Coronary (PowerPoint)

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Amy Lovern, RN, BSN
   It is a condition occurring when the blood and
    oxygen supply to the heart diminish due to
    narrowing blood vessels. Coronary artery and
    arteriosclerotic heart disease are two other
    names for coronary heart disease.
   Coronary heart disease affects 12.6 million
    people in the United States and causes more
    than 500,000 deaths annually.
 Coronary heart disease is cause
by impaired blood flow to the
myocardium (heart).
 Atherosclerosis is the usual

cause of coronary heart disease.
This condition occurs when plaque builds up on
  artery walls causing them to narrow.
 Coronary heart disease may be
asymptomatic or may lead to angina
pectoris (chest pains), myocardial
infarction (heart attack), dysrhythmias,
heart failure, and even sudden death.
   The highest incidence of CHD is in the Western
    world, mainly in white males age 45 and older.
   Both men and women are affected by coronary
    heart disease; in women the onset is about 10
    years later than men due to the heart-protective
    effects of estrogen.
   After menopause, women’s risk is equal to that
    of men.
   Risk factors for CHD are frequently classified as
    non-modifiable, or factors that cannot change,
    and modifiable, those factors that can be
   Age – over 50% of heart attack victims are 65 or
   Gender- men are affected at an earlier age than
   Race- African Americans have a higher incidence
    of hypertension, which contributes to more rapid
    development of atherosclerosis.
   Modifiable risk factors include lifestyle factors
    and pathologic conditions that predispose the
    person to developing CHD.

   Pathologic conditions which contribute to CHD
    include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and
   Hypertension is consistent blood pressure
    readings greater than 140 mmHg systolic or 90
    mmHg diastolic.
   Hypertension is common, affecting more than
    one-third of people over the age of 50 in the
    United States.
   Diabetes mellitus contributes to CHD in several
   Diabetes is associated with hyperlipidemia,
    hypertension, and obesity, all risk factors in their
    own right.
   Diabetes affects blood vessels, contributing to
    the process of atherosclerosis.
   Hyperlipidemia is an abnormally high level of
    blood lipids and lipoproteins. Lipoproteins carry
    cholesterol in the blood.
   Low-density lipoproteins (Less Desirable
    Lipoproteins) are the primary carriers of
   High-density lipoproteins (Highly Desirable
    Lipoproteins) help clear cholesterol from the
    arteries, transporting it to the liver for excretion.
   Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor
    for CHD, responsible for more deaths from CHD
    than from lung cancer or pulmonary disease.
   Obesity (body weight greater than 30% over
    ideal body weight) , increased BMI (body mass
    index), and fat distribution affect the risk of CHD.
   Physical Inactivity is associated with higher risk
    for CHD.
   Diet may be a risk factor for CHD.
  The male cigarette smoker has 2 to 3 times the risk
   of developing heart disease than the nonsmoker.
   The female who smokes has up to 4 times the risk.
 For both men and women who

stop smoking, the risk of mortality
from CHD is reduced by half.
 Second-hand smoke increases the

risk of death from CHD by as much as 30%.
   Eat a variety of nutritious foods
    from all food groups.
   Eat fish at least twice a week.
    Recent research shows that eating
    oily fish containing omega-3 fatty
    acids (salmon, herring, and trout)
    may help lower your risk of death
    from coronary artery disease.
   Eat unrefined whole-grain foods,
    which contain fiber that can help
    lower blood cholesterol.
 partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to reduce
  trans fats.
 beverages and foods with added sugars.

 foods high in dietary cholesterol. Aim to eat

less than 300 milligrams of cholesterol each day.
 foods high in sodium. Aim for less than

2,300 milligrams of sodium per day.
  Research indicates that people who maintain a
   regular program of physical activity are less
   prone to developing CHD than sedentary people.
 Cardiovascular benefits of exercise
include increased availability of oxygen
 to the heart muscle, decreased oxygen
demand and cardiac workload, and
decreased blood pressure.
 The normal heart is a strong, muscular pump,
  about the size of a fist.
 Each day the average heart beats (expands
  and contracts) 100,000 times and pumps
  about 2,000 gallons of blood.
 In a 70-year lifetime, the average human heart
  will beat approximately 2.5 billion times.
   The heart has four chambers:
    two on the right and two on the left.
   The two upper chambers are
    called the atria.
   The two lower chambers are
    called ventricles.

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