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 Best-practice guide to
Supply chain standards
• Standards are essential for the acceptance and
  adoption of new technologies

• The word „standard‟ has diverse meanings
  including official standards sanctioned by an
  accredited standards body (ISO), de facto
  standards (such as Microsoft Windows), and ad
  hoc standards (widely used methods or
  procedures adopted by mutual agreement).
Standards - why
• When people speak to each other in different languages progress is
   very slow and misunderstanding is frequent. The same applies to
   companies doing business: when they can‟t understand each other,
   inefficiency and error results

• Standards ensure that all the players in the supply chain –
   manufacturers, distributors, retailers and service providers- comply
   with one guideline that clearly defines format & usage of

• Standards and specifications provide the common definitions,
   functionality and language for the hardware, software and Network
Standards - types
• Technology standards deal         • Application standards define
   with "specifications" or how       how a technology is used
   things work.                       and not how it works.

• Technical specifications cover    • Application standards cover
   issues such as frequency, data     data content, structure and
   transfer and communications        syntax. Additional guidance,
   protocols. They do not cover       such as placement, durability
   how the technology is used,        and so forth is also generally
   only how it works                  included

• Wi-fi, RF etc.                    • Barcode, edi, xml etc.
Bar code Standards
• GS1 is the world‟s most widely adopted supply chain standard for
   goods, services, assets & location identification since 1977

• The GS1 System enables automatic capture of vital business data
   across the supply chain from raw material to warehousing to
   distribution to final retailing.

• Dedicated to improving the efficiency and visibility of demand and
   supply chains.

• GS1 system is used across 20 industry and sectors in 104 countries.

• Over 1 million companies of all sizes use GS1 standards to execute
   more than 5 billion transactions a day
GS1: Retail unit Identification
• EAN-13 & EAN-8 most
   common linear symbologies
   (numeric) for retail items

• Carry GS1 Keys and special
   identifiers – manufacturer
   code, country of origin, and
   internal SKU code

• Are specified for retail Point-of-
   Sale (POS) because they are
   designed for the high volume
   scanning environment (omni-
   directional scanners)
GS1: Logistics unit identification

• GS 128 (EAN 128) & ITF-14
  are approved logistics item
  standard (alpha numeric)

• Can carry all GS1 Keys and
  attributes along with
  application identifiers that help
  encode additional information
  such as batch number,
  manufacturing and use by
  dates etc

• General purpose, standard
  barcode scanners sufficient
GS1: Document Identification
• PDF417 is a two-dimensional,
  multi-row symbology widely
  used in services sector from
  driving license, social security
  to tax returns, forms etc.

• PDF 417 is a stacked 2D
  symbology. Used to encode
  data files with hundreds or
  thousands of characters

• Designed to be scanned by
  laser scanners and linear CCD
GS1: Direct Part Identification
• Data Matrix is approved for
  small-item marking in
  (aerospace) & healthcare

• Data Matrix is a 2D matrix
  symbology for large data
  encoding (3116 Numeric, 2335
  Alphanumeric capacity).
  Carries Application Identifiers,
  and Unique GS1 Identifier

• Camera-based (imaging)
  scanners required
GS1: Emerging standard
• GS1 DataBar (formerly RSS)
   can help to identify small items
   and carry more information for
   retail & healthcare items

• Enables identification for hard-
   to-mark products like fresh
   foods. Supports growing
   product authentication and
   traceability, quality and
   effectiveness requirements in
   retail supply chain

• Designed for high speed,
   omni-directional/ POS scanner
Other barcode standards
ANSI/ AIM standards
• Code 39 (Also Called Code 3 of 9)
   is suitable for encoding general
   purpose alphanumeric data

• Interleaved 2 of 5 (also called I-
   2/5 and ITF) is suitable for
   encoding general purpose all-
   numeric data.

• Code 128 is suitable for encoding
   general purpose alphanumeric and
   full ASCII data and provides high
   information density encodation

• These standards are commonly
   used for internal applications
   (within four walls) where data is
   not required to be shared
   between partner
ANSI/ AIM: Emerging standards
• Aztec Code is used for small item
   marking applications using a wide
   variety of printing and marking
   technologies, gaining importance
   in healthcare applications.

• QR Code has largest data capacity
   (7,089 numeric, 4296
   alphanumeric) among 2D matrix
   symbols. Applications include
   mobile ticketing, and promotions.

• Maxi Code is used to encode
   address and customer specified
   data on shipping packages which
   are scanned on high-speed

• Requires camera-based (Image)
   barcode scanners
RFID standards
RFID standards
• Standards are critical for many applications of RFID

• EPC global (GS1) is leading the development of industry-
  driven standards for the Electronic Product Code (EPC)
  to support the use of Radio Frequency Identification
  (RFID) in today‟s fast-moving, information rich, trading

• Electronic Product Code (EPC) specifications were
  developed at the MIT Auto-ID Center and are now
  managed by EPC Global
• The EPC is a simple, compact “license plate” that uniquely identifies
   objects (items, cases, pallets, locations, etc.) in the supply chain.

• Like many current numbering schemes, EPC is divided into numbers that
   identify the manufacturer and product type. In addition, the EPC uses
   an extra set of digits, a serial number, to identify unique items.

• An EPC number contains:

   - Header              identifies length, type, structure, version
                         and generation of EPC
   - Manager Number      identifies the company or company entity
   - Object Class        refers to a stock keeping unit or product SKU
   - Serial Number       identifies a specific item of the Object Class
                         being tagged
 RFID standards
• Summary of RFID standards in supply chain applications:

  Specification        Description    Sponsor         Frequency

  ePC UHF Gen 2        96/128 bit     EPC Global      860-960MHz
  ISO 18000-03         Item Mgmt      ISO             13.56 MHz
  ISO 18000-04         Item Mgmt      ISO             2.4 GHz
  ISO 18000-06         Item Mgmt      ISO             860-960 MHz
Standards by Industry
   Compliance formats
• Wal-Mart, world‟s biggest
   retailer, imposes compliance
   label formats on all their
   suppliers for any product
   shipped to their stores for

• Information on vendor, item
   code, description, quantity,
   and source are formatted into
   consistent pattern (generally,
   1D barcodes)

• Is the global driver for
   adoption of passive RFID
   technology for case labeling
• Automotive Industry Action
  Group (AIAG), impose use of
  standardized product labels on
  all products shipped from
  tiered suppliers to automaker

• 2D barcodes namely PDF-417
  & Maxicode preferred as more
  data can be stored

• DPM & RFID initiatives gaining
  momentum for process
• Telecom Industry Forum
  (TCIF) and Alliance for
  Telecom Industry
  Solutions (ATIS) have a
  common standard for
  telecom related
  companies and suppliers.

• Composite code is used
  (2D & linear) for CLEI
  (common language
  equipment identification)
  coding applications
• Health Industry bar code
  association‟s (HIBC, USA) has
  supplier labeling standard for
  its manufacturers & distributors

• Code 39 & Code 128 is
  preferred as it allows both
  alpha numeric & variable length
  formats. Is consistent for both
  SKU & Outer case labeling

• Aztec code is gaining popularity
  for patient identification & point
  of care testing
• Item Unique Identification
  (IUID) is a new method
  established by the Department
  of Defense (DoD) USA to
  identify tangible assets

• Suppliers encode the UID data
  into a 2D Data Matrix symbol
  and directly apply it to specific
  tangible items for item tracking

• Requires specialized marking &
  scanning devices
• Customer application determines the choice of standard

• Learn not only your customer requirements but also about suppliers
   to your customer, and your customer‟s customer (the supply chain)

• Adopt correct standard, and select right printing & scanning

• Follow the format (syntax) outlined and ensure correct label, and
   field dimensions, text and bar code sizes

• Ensure acceptable barcode print quality & establish an on-going
   barcode verification program

• Maintain customer contact to determine if any changes are required
• Barcode


• Auto ID

• Automotive

• Electronics

• Healthcare

• Defense

• ISO 
Thank you
  P C Jain

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