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					  Poetry
Vocabulary
      Poetry Vocabulary
Poetry is literature that uses a few
words to tell about ideas, feelings and
paints a picture in the readers mind.
Most poems were written to be read
aloud.
Poems may or may not rhyme.



           Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                     Autumn 2008
Form
 The form of a poem is the way that it
 looks on the page.




            Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                      Autumn 2008
 What a poem looks like:

           Bad Hair Day
I looked in the mirror   line
with shock and with dread
                                     Stanza
to discover two antlers     Rhyming words

had sprung from my head.


               Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                         Autumn 2008
Lines
 The way that poets arrange words into
 lines.
 The lines may or may not be sentences.




           Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                     Autumn 2008
  Stanzas
     Groups of lines in traditional poetry.

What Bugs Me

When my teacher tells me to write a poem.
When my mother tells me to clean up my room.
When my sister practices her violin while I’m watching TV.
When my father tells me to turn off the TV and do my
homework.                                                     Stanza
When my brother picks a fight with me and I have to go to
bed early.
When my teacher asks me to get up in front of the class and
read the poem I wrote on the school bus.


                         Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                                   Autumn 2008
Free Verse
 Poems that do not usually rhyme and
 have no fixed rhythm or pattern. They
 are written like a conversation.




            Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                      Autumn 2008
Sound Devices
 Elements of poetry that use one type of
 sound related characteristic.
   Rhythm
   Meter
   Rhyme
   Onomatopoeia
   And more ...


            Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                      Autumn 2008
Rhythm
 The beat of the poem.
 These are made up patterns of strong
 and weak syllables.




            Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                      Autumn 2008
Meter
 A pattern of stressed and unstressed
 syllables.
 Meter occurs when the stressed and
 unstressed syllables of the words in a poem
 are arranged in a repeating pattern.
 When poets write in meter, they count out the
 number of stressed (strong) syllables and
 unstressed (weak) syllables for each line.
 They repeat the pattern throughout the poem.

              Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                        Autumn 2008
Rhyme
 Sounds that are alike at the end of
 words, such as snow and crow.
 There are several types of rhyme such
 as end rhyme like run and fun,
    internal rhyme as in:
Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak
                    and weary.
 and near rhyme -- words that do not
 exactly rhyme such as rose and lose.
               Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                         Autumn 2008
Sample Rhyme scheme
              The Germ
              Ogden Nash

      A mighty creature is the germ,                A
   Though smaller than the pachyderm.               A
       His customary dwelling place                 B
      Is deep within the human race.                B
    His childish pride he often pleases             C
    By giving people strange diseases.              C
     Do you, my poppet, feel infirm?                A
       You probably contain a germ.                 A

               Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                         Autumn 2008
Alliteration
 Consonant sounds repeated at the
 beginnings of words

 If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled
 peppers, how many pickled peppers did
 Peter Piper pick?




             Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                       Autumn 2008
Onomatopoeia
 Words that imitate the sound they are
 naming:
             BUZZ

 OR sounds that imitate another sound

“The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of
each purple curtain . . .”


              Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                        Autumn 2008
Repetition
The repeating of sounds, words, phrases,
or lines in a poem.
               I like popcorn!
                 I like candy!
                  I like chips!
              I like ice cream!
         I need to brush my teeth!

            Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                      Autumn 2008
Figurative Language and Other
Poetic Devices

 Figurative language                 Tone
 Imagery                             Assonance
 Simile                              Symbolism
 Metaphor                            Idiom
 Personification                     Hyperbole



             Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                       Autumn 2008
Figurative Language
 Words and phrases that help the reader
 picture things in a new way.

Example:
She heard music when he kissed her.



            Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                      Autumn 2008
Imagery
 Words or phrases that appeal to the five
 senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and
 touch.
 Imagery is what helps you paint a
 picture or imagine what is happening or
 what the poet is feeling.
Example:
The hamburgers sizzled on the grill …
              Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                        Autumn 2008
Simile
  A comparison of two things using the
  words like or as.
e.g.
 Her smile was bright like the sun!
 The peach was as delicious as a kiss.
 My dog is as mean as a snake.


             Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                       Autumn 2008
Metaphor
  A comparison of two things WITHOUT
  using “as or like”.
e.g.
  His face is a puzzle to me, I can never
  figure out what he is thinking.




             Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                       Autumn 2008
Personification
  Giving an animal or an object human
  qualities.
e.g.
   My dog smiles at me.
   The house glowed with happiness.
   The car was irritated when she pumped it
   full of cheap gas.


             Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                       Autumn 2008
Tone
 The writer's attitude toward his readers
 and his subject; his mood or moral view.

 A writer can be formal, informal, playful,
 ironic, and especially, optimistic or
 pessimistic.



             Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                       Autumn 2008
 Assonance
  Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of
  poetry.

Examples of ASSONANCE:
“Slow the low gradual moan came in the
  snowing.”
                            -- John Masefield

“Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep.”
                        -- William Shakespeare

               Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                         Autumn 2008
Symbolism
When a person,                                     = Innocence
place, thing, or
event that has
meaning in itself
also represents, or                                = America
stands for,
something else,
usually something
bigger and more                                    =Peace
important.

              Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                        Autumn 2008
                   Idiom

An expression where the literal
meaning of the words is not the
meaning of the expression. It means
something other than what it actually
says.
Ex. It’s raining cats and dogs.


           Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                     Autumn 2008
Hyperbole
  Obvious and intentional exaggeration.
e.g.
    There are a million people in here!
    I could sleep for a year!
    I have a ton of homework tonight!




              Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                        Autumn 2008
No Where Near the End!
There is so much more to poetry ... we
have only scratched the surface ...

Refer to
Jack Lynch: Glossary of Literary and Rhetorical
Terms



              Lecture 9, American Literature (I)
                        Autumn 2008

				
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