                                          
              how shared data on watercourses
                                            
                                                  could support work on the                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                     
             8
                                                          
                                                                                                                                                        87d 
                                                                                                                                                          
                                    
                                                                                                                                87aa
                             
              water                       -111                                               
                   -112                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                               c


                                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                             o




                                                                                                                                                     
                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                              87b



                                                                                                    87
                         
              watercourses could provide a basis for collaborative work; for                                              
                                                                                      storm flood work is an additional example of a multi-autho-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        87æ
                                                                                                                                        87c




                                                                     87fv
                                                                                                                                           f




                                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                           au  
                       
                                                                                                                                       87d




                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              87 z
                      
              example, this could support the link between the requirements  task. By combining information from digital registers
                                                                                      rity                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                      87a
                                                                                                                                       
                                                          
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     87y
                 
       36aæ the flood Directive and the resources of the water
              of                                                                    and maps with the DeM,
                                                                                              
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                         v
                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                  one can create a map of properties                     
                                                                                                                                                                                  b




                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                      87b 
                                                             
              framework Directive.                                                   that may be threatened by flood waters. By incorporating
                                                                                                                                                                               87a




                                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                                                            c




     
                                                                                                           e
                                                                                                                                                
                                    87kd                              
                                                                                    87dr
                                                                                                                                                                                         87a
                                                                                                                                               q




                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                            d




                                                                                   data from the sDi, the BBr and the cadastral registers, the
                                                                                                      87b can be sorted by type. evaluations of
                                                                                                                                              87 d




                                                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 7a




                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                      8
                                                                                                              
                                                                                      properties affectedf
  36aø as   a first step, a coherent geodata set of watercourses has been
                                                                       -110                                                                                     
                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                      87x
                                                                                                   87b   87fa
                                                           
                                                                          
              prepared for the regional environmental centres. this geodata
                                                                                     potential flood costs can also be conducted based  the
                                                                                                                                           on
                   
                   
          set is based on the national survey   Cadastre’s pre-existing
                                                                             
                                                                                                       g                            
                                                                                                                                                87d
                                                                                                                   8
                                                                                                                                           
                                                     and      87el                    property valuations in these registers.
                                                                                                                                                                                       87ff




                                                                                                                                                       c
                                                                                                             7ag
                                                                                                                           
               -113 maps, and only covers watercourses that the former                                                                                               87c
                                                                                                                                                                                                    e




                                                                                                                                                           
                                                 
     digital
                                                                                                                                                87er
                                                                                                                                                                                                87a




                                          
                                                                                                                                                                                                103




                                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                  87ex 87 DEMs-098
                                                                                                                                                  
       87oo
                                                                              87




                                                 -335
              counties had registered and specified. should these data be
                                                                                     Examples of         in use                                              
                                                                                                   bh
                                            
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    q




                               
                                                                                fz




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  87e




                                              
                                        -114-336
                                                                                                                            
              extended as a nationwide, shared basis for watercourse
                                                                                    in 2002 and again in 2007, heavy rain caused extensive                              
                     87hb                                    87fmand            87e                                                                 87u
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         q




                                                                                                                                     
                                                       
                                                                                   yflooding in Greve municipality. the municipality has used the
                                                                                              87bi
                                                                                                                                          

      87ixactivities must also 87ep
              management, then the municipal authorities’ data
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     87b




                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                 
                                   be incorporated.                                   DeM very specifically in creating its flood prevention             
                                                                                      87h




                                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                             87bk                                   -099 
                                                                      
                                                             87hr
                                                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                         87g ø




                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                     for 
                                                                                      strategy and  addressing climate change adaptation.         the -332
                                                                                                                                                                                            a




                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                       87f




                                                                                         
                                                                             87ez DeM has been used to simulate rising sea levels and to -331
                                                                                                                                                                         
                                                              -116                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                                                                     b
                                                                                                                                                                               p




                                                                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                                                                                             c




                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                                    87g




                                                                     
                                                    87g




              local Government Denmark and the national survey and
                                                                                          q




                                                                                                                                                                                                            d




                                                                                           87bs
                                                                                                                                                                                                          87g
                                                                                                                                                                            87d




                                          87hc  -338 -337
                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                           e




                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                         87g




      
                       87hn
                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                                        87g




                                                                   
              Cadastre are currently evaluating how the development of the            prioritise measures for adapting to increased precipitation in
                          87h




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                d




                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                          87cg
                                                       x




                                                        -115
                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             87e




                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                      87d




                                                                                                                                  
              watercourse geodata set could be further coordinated. linking           the municipality’s urban areas.                                                   
                                                                                                                  n




                                          
             87io




                                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                                           94a
                                                                                                                                                                                           n




                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                 87 d




                                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                         r
                             o




                                             
                                                                                                                    87fk
                                                                                                87f




                                                                                                                        87c




              the watercourse work to the implementation of fot would
                                  
                                                                                                                                                                                          g
                                                                                                                                                                                   8 7f




                                                                                              -097                                              
                                                                                                                                                                                       87h
                                                                                                          v




                                                                                                                                                      
                                                     87fd
                                                                                                                                                        
                                 for
              create an avenue incorporating municipal data into the
                        
                                                                                                                                           87ol
                                                                                                      
                                                                                       87bl
                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                              87f



                                                                                                 r




                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                    87h




                                                                                                                       
              geodata set.
                         
                                                                             8
                                                                                                                                       
                                                              "n"   
                                                                                                                  7 et         
                                                                                                                                                            87dt
                                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                   -117                                      94b 
                                            87g




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
                            
                                                        p




                                                                                y




                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                        87b
                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                             
                  
                                                                                                      87gn                        87ev                                                                          a
                                                                                                                                                                           o




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      97d
                                                                                                                  87fæ




                                                                                
                                     87g




                                                                                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                                                       87d

                                                                                                                                                                                u




                     87gæ                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
                                             q




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                          87du                              87f
                                                                                                                            
                                                         
                                                                                       87nb
                                                                                                                                                                               87 g




                                                                                                                                                                                                          l
              87pg                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                     
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 pi
                                                                                                                                          
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                                           
                                                                                                                             87fx                                                             87 
                                                                 87h




                                                                                                                                                                                                  om
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      
                         87pf                                                                      -118
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                     s
18   the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008




     “The numerous possibilities for spatial visualisation are crucial for communicating,
      understanding and, thus, decision-making.”
       Niels Rauff, Hedensted Municipality



     Climate change is expected to affect Denmark in the form of     agency plans to raise the water level of two small wetland
     heavier and more frequent precipitation, rising sea levels      areas in the region. the projects will be carried out under
     and higher groundwater levels. DeMs make it possible to         the auspices of the government’s special water and nature
     visualise these effects. in hedensted municipality, these       efforts, and initial technical and biological investigations of
     threats have become a significant driving force in the          two areas have been initiated.
     political process and in public awareness of climate change.
     for example, the municipality has been in dialogue with         the DeM is being used to simulate the consequences of
     summerhouse owners who have requested further                   several water level rise scenarios. linking the scenarios to a
     information on how they can secure their land and homes.        map of property ownership in the area enables the
                                                                     identification of properties and landowners affected by the
     hedensted municipality also uses a DeM in its work to adapt     various scenarios. the expected consequences of the
     its local plan to the expected effects of climate change.       scenarios derived from the digital modelling provide a
     linking together the newest DeM data with historical maps,      relevant and reliable basis for negotiations with landowners,
     they have revealed the locations of former seabeds and          as it is possible to address questions about effects and
     wetlands that are not shown on modern maps.                     compensation at the individual property level.

     in conjunction with implementing its nature restoration
     projects in north Zealand, the Danish forest and nature




     “A high-resolution, high-quality, nationwide DEM will be the tool that enables major
      advancements in environmental research, particularly in areas that require water runoff
      modelling. A case in point would be the mapping of locations that face high risks of
      erosion.”
      Peder Klinth Bøcher, University of Aarhus




     “When playing with water, reliable terrain data is alpha and omega.”
      Mogens Lindhardtsen, Danish Forest and Nature Agency, North Zealand
                                                                                 the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008    19




Development prospects for
the Spatial Data Infrastructure




                                   In light of new conditions and opportunities, the Danish SDI is
                                   becoming mainstream. Once an exclusive and specialised tool,
                                   the SDI is being utilised by a growing number of users and in
                                   increasingly diverse contexts.



Development in Denmark has come a long way. the                 synergies and collaboration between the public and private
ambition of establishing a shared sDi for public                sectors. it includes the development and adaptation of a
administration is within reach. this will make it possible to   structure and process for expanding eGovernment. it
harvest added value in both the public and private sectors.     includes the development of solutions that make geodata
                                                                useful to the public, businesses and public authorities. and it
the outlook for using and benefitting from the sDi is           includes a continuation of the collaboration on removing
moving forward through development in several areas. this       financial and technological barriers to free flow of data.
includes the establishment of new working relationships         these are all supported by technological advances.
between public sector authorities as well as increased
                                      
                                      
                                      




                   20        the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008




                                         87ic                                     
                                                                                   
                                                                                                               
                                                                                             
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                                                                                                                  
           
           x                                                                                                             
      87p                                                       
                                                                                                                              
    pu                                                                                                                             
     7                                                               
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                                                
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                                                                                  
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                                                           r            -107      
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                                                                                                   y
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                                                                     d

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                                                                          h
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                                                                                                               
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                                                                                                         
                                "z                                                             b
                   87m




                                                                                                                     
                               
                                     "      
                                                                                87ht                                    
                                                                                            87 f
                 Development outlook for the SDI                               today, the relationship between the public and private
                                                                                                                               
                87ia                                                                                                           
                                       87ib




                 - Continued development of          
                                               cross-agency collaboration       sectors is characterised by collaboration in  
                                                                                                                             production,
7hz                             87ig
                                                                                                                            
                                                         
                                                                 -106
                                                                                                                                       
                   and solutions 
                              
                                                                                guidance and development. the private sector    also has a
                                                                                                   87hu
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                         
                                                                 c
                                                t




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
                                                          -317 
                                                          
                                            87m




                 - increased benefit of synergies within the private sector     special role in developing solutions that make the sDi more
                                                             87l




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                             
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           - integration with eGovernment solutions                                                                   accessible to the public, businesses and the public sector. the 




                                                                                                                                                                                                          b
                                                                                                                                                                                                  pc
                                                 -318
                                                                                                                                                         87hk shared solutions
                                                                                                                                
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                             
           - Continued development of data                                                                            establishment of national geodata sets and                                                             




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-038   - Continued development of data sources and data                                                           will make it possible for the private sector to develop
                                                                                                                                           "aø" 
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                                            87i




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                                              s




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                                                                                                                                                               87hi       
                                          87g




                                                                                                                                                                           
   -321      capture                         
                                                                                                                      solutions based on standardised interfaces to the sDi.  




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                                                                                                                                         æ
                                                                   e




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   



                                                                                                                                         z




                                                                                                                                                                                                                        87

       -322the european dimension
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   
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                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                               87f




                                                            
           -
                                                                                                                                     87d
                                                                                                                                     87d
                                                                                                                                                                      
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                                                                                                                                                                          
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                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                  the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008       21




Merging sea and land mapping                                    administration, BBr buildings are georeferenced; in local
in the future, sea and land mapping are expected to be          planning, a plan’s boundaries are marked using information
integrated so that maps and geodata represent a seamless        from the property register. all these examples show how
transition between topographic and hydrologic data in           data that supplement the legal information on a property
coastal areas.                                                  can be drawn from the property register to provide a more
                                                                comprehensive geographic foundation.
this would improve the prospects of planning in coastal
areas, reduce the effects of pollution in coastal regions and   new requirements for accessing the property register as a
increase the potential for predicting the consequences of       reference basis will continue to be supported. the recent
rising water levels due to global warming. with integrated      modernisation of the property registration system has
land- and sea- mapping, authorities will gain a comprehen-      increased the technical feasibility of these developments. as
sive foundation for decision-making, improving planning in      the new system is built upon up-to-date it architecture, it
coastal areas based on foresight of the consequences of         will be easier to develop links to new applications of the
raised water levels, flooding, etc.                             property data.

Open standards in local government                              Denmark’s Administrative Boundaries
the major cooperative efforts on geodata in the public          the country’s division into municipalities, regions, jurisdicti-
sector (the nature and environment portal and fotdan-           ons, etc. is fundamental for its public administration, the
mark) raise a need to analyse the prospects of implementing     preparation of statistics and many other objectives. it is
geospatial open standards in municipal governments.             therefore important to have an authoritative resource on
without such open standards, local governments and/or           where these administrative divisions are geographically
cross-agency collaboration will continue to use significant     located that is easily accessible and broadly applicable.
resources on converting their data.
                                                                this is the thinking behind a new project, Denmark’s
as a result, local Government Denmark, at the recommenda-       administrative Boundaries, which the national survey and
tion of the spatial Data service Community, has initiated the   Cadastre initiated in 2008. it is expected to deliver a first
“open standards in Geodata” project, the objective of which     edition geodata set of administrative boundaries for
is to identify relevant open standards, and to assess the       municipalities, regions, parishes, jurisdictions, police districts,
business case for introducing them to municipal governments.    postcodes and parliamentary constituencies at the start of
                                                                2009. it is expected that additional administrative bounda-
the project will present its findings at the beginning of       ries can be added to later editions of the geodata set.
2009. it is expected to find that the effects of implementing
open geodata standards in local government would be             History digitised
positive.                                                       today, analogue archives are being increasingly converted to
                                                                digital form and can thus be more easily distributed. they
The multi-functional cadastre                                   can be made available via the internet, whether to the
today, information from the property register is typically      general public or to specific users who require the
used in property law and estate administration. in line with    information in professional contexts.
eGovernment expansion, these data are being increasingly
applied to other areas.                                         in this way, historical maps and other archive material are
                                                                preserved, and wear and tear on unique and rare maps and
in the modernised land register, easements are geographi-       materials is reduced significantly.
cally referenced using the cadastral map; in building
                                                                               
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                                                                                                             
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                                                                                                                 
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                                                
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                                                                                                           
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                                                                                                                                                                                        36a
                                                      
                                                        
              while digital archives make information available to those                    quality diversity of spatial data from
                                                                             the availability, 
                                                                                            
                                                                                                     and
                                                                                                                                             36ah
              interested in history, they also
                                                                                                                                  
                                               make it easier to compare    earth observation satellites have increased markedly over 
                                                                                                                    
                                                                                        36ao
                                                                    
                                                                                                                          
         physical conditions at a  particular location over time.           the past few years, and the price of these data is falling. this
                                              -162 
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                        26e
                                                                                                                                   
                                                                             improves the prospects of incorporating more satellite data
                                     -036                   26i 
                                                                                               




                                                                                                                             an
                                                         
         in 2008, the national survey and   Cadastre finished scanning             36ai
                                                                             into the sDi.                  36ae                              
                                                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                       36ab                       
                                                 




                                                                                                                          36

                                                                                                                                     z
                                               z 




                                                                                                                                  36
                                             26
         its collections of historical property maps and sea charts; the
                                                                                                     
                                                 
         scanning of historical topographical
                                                maps is well underway.     satellites can provide a much more frequent rate of data
                                                                                                                               36y
                                                                            
                                                                                       
                                                                             collection, making it possible to 
                                                                                   m




        the new digital   maps are distributed via the agency’s
                                                                                                              update nationwide Danish
                                                                                                                                                 87gk
 
                                                                 26l
                                                                                 10




                                                         
         website and the Digital Map supply.      they can therefore be     data on an annual basis. as satellites register information
                                                                                                       36am dataoutput can be




                                                                                                                                                                                 q
                                                                                                                                              




                                                                                                                                                                              36
         considered a part of the sDi in the same way as more                across several spectral bands, their
                                    26k this provides a new basis for
           
                                                  
         present-day geographic data.                                        especially suitable for photo interpretation and applications
                                                                                                                                            
        conducting comparative analyses of locations over time.     
                                                                             in agriculture, vegetation, water and environmental36az
                                                                                             36ap
                                                                                                           

                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                       36o analyses,
                                                                                     etc.
                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                     
         Technological development       
                                                                 -131                                                         

         recent developments in the consumer market have been
                                                                                                            
                                                                             although satellite data still have a poorer resolution than
                                                                                                                                      87iq
                                            26x

                                                                                                                                                         m
                        a rapid emergence of geodata that are
         characterised by                                                             36p
                                                                             typical aerial photos,they can
                                                                                                            still be used in many public           87h
                                                                                                                                                       10
                                                           
                                                                                                    
             26ae
         integrated directly into cellphones, navigation devices, etc.
                                                                            administrative tasks and as a valuable supplement to other
                                                      -163 
        in this context, a “participative architecture” term has been
                                                                            geodata. they can also be used to bring the existing geodata 
                                                                                                                                                    
                                                      
                                                                                                                                                 87iv 
         introduced. while utilising geodata, the user now also takes
                                                                            up-to-date. satellite data are expected to become essential,
                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                    8
         part in its collection.                                                              -127          36m
                                                                             for example in tracking the consequences of climate change,
                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                m




                                                                            environmental monitoring and in agriculture.
                               26af
                                                                                                                                                      
                                                        -130
                                                                                                                                                      87
                                                                                                             10




         new technologies such as web 2.0 make it possible for users m
                                                                       7                                                          87hæ
        to see, update and utilise geographic databases such as road
                                                                                        -129 7m
                                                                             the national survey and Cadastre has taken the initiative to
                                                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                                         87
         networks. updating often occurs when users transfer their           analyse Denmark’s national need for satellite data. the
                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                     
         Gps travel histories to their map providers.7 the new
                                                           
                                                                                                                         central
                                                                             prospects include the establishment of a   satellite                   
                                                                                                                                
         technology thus adds direct value at the data level. 
                                                                            data service to obtain, update and distribute satellite data to
                                                                                                                            -126 10m                    
                                                                             government institutions. at the nordic level, there is
                                                              
         who knows best where to find the mailbox at a certain 
                                                                                     Fredskov
                                                                             consideration of the need for a pan-nordic solution based                36a
         house? the people who live there do.                                on the service already established by the swedish Geodata 
                                                                                                     36ax                                          
         who knows best where a dead bird was found? the person             authority (lantmäteriet).
                                                                                                                                            
         who found it does.                  36ay                  
                                                                                                                                                 36aø
                                                                            The European initiative
                                                                     
                                                Fredskov
         when the technology is available and administrators are             inspireprovides the eumember states with a legal basis for                 
         willing to accept the contributions of people other than            the continued expansion of their sDis. is also significant for        
                                                                             
         their own staff, then the public’s knowledge and input can         new initiatives that have functioning sDis as their prerequi-            8
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                                 
         be used more optimally. at the same time, new technologies          site.
                                                                                 
                                                                                                             10m                        
                                                                                                                                
         open up opportunities for involving the public more directly 
                                                                                                                                                     87i
                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                  87iæ




                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                       
         in the democratic process.                                                   
                                                                                                             
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                                                                                                             
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                                                                                                        -164                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
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                                                                                                                                                                                                   
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                  the method whereby the user acts as a collector of data is called “crowd sourcing”.
                                                                           ov




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                                                                                                       Fredskov                                                                                                     87pg


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                                                                                  
                                                                                  




                                                                                                                                                               the spatial Data infrastruCture review / 2008                                     23


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 87p                     
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                                                             "      
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                                                           
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                                                                            the eu finances pilot projects and practical tests in this area
                                                                                                                                                
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                                                                              through various development programmes. in 2008, support 
                                                                               
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                      87hz                                87ig                                                                                  
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                    shared environmental information system
                                                         
                                                                                          -106
                                                                                          to
                                                                              was granted  three projects with Danish participation:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       87hu
                                                                                                                                             
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                                                                                                                                               -317
                                                                                                                                               
                      - GMes/Kopernikus – Global Monitoring environment and
                                                                                           87m




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                         87mz 87iø                                                                                                       i




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                        security                                                                                                  - esDin, where the national survey and Cadastre is             
                                                                             u




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                                                                                                                                                                                             87hk
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                                                                                                                                                        
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                     - eMoDnet – european observation and Data network
                                 
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                                                                                                                                                                    Construction authority
                                                                                            h




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                                                                                                                                     participating
                                                                                                                                    is                                      
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                                                                                                                                                                                                




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                                               -322
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                                                                                                                                                     Geus is participating
                                                                                                                                   - one-geology, where                                
                                                                                                                 87f




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                                                                                                                                                                                      
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                          environmental information while modernising the
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                          current eionet reporting system.
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                                                                                                                                                                        granted support to
                                                                                                                                        The EU’s eContentplus programme
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                          environmental and security services. it will be developed                                                    of   inspire. these are:
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                                                       can 
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                                                                     
                          decision-makers and the public in the event of environ-
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                          mental or natural
                                          disasters.                                                                                                          and -323
                                                                                                                                           methods, techniques  specifications on selected
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                                                                                                                                                                                        87 h


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                                                                                                    87a                                                         -133
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                                                                          -334              87a                                           
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        ip national    
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            
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                                                  authorities coordinate their
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     
                                                    PROPERTY


                                                               TRANSPORT


                                                                           FINANCE




                                                                                            HEALTH


                                                                                                     AGRICULTURE


                                                                                                                   EMERGENCY SERVICES


                                                                                                                                        THE ENVIRONMENT
                                                                                     ++++




                                         METADATA
                             BASE DATA




                                                                           MULTI-SECTOR DATA

                                                                             REFERENCE DATA

                                                                              BASE DATA




  The infrastructure model:
  the infrastructure model embodies a set of principles that can be applied to public sector
  cooperation and joint procurement. the model has also become synonomous with the eu
  inspire Directive and the spatial Data infrastructure act, which was passed by the Danish
  legislature on December 9, 2008.

  the sDi is based on the following principles:                                       Multi-sector data:
  • Data should be collected once                                                     Geodata used in public administration, business
  • Data should be maintained at the level                                            processes and similar activities in more than one
    where this can be done most effectively.                                          sector
  • It should be possible to easily find and
    access the available geodata                                                      Reference data:
  • Geodata should be interoperable,                                                  the multi-sectoral geodata that can be used as
    regardless of their source.                                                       a basis for georeferencing other information.
  • A framework must ensure that geodata can                                          reference data can include topographical maps,
    be used by diverse users and applications.                                        cadastral maps, municipality codes, place names,
                                                                                      cadastral numbers, building identification numbers,
  the establishment of a framework for accessing                                      street names and address points
  and using geodata throughout the public sector
  will convert the sDi principles into reality. such                                  Metadata:
  a framework will also reduce the time and                                           information describing geodata sets and services
  resources required to develop a solid foundation                                    that is used to find, record and use them
  for eGovernment and political decisions across the
  public sector.                                                                      Base data:
                                                                                      Combined metadata, multi-sector data and
  Sector-specific data:                                                               reference data
  Geodata used primarily within one administrative
  sector




The National Survey & Cadastre, rentemestervej 8, DK-2400 Copenhagen nv, t. (+45) 72 54 50 00, f. (+45) 35 87 50 51
w. www.kms.dk, e. kms@kms.dk

								
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