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					      Harmonisation and Comparability of
      European Union Road Freight Statistics


International Conference on Survey Methods in Transport
Simo Pasi, Eurostat G5 „Transport statistics‟




MAY-2008
         Contents

             Harmonisation and comparability
             Institutional context
             Decision making process
             Road freight statistics
             Supportive rules and tools
               –   Common classifications
               –   Reference manuals
               –   Data processing tools provided by Eurostat
               –   “Help desk”
             Management by standard error
             Special issues of harmonisation
             Case: Fuel consumption of trucks
             Conclusion



May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
      Harmonisation and comparability
 harmonize or –nise (transitive verb) 1. bring into harmony
 2. cause to agree 3.reconcile
 compare (transitive verb) 1.notice or point out likenesses and
 differences of 2. liken 3. make comparative or superlative of
 (adjective or adverb) (Collins compact dictionary)
                                   ***
 Quality of statistical data: data should be relevant, accurate,
 timely, accessible, coherent and comparable:
        - Length of comparable time-series
        - Number of comparable time-series
        - Rate of differences in concepts and measurement from European
        norms
        - Asymmetries for statistics mirror flows
                                                                     (from “Doc. ESTAT/02/Quality/2005/9/Quality Indicators”)



May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
         Institutional context

          Eurostat is part of the European Statistical System (ESS)
               – ESS = Eurostat + National Statistical Institutes of EU Member
                 States
          Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European
           Commission, similarly to
               – DG Energy and Transport,
               – DG Competition,
               – DG Environment etc.
          Eurostat, as part of the European Commission (having the
           “right of initiative”) and together with the NSI‟s, can make
           proposals of EU statistical legislation (regulations, directives,
           decisions)


May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
         Decision making process
Lobbyists        UNECE, ITF, OECD                 Member States             Commission DGs    Staff


        Gentlemen‟s agreement            Eurostat Working Groups
                                                                                     Task Forces
                                        Consultative Committee on
           “Comitology”                 Transport Statistics (CCST)

                                            Statistical Programme
                                              Committee (SPC)
            Co-decision
                                           European Commission
                                                                                               O
                  European Parliament                              Council of Ministers        J
                                                                                               §
May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
         Council Regulation n° 1172/98 on road freight
         statistics

Vehicle record
   - vehicle age
   - activity (branch)                         Journey record 2
   - vehicle-kms                                 - vehicle characteristics
   - extrapolation factor                        - place of loading and              Goods record 2
                                                 unloading                           - type of goods
                                                 -transit countries                  - dangerous goods
                                                 - loading & unloading               - type of cargo
                                                 to another mode of                  - place of loading and
                                                 transport                           unloading
                                                 - weight of goods                   - tonnes
                                                 - distance                          - tonne-km
                                                 - tonne-kms                         - distance


May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
    Supportive rules and tools
      Common classifications

          Often Commission Regulations, but not always
               – Commodity classification: “Nomenclature uniforme de
                 marchandises pour les statistiques de transport” (NST):
                 NST (1961), NST/R, NST 2007, …
               – Geographic classification: “Nomenclature des unités
                 territoriales pour statistiques” (NUTS): NUTS 1999, NUTS
                 2003, NUTS 2006,…
               – Classification of Economic Activities: NACE rev.1.0,
                 NACE rev.1.1, NACE rev.2.0, …
               – Classification of type of cargo: United Nations
                 Recommendation 21



May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
    Supportive rules and tools
      Reference manuals


 Road freight transport                                       Road freight transport
  methodology                                                   methodology
  Volume 1                                                      Volume 2
  Reference manual for the                                      Methodologies used in surveys of
  implementation of Council                                     road freight transport in Member
  Regulation N° 1172/98 on                                      States and Candidate Countries
  statistics on the carriage of goods                           (in English only)
  by road
  (in English, German and French)




May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
    Supportive rules and tools
      Data processing tools provided by Eurostat (1/3)

         The two classifications that impose the biggest burden to
          national statistical authorities:
              – Type of goods (NST/R => NST 2007)
              – Loading and unloading places (NUTS-3 regions)
         Respondents identify:
              – Type of goods by writing its name in questionnaire
                 • For international transport, customs document can be of use
                   (single administrative document, Intrastat declaration)
                 • For dangerous goods, the European Agreement concerning
                   the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road
                   (ADR) can be used to classify dangerous substances
              – Loading and unloading places by writing place names or postal
                codes in questionnaires.




May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
       Supportive rules and tools
        Data processing tools provided by Eurostat (2/3)

        Eurostat provides reporting countries with tools that aim
         at facilitating and harmonising the handling of survey
         data:
             – Correspondence tables between NST 2007 on one hand
               and Combined Nomenclature (CN), Statistical
               Classification of Products by Activity in the European
               Economic Community (CPA) and ADR classification on
               the other hand.
             – List of localities and postal codes mapped to NUTS-3
               areas: Index of Locations for Statistics in Europe (ILSE).




May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
      Supportive rules and tools
      Data processing tools provided by Eurostat (3/3)




May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
      Supportive rules and tools
         “Help desk”
       Eurostat receives and answers methodological
        questions related to road freight surveys in the reporting
        countries




May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
         Management by standard error (1/2)

          Legislation on which the road freight survey is based
           does not impose:
               –   Sampling frame
               –   Sample size
               –   Stratification
               –   Survey period
          Instead, reporting countries should achieve an
           acceptable percentage standard error for main
           indicators in their sample surveys (Commission
           Regulation N° 642/2004) – means are to be decided by
           the reporting countries, not by Eurostat.


May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
         Management by standard error (2/2)
 Annual                                                                              total and
 - tonnes                                                                            national
 - tonne-km
 - vehicle-km




    95%
                                                                                        5%




May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
         Special issues of harmonisation

          Coverage of surveys in reporting countries (Article 1(2)
           (b) of Council Regulation 1172/98):
               – “…shall not apply to…by means of…vehicles belonging to
                 central or local public administrations…”
                 => differences in how, for example, waste transport is treated
                 between reporting countries
               – At least vehicles with loading capacity above 3.5 t or
                 maximum permissible laden weight above 6.0 t
                 => some countries but not all include light goods vehicles
          Type of cargo – are “swap-bodies” classified as “large
           freight containers” or “other freight containers”?
           =>In future, all countries should classify containers
           purely on the basis of their size – this is not the case
           currently.
          Extra-EU vehicles are not covered by these surveys;
              they still play different roles in different reporting countries.

May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
         Case: Fuel consumption of trucks (1/3)

          Hypothesis: Collection of harmonised fuel consumption
           data of heavy goods vehicles in the sample surveys
           based on Regulation n°1172/98.
          What would be required to introduce such new variable?
          Currently, only tonnes, tonne-km and vehicle-km data
           are collected in the European survey.
          Some countries (CY, EL, HR, NL, RO, SI, SK and UK)
           already have a question on fuel consumption in their
           survey questionnaires, but data are not sent to Eurostat.




May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
         Case: Fuel consumption of trucks (2/3)

          The approach:
               – The need for data should be real, expressed (in written) by other
                 Eurostat units, DG Environment, DG Energy and Transport.
               – Eurostat would discuss the issue of data availability unofficially with some
                 reporting countries.
               – A proposal modifying the Annex A, with definitions and modification of
                 Commission Regulations n° 2163/2001 (data transmission), n°6/2003
                 (dissemination) and n°642/2004 (precision standard) would be drafted
                 by Eurostat. Possibly a Task Force could be organised to better involve
                 the reporting countries.
               – Eurostat would bring the proposal to discussion in a road freight statistics
                 working group (next mid-2009).
               – On the basis of discussion, a decision might be proposed in a
                 forthcoming CCST meeting.
               – If approved by a large majority, the proposal would be brought to formal
                 decisions making by the Statistical Programme Committee and the
                 Commission.
               – A legal act would be published in the Official Journal.



May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
         Case: Fuel consumption of trucks (3/3)

 Lobbyists         UNECE, ITF, OECD                 Member States             Commission DGs    Staff


                                            Eurostat Working Group
                                                   Mid 2009                            Task Force
                                                                                      1st half 2009
                                                       CCST
             “Comitology”                             End 2009

                                                        SPC
                                                    1st half 2010

                                             European Commission
                                                                                               O
                                                   Mid 2010
                                                                                               J
                                                                                               §
May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics
         Conclusions

          Eurostat, as part of the European Commission and the
           European Statistical System, has a heavy machinery for
           harmonising statistical data. This has both positive and
           negative aspects:

         Pros (+)                                                 Cons (-)
         -    Harmonised rules in all                             -    Rigidity to adopt for new
              reporting countries should                               requirements; almost everyone
              contribute to harmonised data                            has to agree
         -    Possibility to support                              -    Difficulty to find „fair‟ criteria for
              implementation by means of                               big and small countries (in
              common tools                                             sample surveys, small and big
                                                                       countries burden is almost
         -    Space for national variants
                                                                       equal)

May 2008 Harmonisation and Comparability of European Union Road Freight Statistics

				
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