MOLECULE

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					MOLECULE
• A group of atoms so united or
  combined by chemical affinity that
  they form a complete, integrated
  whole, being the smallest portion
  of any particular compound that
  can exist in a free state

• Ex: Water    H       H
                   0
Inorganic
Relating or belonging to the
class of compounds not having a
carbon basis


Water and Oxygen are inorganic; do not
contain carbon.

Water = H20
Oxygen = O2
Organic
• relating or belonging to the
  class of chemical compounds
  having a carbon basis

• Methanol and Glucose is organic;
  containing carbon
                        H
Methanol= CH3OH H C OH
                        H
Polarity of water
Water has a slightly positive
and negative charge on
different sides.
                    Hydrogen




           Oxygen
Density
• The ratio of mass, or
  quantity of matter
• the spatial property of
  being crowded together



    Less dense   More dense
Solvent
• a liquid substance capable
  of dissolving other
  substances"the solvent
  does not change its state in
  forming a solution"
• Ex: In making Koolaid, the
  water is the solvent and the
  koolaid powder and sugar are
  the solutes.
       pH
Acids and bases
The measure
Of hydrogen ions
On a solution
Determines the
pH of the
solution.           alcohol



Bases: pH over 7
Acids: pH under 7
Neutral=7
Macromolecule
• any very large complex
  molecule; found only in
  plants and animals

• Ex: proteins, lipids,
  carbohydrates, DNA
Carbohydrates
• an essential structural component
  of living cells and source of energy
  for animals; includes simple
  sugars with small molecules as
  well as macromolecular
  substances
• are classified according to the
  number of monosaccharide groups
  they contain; monosaccharide,
  disaccharide, polysaccharide
Monosaccharide
• The smallest unit of a carbohydrate.
• Two link together to form a disaccharide
  and many link together to form a
  polysaccharide

Mono(one): glucose, fructose, galactose
Di(two): Lactose, sucrose, maltose
Poly(many): cellulose, starch,
             glycogen
Triglyceride
• glyceride occurring naturally in
  animal and vegetable tissues; it
  consists of three individual
  fatty acids bound together in a
  single large molecule; an
  important energy source
  forming much of the fat stored
  by the body
Minerals
• An inorganic species or
  substance occurring in nature

• Nutrient needed to help various
  cell part

• EX: magnesium, calcium, iron
Vitamins
• any of a group of organic substances
  essential in small quantities to normal
  metabolism

• Ex. Vitamin C (healthy cell membranes,
                 wound healing)
      Vitamin K (fat-soluble vitamin ,helps in
      the clotting of blood
•    Vitamin D (bone growth)
Lipid
• an oily organic compound insoluble in
  water but soluble in organic solvents;
  essential structural component of living
  cells
• Made up of a unit
  of glycerol that
  attaches 1-3 fatty
  acids
* Long carbon chains
• High energy/calorie

Ex: fats, waxes, oils
Protein
• any of a large group of nitrogenous
  organic compounds that are essential
  constituents of living cells; consist of
 polymers of amino acids; essential
 in the diet of animals for growth and for
 repair of tissues; can be obtained from
 meat and eggs and milk and legume
Amino Acid
*The units that make up proteins
*There are 22 essential amino acids needed
 to make proteins in your body.
*Amino acids link together at the nitrogen
  forming peptide bonds.
Chemical reaction
*reactants




*products
Enzyme
• any of several complex proteins that
  are produced by cells and act as
  catalysts in specific biochemical
  reactions
               Increase rate of reaction and reduce the amount of
               Energy required ( activation energy)

Note:
In the lab, you used the enzyme catalase from a
potato and added it to the Substrate, Hydrogen
peroxide, to produce water and oxygen.

                 Catalase
      H2O2                     O2 +          H2O
 Hydrogen peroxide              Oxygen          Water
Enzyme-substrate Complex
When an enzyme and substrate fit together they change
shape slightly and the reaction takes place.
The enzyme returns to normal and can be reused.




                   “Induced fit”



                                            reused
Active site
*The pocket or groove on an enzyme where
  the substrate fits.

*One substrate fits to one specific enzyme
 like a “key in a lock”



                        Active site




                               Substrates
             Enzyme
DNA and RNA
• Nucleic acids composed of nucleotides
• A nucleotide contains one sugar
  (deoxyribose or ribose), one phosphate
  group and one of 4 bases. These link
  together to form the DNA or RNA
phosphate

                    base


            sugar
DNA
• Deoxyribonucleic acid
• Carries the genetic code that is carried to
  the cytoplasm in the form of RNA
• Contains the code that
  determines the production
  of proteins that determine
  how living organisms look
  and function
• Bases: A. T, C, G
• Double stranded
• Replicates
• stays in nucleus
RNA
• Ribonucleic acid
• Reads the code of DNA and bring the
  message to the cytoplasm where proteins
  are made.
• Sugar= ribose
• Bases= A,G,C,Uracil
• Single stranded
Starch
• A polysaccharide; many glucose
  molecules attached together.
• A complex carbohydrate
• For energy storage in plants.
• Ex: bread, crackers, corn contain starches
Cellulose
• A carbohydrate made of many glucose
  molecules bond together like a bundle of
  straws where one straw is a chain of glucose.
*makes up most of plant material for structure
 and support of plants
EX: cell wall is make of cellulose

				
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posted:11/29/2011
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