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					        EXAMINATION
              APRIL 1999




          NVG OPERATIONS



            VERSION 2


UNITED STATES ARMY AVIATION CENTER
         FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA



     FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY



              Copy #: ATZQ-ATB-NS______of_____Copies
     DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE OR START THE EXAM UNTIL TOLD TO DO SO




                          EXAMINATION INSTRUCTIONS


1.   Read ALL instructions and questions carefully.

2.   Do not mark in this examination booklet.

3. This examination will test your knowledge of AN/AVS-6 operations, Night
Terrain Interpretation, NVG Mission Planning, and Night Vision.

4. All work on this examination must be your own without reference to notes
or other publications. The examiner and/or his assistant(s) are not
authorized to discuss the meanings of questions. They can only help you with
unforeseen difficulties; i.e., broken pencils. If you require assistance,
raise your hand and an instructor will come to you.

5. This    examination consists of 50 multiple choice and true/false questions.
Mark the   number on your answer sheet for the response most complete and
correct.    Do not read anything into the questions and ensure that each
question   is answered. Questions that are unanswered and questions where the
best and   most complete answer is not selected will be marked wrong.

6. Each student will be allowed a maximum of the following test cell times
to complete the examination. Students testing more than one cell have a
cumulative time for those cells tested. If you complete the examination
early, follow the instructions given by the examiner:

     AN/AVS-6 OPERATIONS ------------------- 20 MINUTES

     NIGHT TERRAIN INTERPRETATION ---------- 10 MINUTES

     NVG MISSION PLANNING ------------------ 10 MINUTES

     NIGHT VISION -------------------------- 10 MINUTES

7. If you receive less than 70 percent, you will be required to retake the
examination.




                    AFTER COMPLETION OF THIS EXAM

             RETURN THIS EXAM BOOKLET TO THE EXAMINER

                               AN/AVS-6 OPERATIONS




                                        1
1.   From the following list, select the basic/end item components of the
     ANVIS.

     1.   Intensifier tube, lens caps, and eye-span adjustment knob.

     2.   Flash light, lip light, and vertical adjustment knob.

     3.   Binocular assembly, carrying case, and power pack assembly.

     4.   Chemical stick, lip light, and eye piece focus ring.

2.   From the following list, select the description of the objective and
     eyepiece lenses.

     1.   Objective lens — focuses the image from the fiber optic inverter onto
          the eye by adjusting for individual eye acuity; Eyepiece lens —
          gathers light and can be focused for the distance of an object.

     2.   Objective lens — gathers light and can be focused for the distance of
          an object; Eyepiece lens — focuses the image from the fiber optic
          inverter onto the eye by adjusting for individual eye acuity.

     3.   Objective lens — inverts the image so that it is upright when viewed
          by the eye; Eyepiece lens — gathers light and can be focused for the
          distance of an object.

     4.   Objective lens — focuses the image from the fiber optic inverter onto
          the eye by adjusting for individual eye acuity; Eyepiece lens —
          inverts the image so that it is upright when viewed by the eye.

3.   True or false?   The following represents the proper operational sequence
     of the ANVIS:

Photons enter the monocular assembly through the LIF and the objective lens.
The image is inverted due to the shape of the objective lens. The
photocathode then releases electrons proportional to the photons. The
electrons enter the microchannel plate which creates additional electrons.
These electrons strike the phosphor screen causing the phosphor to glow, thus
creating a visible image. This image is then re-inverted by the fiber optic
inverter where the image is displayed and focused with the eyepiece lens.

     1.   True.

     2. False.
4.   From the following list, select the characteristics of the ANVIS.

     1.   Visual acuity—20/40 to 20/25, magnification—1:1, and field of view—40
          degrees.

     2.   Visual acuity—20/50, magnification—2:1, and field of view—45 degrees.

     3.   Visual acuity—20/25, magnification—1:1, and field of view—45 degrees.

     4.   Visual acuity—20/40, magnification—2:1, and field of view—40 degrees.

5.   From the groups below, which group contains the mechanical controls
     located on the ANVIS visor mount?

     1.   Objective focus ring, eyepiece focus ring.




                                        2
     2.   Vertical adjustment knob, lock release button.

     3.   Eyespan knob(s), fore and aft adjustment knob.

     4.   Pivot and adjustment shelf (PAS), door knob(s).

6.   From the groups below, which contains the mechanical controls located on
     the binocular assembly?

     1.   Vertical adjustment knob, lock release button, and pivot and
          adjustment shelf.

     2.   Pivot and adjustment shelf (PAS), eye-span knob(s), fore and aft
          adjustment knob, and tilt adjustment lever.

     3.   Vertical adjustment knob, lock release button, fore and aft
          adjustment knob, and pivot and adjustment shelf.

     4.   Pivot and adjustment shelf (PAS), eye-span knob(s), lock release
          button, and pivot and adjustment shelf.

7.   From the steps below, which is not an operator check for the ANVIS?

     1.   Check maintenance forms and records for status of goggles and
          inspection/servicing currency.

     2.   Perform the low-battery indicator test.

     3.   Check the Bright Source Protection (BSP) function in bright sunlight.

     4.   Check the viewed image for cosmetic blemishes and unacceptable
          faults.




8.   From the following characteristics, which is a/are correct
     characteristic(s) of the low battery indicator light.

     1.   The low battery indicator light is located on the ANVIS visor mount.

     2.   The low battery indicator light is a steady or blinking red light
          emitting diode (LED) that illuminates when the battery power is less
          than 2.4 volts.

     3.   All of the above.

     4.   None of the above.

9.   From the steps below, which is a/are correct step(s) in performing the low
     battery indicator light check?

     1.   Remove the battery cap to the alternate compartment.

     2.   Turn the power switch to the alternate ON position.    Look for a steady
          or blinking red light on the visor mount assembly.

     3.   Turn power off, replace battery cap, check the primary compartment.




                                        3
   4.    All of the above.

10. From the steps below, which is a/are correct step(s) for mounting the
    ANVIS to the helmet?

    1.   Ensure the power pack ON/OFF switch is in the OFF position.

    2.   Position the ANVIS onto the visor mount by sliding the spring-loaded
         bearings into the channels of the mount until they lock into place.

    3.   When the ANVIS is securely attached, place the ANVIS in the stowed
         position.

    4.   All of the above.

11. True or false? The operator is not required to use the lock release to
    flip-up or flip-down the binocular.

    1.   True.

    2.   False.




12. True or false?   The following are correct steps for powering the ANVIS.

    -    Press the lock release button and rotate the binocular to the down
         and locked position.

    -    Turn the power switch to the primary (upper) ON position.   A green
         glow will appear in each eyepiece.

    1.   True.

    2.   False.

13. From the list below, which is a correct step in adjusting the ANVIS?

    1.   Use a full moon lighting condition, actual or simulated.

    2.   Initially, preset all the mechanical adjustments (except focus
         settings) to approximately a middle position.

    3.   Use the lock release button to rotate the goggles to the operating
         position while the power pack is in the primary on position.

    4.   Use the tilt lever to compensate for bright lights.

14. True or false? The focusing procedure for the ANVIS includes an indoor
    and outdoor procedure.

    1.   True.

    2.   False.



                                       4
15. True or false? While adjusting the eyepiece focus ring during the focus
    procedures, one eye should remain closed.

    1.   True.

    2.   False.

16. From the steps below, which is an incorrect step for dismounting the
    ANVIS?

    1.   Ensure the power pack switch is in the ON position.

    2.   Press in the lock-release button.

    3.   Rotate the monocular assemblies up to a middle position.

    4.   Grasp the binocular assembly at the PAS and pull the ANVIS from the
         visor mount.




17. True or false? Operational Defects are not an immediate cause for
    rejecting the ANVIS.

    1.   True.

    2.   False.

18. From the following list, select the operational defects of the ANVIS.

    1.   Shading, honeycomb, flashing, or edge glow.

    2.   Edge glow, chicken wire, flickering, or distortion.

    3.   Shading, edge glow, flashing, flickering, or intermittent operation.

    4.   Shading, image disparity, intermittent operation, or black spots.

19. From the following list, select the cosmetic blemishes of the ANVIS.

    1.   Bright spots, emission points, black spots, chicken wire, or image
         distortion.

    2.   Shading, image disparity, intermittent operation, or black spots.

    3.   Fixed-pattern noise (honeycomb), image disparity, output brightness
         variation.

    4.   1 and 3 above.

20. True or false? The following are correct steps for the general care and
    cleaning for the ANVIS?

    - Gently brush off any dirt using only a soft, lint free cloth.

    - Moisten the cloth with fresh water and gently wipe the external
      surfaces (except lenses) so they are free of foreign material.




                                       5
    - With another dry soft lint free cloth, dry any wet surfaces (except
      lenses).

    - Remove all loose dirt from the lenses with lens paper, then dampen a
      folded lens paper and gently clean the glass surfaces.

    - Store NVGs in a clean, dry carrying case.

    1.   True.

    2.   False.




21. From the steps below, identify the care and cleaning step(s) of the ANVIS
    for a saltwater environment.

    1.   Clean all hardware thoroughly with a clean soft lint free cloth
         dampened with fresh water.

    2.   Individually clean the binoculars and mounting hardware.

    3.   Carefully inspect for corrosion on all electrical contacts.

    4.   All of the above.

22. True or false? Exposing ANVIS to blowing dust or sand may scratch the
    lenses/LIFs and seriously degrade their performance. Keep lens caps on
    when ANVIS are not in use.

    1. True.

    2. False.




                                       6
                         NIGHT TERRAIN INTERPRETATION


23. From the following list, select the sources of ambient light.

    1.   Lunar light (moon), solar light (BMNT/EENT), starlight.

    2.   Lights from aircraft landing and/or search lights (IR or clear) and
         aircraft position lights, lights from cities or large metropolitan
         areas, and flares.

    3.   All of the above.

    4.   None of the above.

24. From the statements below, which statement best describes the
    characteristics of the moon?

    1.   At night the moon is the lowest percentage of natural illumination
         and changes angles at the rate of 15 degrees per hour.

    2.   At night the moon is the highest percentage of natural illumination
         and changes angles at the rate of 15 degrees per hour.

    3.   At night the moon is the highest percentage of artificial
         illumination and changes angles at the rate of 15 degrees per hour.

    4.   At night the moon is the lowest percentage of natural illumination
         and changes angles at the rate of one degree every four minutes.

25. From the following list, which is not an indication of restrictions to
    visibility while operating with NVGs?

    1.   Loss of celestial lights.

    2.   Loss of ground lights.

    3.   Reduced ambient light levels.

    4.   Increased visual acuity.

26. True or false? Aviators may fail to detect a gradual increase in cloud
    coverage (fog, haze, or precipitation) and may inadvertently enter the
    clouds. Occasionally look under the goggles (unaided) and check for
    indications of deteriorating weather conditions.

    1.   True.

    2.   False.




                                         7
27. From the following list, select the cues for visual recognition at night.

    1.   Object size, object shape, and contrast.

    2.   Object size, object shape, and shadows.

    3.   Object size, object shape, and reflectivity.

    4.   Object size, object shape, and texture.

28. From the following list, select the factors affecting NVG/night terrain
    interpretation.

    1.   Ambient light, moon altitude.

    2.   Flight altitudes, visibility restrictions.

    3.   Terrain, seasons, viewing distances.

    4.   All of the above.

29. True or false? The ability to identify man-made or natural features
    progressively increases as flight altitude increases.

    1.   True.

    2.   False.

30. From the following statements, select the correct statement about terrain
    relief.

    1.   Terrain features are not the most reliable means of orientation.

    2.   Terrain features that are unique in shape or provide a distinct
         change in elevation are excellent checkpoints.

    3.   Silhouetting is most helpful at high altitudes.

    4.   Important features can be seen in the shadow of high terrain.




                             NVG MISSION PLANNING




                                         8
31. From the following list, select the NVG/night general mission planning
    considerations.

    1.   Psychological and physiological stress, navigation, radio
         communication, battlefield light sources.

    2.   Wires, enroute data, altitude changes, meteorology.

    3.   All of the above.

    4.   None of the above.

32. True or false? All of the following are NVG/night planning command
    considerations.

    -    Crew Endurance.

    -    Aircraft maintenance.

    -    Safety.

    -    Facilities.

    1.   True.

    2.    False.

33. True or false? All of the following are considerations for NVG/night
    route planning.

    -    Avoid route segments that change direction more than 60 degrees.

    -    Avoid brightly lit areas, airports, populated areas, major roads, or
         follow man-made linear features.

    -    Avoid planning routes that head directly into a low-angle, rising or
         setting, moon.

    -    Plan alternate routes and bypasses as contingencies for weather,
         threat, or other factors.

    1.   True.

    2.    False.




34. From the following considerations, Which is not a consideration for
    NVG/night checkpoint planning?

    1.   The first checkpoint (Start Point) and the last checkpoint (Release
         Point) should be approximately 3 to 5 km from the PZ/LZ. The last
         check point should align the aircraft for final approach and landing
         with minimal maneuvering.




                                       9
    2.   Additional checkpoints should be selected approximately 5 to 20 km
         apart to facilitate navigation. Points should be confirmed by promi-
         nent features.

    3.   Select ACPs/checkpoints near brightly lighted areas such as built-up
         areas and towns.

    4.   Do not select points which may fall in the shadows cast by nearby
         terrain features.

35. True or false? All of the following are correct NVG/night mission
    briefing considerations.

    -    Mission briefings must be conducted sufficiently in advance of the
         scheduled departure to allow time to resolve identified problems.

    -    All phases of the operation should be briefed in detail.

    -    Aircrews should conduct a final check of personal equipment.

    -    A final brief should be scheduled just before the departure to update
         weather, confirm the time schedule, and discuss any mission changes.

    1.   True.

    2.    False.




36. From the following airspeeds and altitudes, select the airspeeds and
    altitudes for NVG modes of terrain flight.

    1.   Low level—above 80 feet AHO at whatever airspeed operational
         requirements dictate and aircraft limitations allow; contour—between
         25 feet AHO and 80 feet AHO—70 KIAS (maximum); and NOE—25 feet AHO—40
         KIAS (maximum).

    2.   Low level—above 80 feet AHO at whatever airspeed operational
         requirements dictate and aircraft limitations allow; contour—between
         25 feet AHO and 80 feet AHO—70 KIAS (maximum); and NOE—25 feet AHO—60
         KIAS (maximum).

    3.   Low level—above 80 feet AHO at whatever airspeed operational
         requirements dictate and aircraft limitations allow; contour—between



                                       10
         25 feet AHO and 80 feet AHO—80 KIAS (maximum); and NOE—25 feet AHO—40
         KIAS (maximum).

    4.   Low level—above 80 feet AHO at whatever airspeed operational
         requirements dictate and aircraft limitations allow; contour—between
         35 feet AHO and 80 feet AHO—70 KIAS (maximum); and NOE—35 feet AHO—40
         KIAS (maximum).

37. From the following list, select the correct characteristic(s) of route
    planning cards.

    1.   The Navigation Card is used as a log to show essential information.

    2.   The Enroute Card is used to reinforce map reconnaissance

    3.   The Landing Zone or Objective Card is used to reinforce map
         reconnaissance and provides a graphic picture of the LZ/PZ or
         objective.

    4.   All of the above.

38. From the following list, which is a/are consideration(s) for NVG tactical
    lighting.

    1.   Aircraft lighting - Modifications for cockpit and external lighting
         is ongoing.

    2.   LZ/PZ tactical lighting - The most common tactical configuration for
         aviation use is the inverted "Y", for higher altitudes the "T".

    3.   Supplemental lighting is described as lighting that is not part of
         the aircraft lighting system.

    4.   All of the above.




                                 NIGHT VISION


39. From the list below, select the function of the lens of the human eye.

    1.   Transparent tissue circular in shape covering the front of the eye.

    2.   Round pigmented (colored) membrane regulates the size of the pupil.

    3.   Opening in the center of the iris black in appearance.

    4.   Transparent, biconvex membrane that directs light rays entering the
         pupil.

40. From the list below, identify the common visual deficiencies.

    1.   Hyperopia, conjunctivitis, cataract, glycoma.

    2.   Lumenectomy, laser iridotomy, photocoagulation, radial kerotomy.

    3.   Hyperopia, presbyopia, myopia, astigmatism.

    4.   All of the above.



                                      11
41. From the list below, identify the different types of vision.

    1.   Mesopic, photopic, ambient.

    2.   Scotopic, mesopic, photopic.

    3.   Photopic, focal, scotopic.

    4.   Peripheral, mesopic, stercopia.

42. From the list below, identify the factors which affect dark adaptation.

    1.   Photosensitivity of the eye, bleaching effects of the cones and rods,
         nutrition.

    2.   Photosensitivity of the eye, enhancing effects of bright light,
         nutrition.

    3.   Photosensitivity of the eye, cumulative effect of sun light,
         hyperopia.

    4.   Photosensitivity of the eye, cumulative effects of sun light,
         presbyopia.




43. From the list below, select the methods to protect night vision.

    1.   Wear sunglasses when outside in bright sunlight.

    2.   Adjust cockpit lighting to lowest readable level.

    3.   Close one eye when exposed to bright lights at night.

    4.   All of the above.

44. From the list below, identify the limitations of night vision.

    1.   Intensity of ambient light, altitude, terrain features, visual
         acuity, dark adaptation.

    2.   Weather, blind spot, darkness, color vision, dehydration.

    3.   Visual acuity, depth perception, blind spot, dark adaptation, color
         vision.

    4.   Hypoglycemia, dehydration, weather, color vision, blind spot.

45. From the list below, identify the visual cues for depth perception.

    1.   Geometric perspective, retinal image size, aerial perspective, and
         motion parallax.

    2.   Geometric perspective, corneal image size, aerial perspective, and
         comparison to known objects.




                                        12
    3.   Geometric perspective, corneal image size, arteriole perspective, and
         motion parallax.

    4.   Geometric perspective, retinal image size, arteriole perspective, and
         motion parallax.

46. From the list below, identify which illusion a pilot may experience due to
    a lack of visual references when flying over terrain like dessert, snow or
    water.

    1.   Depth perception illusion.

    2.   Structural illusion.

    3.   Ground lights misinterpretation.

    4.   Known size of objects.




47. From the list below, identify the protective measures used to prevent
    laser injury.

    1.   Take cover, return fire, evasive action.

    2.   Protective equipment, return fire, take cover.

    3.   Take cover, protective equipment, evasive action.

    4.   Return fire, evasive action, protective equipment.

48. From the list below, identify the effects of alcohol.

    1.   Sensitivity to medications, motor skills, awareness level.

    2.   Hypemic hypoxia, coordination, sensitivity to medications.

    3.   Distractions, hunger pains, sensitivity to medications.

    4.   Altered judgement, perception, reaction time, coordination.

49. From the list below, identify the proper unaided night vision viewing
    techniques.

    1.   Stop-turn stop-turn, on-center viewing.

    2.   On-center viewing, 5 degree overlap.

    3.   Scanning, Off-center viewing.

    4.   Stop-turn stop-turn, 5 degree circular overlap.

50. From the list below, identify the physiological effects of night vision
    devices.

    1.   Depth perception and distance increase.

    2.   Dark adaptation is regained 2-3 minutes after their removal.



                                         13
3.   Permanent monochromatic distortion.

4.   Astigmatism.




                                  14

				
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