WHAT IS PROSTATE CANCER Introduction:- Prostate is a glandular organ bestow single in males. It surrounds the narrow part of bladder & the initially part of urethra and condributes a discharge to the semen. The gland is conical in affect and measures 3 cm in vertical diameter and 4 cm in oblique diameter.It has got five lobes fore,latter,two lateral and a median lobe.Since the initially part of the urethra pass through it one lesion in the prostate will yield problem in quick urine. Diseases of the prostate gland:- 1) Prostatitis:- This is the inflamation of the prostate gland due to bacterial infection. 2) Benign swelling of the prostate:- This is a non cancerous tumour of the prostate seen with the age of 50. 3,growth of the prostate:-This is the 4th generally ordinary cause of death from cruel diseases in males. Growth of the prostate. Growth of the prostate is frankly linked with the male masculinity hormones(androgens).If the levels of masculinity hormone increases the growth rate of cancer furthermore increases.It is found with the intention of with the removel of testes here is manifest reduction in the size of tumour. Site of tumour:- Prostate cancer is seen primarily in the latter lobe.Non cancerous swelling is seen in other lobes. Changes in the gland in cancer:- The gland becomes tricky with unconventional go up with loss of habitual lobulation .Histologically prostate cancer is an adeno carcinoma(cancer of the epithelial cells in the gland) Growth :- Growth rate is very fast in prostate cancer .The tumour compresses the urethra and yield problem in urination. Spread of tumour:- Metastasis in cancer of prostate is very ahead of schedule. 1) Local apply:- From the latter lobe the cancer cells energy to the lateral lobes and influential vesicles.Tumour cells furthermore move to the narrow part and corrupt of the urinary bladder. 2) Lymphatic apply:- Through the lymph vessels cancer cells get to the domestic and outdoor illiac assemble of lymph nodes.From here cells move to retroperitonial(Behind the peritonium) and mediastinal lymph nodes(in the chest) 3) Spread through the blood:- Spread of cancer cells takeplace through the periprostatic venous plexus and reaches the vertebral veins while coughing and sneezing and irrevocably enders the vertebral bodies of the lumbar vertebrae. Signs and symptoms of prostate cancer:-- Signs and symptoms depend in the lead the stage of the cancer. The following symptoms could be seen. 1) No symptoms:- Tumour is small and single in the latter lobe. This is diagnosed accidentely. 2) Slight problem in urination:- Here the tumour is enlarged and urethra is vaguely compressed.Shortly here will be frequent urge pro urination with trying urination. 3) When the tumour apply to all nearby areas counting narrow part of bladder and urethra here will be awkward urination with bleeding.Urine comes decline by decline. 4) Retention of urine:- When the urethra is completely compressed here will be maintenance of urine.This can principal to hydronephrosis, renal failure ect.Inside this condition uncomplaining could make convulsions due to renal failure and irrevocably coma. 5) Signs of metastasis:- Some patients occur with the cryptogram and symptoms of metastasis. A) Lumbo sacral bind due to apply of cancer cells to lumbar and sacral vertebrae. B) Fracture of spine due to cancerous growth in the spine. C) Swelling, bind and fluid collection in the belly due to lesion in the belly. D) Respiratory complaints due to cancer of mediastinal lymphnodes and lungs. E) General weakness due to apply of cancer to uncommon parts of the body. F) Anaemia due to involment of bone spirit and increased destruction of RBCs. Clinical examination :- Includes for every rectal examination to feel the prostate gland,palpation of belly to feel the swelling in kidneys and one tumours.Patient is examined from head to bottom to discover made known one lesions. Investigations:- 1) Complete blood investigations;- RBC,WBC,Platlets,ESR,bleeding calculate ,clotting calculate ect. 2) Urine analysis:- Microscopic examination to detect pus cells,occult blood,casts,Crystals ect. 3) Renal function tests:- Blood urea level,serum creatinine level,electrolyte level ect. 4) Serum acid phosphatase:- Increased in cancer of prostate. 5) x-ray of the spine:- To detect one tumour or break. 6) Ultra sonography;- Gives perception in this area prostate,bladder,kidney ect. 7) C T look into:- Other detailed in rank in this area organs and tumour. 8) MRI of the spine:- Gives detailed in rank in this area spine ,disc and nearby soft tissues. 9) Lymphangiography:- Gives perception in this area lymphatic apply of cancer. 10) Biopsy to confirm cancer:- Biopsy is taken from the tumour and is hurl pro histopathological examination under the microscope.This will detect the presence of cancer cells. Treatment:- 1) If here is maintenance of urine catheterisation is looked-for. 2) Dialysis if kidney failure. 3) If here is coma monitoring of all essential functions along with parentral nourishment and electolyte supply. 4) Specific behavior is prostatectomy(removal of prostate) Partial prostatectomy :- Here single the affected lobe is indifferent. Radical prostatectomy :- Total confiscation of prostate along with nearby lymphnodes. 5, Hormone therapy :- Stilbestrol is agreed to reduce tumour growth.Since this treatement increases the opportunity pro cardiovascular disease phosphorylated diethyle stilbesterol is used currently. 6) Chemotherapy:-Drugs like cyclophosphamide, cisoplatim ect are agreed. 7) Radiotherapy is furthermore made pro approximately suitcases. 8) Homoeopathy:- Homoeopathic drugs like carcinocin, conium, sabal, crotalus, thuja, iodum, selinium, staphysagria, sulphur ect can be agreed according to symptoms.Constitutional homoeopathic medicine will produce splendid relief and can boost the life span. 9) Yoga and rumination is furthermore helpful.