AIR POLLUTION by 3257j7P

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									AIR POLLUTION


          Dr. Suharyanto, MS., MSc.
              Fakulty of Biology
 Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
                      Air Pollution
   Addition of harmful substances to the
    atmosphere resulting in damage to the
    environment, human health, and quality of life.
             Homes
             School
             Cities
             Across Continents
             Globally
   Air pollution makes people sick
   It harms plants, animals, and ecosystems in
    which they live.
   It returns to earth in the form of acid rain and
    snow.
   Pollution is changing earth’s atmosphere.
   Scientist predict that the temperature increase,
    referred to as global warming.
          Alter sea level, make weather more extreme, and increase
           the spread of tropical disease.
Factory smoke darkens the sky above Czech Republic. The Czech Republic faces
a severe air pollution problem that is choking the nation’s land. Air pollution and
  subsequent acid rain has killed or damaged many of the country’s trees and
                             badly degraded its soil.
    MAJOR POLLUTANT SOURCES
   Most air pollution comes from human activity.
   Some of air pollution also come from natural
    sources.
        Forest fires emit particulate sand VOCs into the
         atmosphere
        Volcanoes spew out sulfur dioxide and large amounts of
         pulverized lava rock known as volcanic ash.
Automobile Traffic Pollution
Automobile exhaust contains
unburned hydrocarbons,
particulates, carbon dioxide, and
oxides of nitrogen and sulfur that
contribute to acid rain, smog, and
global warming.
The oxides combine with water
vapor in the air to form acids,
which return to the ground as acid
rain.
Smog, a mixture of smoke and fog,
irritates the eyes, throat, and
lungs and also damages plants.
Carbon dioxide, produced from the
burning of fossil fuels including
gasoline, is the leading cause of
the greenhouse effect, a
phenomenon thought to be
responsible for rising global
temperatures.
The chemical pesticide DDT was used around the world from the 1940s through the
  early 1970s to kill crop-eating and disease-carrying insects. In the early 1960s
  studies began to show that the chemical caused reproductive problems in
  animals and that it often disrupted the food chain. The use of DDT was banned
  in the United States in 1973.
        LOCAL AND REGIONAL
            POLLUTION
   Local and regional pollution take place in
    troposphere.
   Smog is intense local pollution usually trapped
    by a thermal inversion.
   Burning gasoline
   Smog contains ozone ( a form of oxygen gas
    made up of molecules with three oxygen atoms
    rather than the normal two)
   Ozone in the lower atmosphere is a poison
       It damages vegetation, kills trees, irritates lung
        tissues and attacks rubber.
   Several pollutants attack the ozone layer
   Smog spoils views and makes outdoor activity
    unpleasant.
   Here, intense ultraviolet radiation breaks the
    CFC molecules apart, releasing the chlorine
    atoms they contain.
                               Ozone Layer Hole
  Ozone is a gas that blocks harmful ultraviolet sunlight. Industrial chemicals
released into the atmosphere have caused ozone to break down, opening holes in
             the ozone layer that tend to concentrate at the poles.
Thermal Inversion
Smog surrounds the
Angel Monument in
Mexico, during a
thermal inversion.

Air pollution increases
dramatically when a
mass of cold air is
trapped below a mass
of warmer air.

The absence of air
circulation prevents
pollution near Earth’s
surface from escaping
Carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and other types of contaminants pouring
from industrial smokestacks contribute largely to the world’s
atmospheric pollution. Carbon dioxide contributes significantly to global
warming, while sulfur dioxide emissions are the principal cause of acid
rain in the northeastern United States, southeastern Canada, and
eastern Europe.
          GLOBAL WARMING
   Like glass in a greenhouse, these gases admit the
    sun’s light but tend to reflect back downward
    the heat in the earth’s atmosphere.
   Carbon dioxide is the most significant of these
    gases.
Shrinking Greenland Ice Sheet
The Greenland ice sheet underwent extensive surface melting from 1992 to 2002,
according to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment report released in 2004.
Tinted areas in these satellite images show the extent of surface melting in 1992
and in 2002. The report warned that the melting of Greenland’s ice sheet and the
melting of glaciers in Alaska and Canada are increasingly contributing to a rise in
the world’s sea level.
    INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
   Homes, building.
   Include tobacco, smoke, radon, an invisible
    radioactive gas, and chemicals released from
    synthetic carpets or furniture, pesticides, and
    household cleaners.
   When disturbed, abestos, a nonflammable
    material once commonly used in insulation,
    sheds airborne fibers that can produce a lung
    disease called abestosis.
Macrophage on Asbestos
Macrophages, part of the body’s disease-fighting immune system, normally engulf small particles
in the lung. Asbestos particles, however, tend to rupture the macrophage on contact, releasing its
contents into the surrounding lung tissue. This condition is characteristic of people suffering from
asbestosis, a disease caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers.
        HOW CAN WE STOP AIR
           POLLUTION?
   Stop producing it in the first place.
   Government can pass laws that forbid or limit
    the use off chemicals that cause pollution.
   Build cars that burn less gasoline.
   Recycling helps cut down on pollution.
THANK YOU for your
   ATTENTION

								
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