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					Political Ideologies


Conservatism                  Liberalism                     Socialism
Tradition – the importance    Individual freedom - this      Collectivism – the idea that
of tried & tested ideas,      is paramount, with people      society works for the
experience & institutions     doing what they please so      benefit of all. Ownership of
                              long as it doesn’t threaten    private property undermines
Change – as the ideas of      the freedom others to do       this ideal
the past should be preserved otherwise
any change should be                                         Equality – the extremes
treated with caution          Equality of opportunity –      between the rich & poor
                              everyone should be free to     should be eliminated
Human nature - this is        have an equal chance of
seen as inherently flawed & achieving positions of           Social class - this is the
imperfect                     power & status, equal rights   main division in society and
                              for all is important           so socialists tend to support
The state – due to the                                       the working class first &
flawed nature of human        Limited government –           foremost
beings and strong state is    there should be a
needed to maintain law &      government that protects       Capitalism – exploits
order                         but doesn’t infringe           waged labour, by creating
                              individual freedom             social divisions &
Society -The family is the                                   inequalities
cornerstone of society        How these ideologies
transmitting values & social influenced the Liberal          Human nature – socialists
stability. Similarly the      Party                          see people as being shaped
monarchy, the national                                       by there social situation as
anthem all help provide a     Classical liberalism –         simply being either good or
national identity             emphasis on individual         bad, they look forward to a
                              freedom an d self-reliance,    society based on
How these ideologies          minimum state intervention;    cooperation rather than
influenced the                these policies dominated       competition
Conservative party            British politics in 19th
                              century                        How these ideologies
Traditional conservatism                                     influenced the Labour
– emphasises patriotism &                                    Party
authority & opposes           Progressive liberalism –
changes that might upset the this form of liberalism         Revolutionary socialism or
established order such as     recognised the need for        communism is best known
women’s rights , gay rights, state intervention to in the    as Marxism where the
the EU, easier divorce laws form of state welfare to help    removal of private
                              people. These policies         ownership of property and
One–nation conservatism became prominent between             the creation of communal
– sees the wealthy &          1905-1915 the form of          ownership will create a
powerful having a moral       National Insurance.            utopian society
duty to help the poor in      Progressive liberalism had a
order to create a stable and  major influence on both        Democratic socialism –
united society; this ‘middle- Labour & Conservative          same ideas as the above but
Political Ideologies


way’ formed part of            governments from 1945-          these are achieved through
Conservative polices in the    1970s. State welfare is there   the ballot box as opposed to
1950s & 1960s, where the       to help people get back on      revolution
state intervenes to tame the   their feet so they can
private enterprise             exercise their individual       Social democracy – the
                               liberty.                        basic structure of capitalism
Liberal conservatism – is                                      remains but are tamed
based on Neo-Liberalism        Neo-liberalism – state          through social equality &
(see adjacent box) was used    intervention is harmful to      social justice; this is evident
by Mrs Thatcher where the      the economy & the               in the creation of the
free market ruled & there      individual by discouraging      welfare state & nationalism
was limited welfare; the       initiative and making           in the 1950s
state is strong to maintain    people dependant on the
public order & uphold          sate                            Socialism and the Labour
traditional values                                             Party – was created in 1900
                                                               to represent the working
                                                               class and in practice adopts
                                                               the ideology of the social
                                                               democrats

                                                               New Labour & the Third
                                                               Way – under Tony Blair
                                                               New Labour ‘forgot’ many
                                                               of the traditional principles
                                                               of the Labour Party, this
                                                               focuses on equality of
                                                               opportunity rather than
                                                               equality and on rights and
                                                               responsibilities rather than
                                                               just rights eg state benefits

				
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posted:11/29/2011
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