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Macarthur Biography

VIEWS: 169 PAGES: 10

									                       General Douglas MacArthur: A Great Leader

        Ken Heim, Danielle Kutcher and Natalie Michael- Monroe Township

Grade Level: Elementary

New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards: 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6

Lesson Summary: In this lesson, students will gain an understanding of the life and
times of Douglas MacArthur and what character traits aided him in becoming a great
military leader and hero. Through the application of a class read aloud, CSI Powerpoint
Presentation on General George Washington, primary documents, and independent
research, students will become “experts” in the development of character traits and key
events which led many to become influential leaders. In addition, students will learn how
to create a double-timeline illuminating these elements.

Suggested Timeframe: Two/Three 40-minute periods

Objectives:

       Students will be able to:

              Define/identify character traits
              Define/identify character traits of a “great man” or leader
              Research and describe the key events in the life of Douglas MacArthur
              Create a timeline including character traits and key events
              Identify and understand primary documents


Historical Contrasts
                                     Essential Historical
United States                             Questions           Japan/Korea
Democratic Republic            1. What is the structure of    Monarchy/Communism
                               the government?
Elected Officials              2. Who or what group           Absolute Rule
                               controls the society?
State and Federal Laws;        3. What defines the identity   Dictatorship and Propaganda;
Separation of Church and       of the people? (Documents,     Combination of Church and
State                          beliefs, ideals, etc.)         State
Historical Background:

        General Douglas MacArthur was born on January 26, 1880 in Little Rock,
Arkansas. He was known as the “liberator of the Philippines, shogun of Occupied Japan,
victor of the Battle of Inchon, and was an admired national hero.” He was America's
most decorated officer during World War I. During World War II, he was defeated but
returned to the Philippines. In the Korean War, he suffered a bitter reversal at the hands
of the Chinese. Fired by Harry Truman in one of the most controversial presidential
decisions in history, he returned home to the greatest hero's welcome.
        In 1899, Douglas MacArthur enrolled at West Point. Arthur MacArthur, his
father and role model, was a Civil War hero who had been awarded the Congressional
Medal of Honor and became the military governor of the Philippines. Douglas devoted
himself to living up to his father. To be a MacArthur meant being brave, a scholar, a
gentleman, and wary of interference from Washington. "You must grow up to be a great
man -- like your father and Robert E. Lee," his mother had whispered to him at bedtime.
        Douglas MacArthur was distinguished on the battlefields of World War I. He was
wounded, gassed, cited as "the greatest front-line general of the war," awarded the
Distinguished Service Medal, and was known for leading his troops into battle carrying a
riding crop.
        MacArthur, 42 years old, married Louise Cromwell Brooks, a wealthy, divorced
socialite ten years younger than himself with two children. The unlikely union between
the high-flying flapper and general ended seven years later. When he was Army Chief of
Staff, he brought Isabel Rosario Cooper, a 27-year-old actress of Scottish and Filipino
ancestry known as "Dimples," to Washington, who had become his mistress in Manila
after his divorce. In 1937, 57-year-old MacArthur wed again, Jean Faircloth, a 37-year-
old from Murfreesboro, Tennessee, who called him "Sir Boss."
        President Franklin Roosevelt cancelled MacArthur's appointment as US Military
Adviser in the Philippines because he feared the Japanese. He remained on the Phillipine
payroll but retired from the Army. As war appeared imminent, FDR recalled MacArthur
and put him in charge of US forces in the Far East. Within hours after their attack on
Pearl Harbor, the Japanese attacked Manila. MacArthur withdrew his troops to Bataan
and Corregidor. Three months later, under orders from Roosevelt, he fled the Philippines
with Jean and their four-year-old son Arthur, declaring "I shall return." His quest to keep
his word became one of the greatest sagas of World War II.
        The General's last campaign was as commander of the UN forces in Korea. In the
spring of 1951, President Harry Truman relieved MacArthur of his command due to his
disagreement on how the Korean War should be conducted. He died in Washington, DC,
in 1964.


Key Terms:

      Hero:         A man of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his brave
       deeds and noble qualities.
      Leader:       A person who rules or guides or inspires others.
      Commander: The commissioned officer in command of a military unit.
      Defeat:          To overcome in a contest, election, or battle
      War:             A conflict carried on by force of arms, as between nations or
       between parties within a nation; warfare, as by land, sea, or air.
      Democracy: Government by the people; a form of government in which the
       supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their
       elected agents under a free electoral system.
      Monarchy: Supreme power or sovereignty held by a single person.
      Communism: A system of social organization in which all economic and social
       activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single and self-
       perpetuating political party.
      Dictatorship: A country, government, or the form of government in which
       absolute power is exercised by a dictator.
      Absolute Rule: Monarch or government leader has complete control of the ship
       of state in his own person and need not consult advisors.
      Propaganda: The spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of
       helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person; ideas, facts.
      Character Traits: Descriptive adjectives that tell us the specific qualities of a
       person.

Do Now: Teacher will read aloud and discuss the book, Sadako and 1000 Paper Cranes
by Eleanor Coerr, to introduce the topics of this lesson.

Critical Thinking Questions:

      How would you describe someone who is considered successful by American
       standards?
      Can a "great man" also have failures and weaknesses?
      Does everybody have the same opportunities? Why or why not?

Anticipatory Set:

       Students will view Power Point CSI presentation that provides clues to the life of
one leader, George Washington. Once students have successfully recognized his identity,
a whole class “character traits”, “leadership”, and “hero” discussion will follow. The
intended goal of the discussion is for students to recognize that this individual 1) had
many different character traits 2) is considered a leader, 3) became a leader through many
achievements and, (later on in the lesson), 4) had influence/support from a family
member.

Procedures:

Day One/Two:

    I. Following the reading of Sadako and 1000 Paper Cranes and the Anticipatory
       Set, using posterboard or chart paper, the teacher will create/record a web
       containing a list of character traits (elicited from the students). Handout attached
       for teacher use, 1.1.; keep posted for student viewing throughout the year.
   II. Students will conduct research of key events on General Douglas MacArthur by
       reading his biography at the following website (or using any resource):
       http://www.psb.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/peopleevents/pande01.html Students
       can find other sites as well, but limit the time to 30 minutes.
  III. Students will record key events and the character trait(s) that corresponds to that
       event on a timeline from Inspiration Software, or handout worksheet (1.4).
  IV. The students will share their timelines.

Day Three-Closure

   I.   Using an overhead or BenQ, the teacher will use primary documents (1.2, 1.3) to
       further explore the development of character traits.
   II. Key questions that are relevant to this lesson will be answered.



 Extension Activities:

                  Once students have done the research on Douglas MacArthur, they
                   might choose to debate his rise to leadership.
                  By using various researching skills and resources, students create a
                   „timeline book‟ on several leaders/heroes.
                  Students can interview a person he/she considers a leader or hero in
                   today‟s world, and document/video/record the interview.

Evaluation:

       Student timeline to be graded for completion and accuracy.

Suggested Homework:

       Day 1: Students will create a character trait web of someone in their family, and
        in a short paragragh, describe how that person has influenced them.
       Day 2: Students will create a timeline of their own life.

Resources:

       CSI Power Point
       Character Traits, 1.1
        http://www.teachervision.fen.com/writing/resource/2669.html
       Primary Document: Letter written by mother #1,#3 (1.2, 1.3a) and Poem #2
        (1.3)(Use Smartboard, overhead projector or BenQ)
       Technology Websites for research
   Timeline Handout Worksheet, 1.4 Powered by TeAch-nology.com- The Web
    Portal For Educators! www.teach-nology.com
   PBS People and Events: Douglas MacArthur:
    http://www.psb.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/peopleevents/pande01.html
                                                                         1.2
From Mother's Pen: Poem #1
When Oscar L. Booz died in the fall of 1901, his parents blamed his death
on the cruel hazing he had been subjected to as a West Point cadet. When
the story received front-page coverage, President McKinley demanded that
West Point conduct an inquiry into hazing at the Academy. Having bravely
withstood his own hazing ordeal, Cadet Douglas MacArthur now faced an
even more difficult challenge: Should he name names, and risk being called
a snitch, or refuse to cooperate, and risk his military career?

"Pinky", MacArthur‟s mother, gave her son encouragement in the form of a
poem. What do you think she was encouraging him to do? What does the
poem say about their relationship, or mother-son relationships in general at
the turn of the century?

Here is the poem in its entirety:

Do you know that your soul is of my soul such a part
That you seem to be fiber and core of my heart?
None other can pain me as you, son, can do;
None other can please me or praise me as you.
Remember the world will be quick with its blame
If shadow or shame ever darken your name.
Like mother like son is saying so true
The world will judge largely of mother by you.
Be this then your task, if task it shall be
To force this proud world to do homage to me.
Be sure it will say, when its verdict you've won
She reaps as she sowed: "This man is her son!"

Resource: American Experience Primary Document
                                                                                        1.3
From Mother's Pen: Letter #2
In 1908, just five years out of West Point, Douglas MacArthur had a fairly significant
career crisis. Following a series of rather exciting assignments -- which included
surveying in the Philippines, touring Asia with his parents, and serving as an aide in
President Theodore Roosevelt's White House, MacArthur was assigned to river and
harbor duties at the engineering office in frigid Milwaukee. While his lack of enthusiasm
might be understandable, it resulted in a poor efficiency report, which threatened his so-
far bright Army career. His superior, Major William Judson, wrote that "MacArthur
seemed to take but little interest in his course at the school and . . . the character of the
work done by him was generally not equal to that of most of the other student officers
and barely exceeded the minimum which would have been permitted." MacArthur did not
take the criticism well, and a feud with Judson ensued.

Perhaps sensing that his career was in jeopardy, Pinky went to work -- in all likelihood
without her son's knowledge -- on finding him a more lucrative career outside of the
Army. On April 17, 1909, Pinky wrote to railroad magnate E.H. Harriman; here are
excerpts from that letter:

My Dear Mr. Harriman,

At Ambassador Griscom's in Tokio [sic] some three years ago, I had the good
fortune to be seated next to you at a luncheon. The amiable manner in which you
then, listened to my talk, in behalf of a possible future for my son Douglas
MacArthur outside the Army, encourages me now, to address you now, in that
connection; and more especially as I recall that first class men are always in
demand, and that you frequently have occasion to seek them....

[While Douglas] cannot be regarded as an expert in any particular subject . . . his
splendid mathamatical [sic] and technical training, together with exceptional
stability of habits and flexibility of mind, fit him for any work, especially of an
administrative character....

Frankly, I would like to see my son filling a place promising more of a future than
the Army does....

The son referred to is 29 years old....
After quietly investigating his background, Harriman's lieutenants approached
Douglas to discuss an offer. They were surprised when he declined to leave the
Army. They wrote, "It is evidently a case where the mother wants to get her son out
of the army, and not where the son is figuring on getting out himself."

Resource: American Experience Primary Document 2
From Mother's Pen: Letter #3                                                      1.3A

In the summer of 1924, things were not going well for Brigadier General Douglas
MacArthur. On the morning of July 7, Philippine Scout troops under his command,
angered by discrimination in pay and general treatment, staged a mutiny at Fort
McKinley. MacArthur had actually been unhappy for some time, and had been trying to
get out of the Philippines. In September 1923 he was turned down for the position of
military attaché in London; later, he would be denied a similar post in Tokyo.

But in August of 1924, he was heartily recommended for promotion -- by his mother:
Confidential My dear General Pershing:

It was a real joy to see you on Saturday looking still so young and wonderfully
handsome!

I think you will never grow old. I have felt particularly unhappy since I had my little
heart-to-heart chat with you. It is just because I know You to be such a noble,
broadminded and just man and friend that I am presuming on long and loyal friendship
for you -- to open my heart in this appeal for my Boy -- and ask if you can't find it
convenient to give him his promotion during Your regime as Chief of Staff?

He now stands number 7th on the list. He made good on the battlefields in France - And
[sic] I have your fine letter to him written in France, telling him that you had
recommended him to be a Major General. The mear [sic] fact that lie is younger in years
than other deserving officers should not be sufficient reason for overslaughing him again-
And of course you must know that every junior man the Department places above him,.
becomes an actual punishment to him that will last for a life time. Men of great
prominence, as well as men at large-have told me that the whole country would approve
his promotion. You are so powerful in all Army mat ters , that you could give him his
promotion by the stroke of your pen! You have never failed me yet -- and somehow 1
feel you will not in th I s request. Your own life is so full to overflowing with joys and
happiness-and deserving success -that it may be hard for you to understand the heartaches
and bitter disappointments in the lives of others. Won't you be real good and sweet -- The
"Dear Old Jack" of long ago - and give me some assurance that you will give my Boy his
well earned promotion before you leave the Army? I would rather have this promotion
from your hands -- than from any other hands in the world. I pledge to keep absolutely to
myself -- in strictest confidence -- any hope you may give me in this matter. If I had the
power -- there is nothing on earth I would not do for you to prove my loyalty and
admiration for you. God bless You - and crown your valuable life - by taking you to the
White House.

Faithfully your friend
Mary P. MacArthur

On September 23, 1924 -- just ten days after Pershing stepped down as Chief of Staff --
Douglas MacArthur became the youngest Major General in the U.S. Army.
                                                                         1.1
                    Character Traits

   Honest                     Bright                   Humble
   Light-hearted              Courageous               Friendly
   Leader                     Serious                  Short
   Expert                     Funny                    Adventurous
   Brave                      Humorous                 Hard-working
   Conceited                  Sad                      Timid
   Mischievous                Poor                     Shy
   Demanding                  Rich                     Bold
   Thoughtful                 Tall                     Daring
   Keen                       Dark                     Dainty


   Happy                       Light                    Pitiful
   Disagreeable                Handsome                 Cooperative
   Simple                      Pretty                   Lovable
   Fancy                       Ugly                     Prim
   Plain                       Selfish                  Proper
   Excited                     Unselfish                Ambitious
   Studious                    Self-confident           Able
   Inventive                   Respectful               Quiet
   Creative                    Considerate              Curious
   Thrilling                   Imaginative              Reserved
   Independent                 Busy                     Pleasing
   Intelligent                 Patriotic                Bossy
   Compassionate               Fun-loving               Witty
   Gentle                      Popular                  Fighter
   Proud                       Successful               Tireless
   Wild                        Responsible              Energetic
   Messy                       Lazy                     Cheerful
   Neat                        Dreamer                  Smart
   Joyful                      Helpful                  Impulsive
   Strong                      Simple-minded            Loyal
                                               1.4
        Douglas MacArthur's Timeline
Dates       Key Event        Character Trait

								
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