StPaul-HL by niusheng11

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									STUDIUM BIBLICUM FRANCISCANUM - JERUSALEM
   34TH BIBLICAL & THEOLOGICAL COURSE
            ST. PAUL
               march 25 – 28, 2008




                                                            Memories
                                                            of St. Paul
                                                        in the Holy Land
                                                             Presentation
                    S. Paul the Apostle.
                                                           by E. Alliata, ofm
         Detail of a painting by M. Barberis (1930)            updated version
        in the Church of the Flagellation - Jerusalem
                                  •
       Giscala                 Giscala


el-Jish, Gush Halav               •
                        JERUSALEM




                      Panorama of El-Jish (Galilee)
                                About Epaphra, prisoner with Paul we have
                             heard this story (fabulam): It has been reported
                             that the parents of the Apostle were of the region
                             of Giscala of Judaea but, when all the Roman
                             province was subverted and the Jews dispersed
                             throughout the world, they had moved themsel-
                             ves to Tarsus, a city of Cilicia. The adolescent
                             Paul would have followed its parents and therefo-
                             re what he says of himself would be also true.
                                                              (Jerome, Comm. Fil., 23)


                           Ancient Synagogue (IVth century)




Catholic Maronite church
   At 22 3 “I am a Jew,                                                                     •
born in Tarsus in                                                                         Tarsus
Cilicia, but brought
up in this city. At
the feet of Gama-                                                                                •
liel I was educated                                                                 JERUSALEM
strictly in our an-
cestral law and was
zealous for God, just
as all of you are to-
day. 4 I persecuted
this Way to death,
                                  Theodotos’ inscription found here…
binding both men and
women and deliver-                       Theodotos, son of Vettenos, kohen and ar-
                                         chisynagogos (synagogue leader), son of an
ing them to prison.                      archisynagogos, grandson of an archisyna-
5
  Even the high priest                   gogos, who built the synagogue f o r t h e

and the whole coun-
                                         r e a din g o f t h e l a w a n d t h e t e a ch in g
                                         o f t h e c o m m a n dm e n t s , and the guest
cil of elders can tes-                   house, chambers, and water supplies to

tify on my behalf.
                                         serve as an inn for those who come from
                                         abroad, and whose fathers, with the elders
                                         and Simonidus, founded the synagogue.




                Jerusalem, al-Quds, Yerushalaim
                                                                                 At 7 58 They
                                                                              threw him out of
                                                                              the city, and be-
                                                                                                             Cedron Valley
                                                                              gan to stone him.
                                                                              The witnesses
                                                                              laid down their
                                                                              cloaks at the feet
                                                                              of a young man
                                                                              named Saul.


                                   The Rock of the Martyrdom of St. Stephen
Photo: 1890 circa




Greek-orthodox chapel at present                                                                   St-Étienne of the dominicans




                            Jerusalem, al-Quds, Yerushalaim
     Acre, Akko, Akka, Ptolemais




                                                          Acre •



                                                               •
                                                           JERUSALEM

The promontory upon which the Old City od Acre is built
   At 21 7 We continued the voyage and came from Tyre
to Ptolemais, where we greeted the brothers and stayed
a day with them.
   8
     On the next day we resumed the trip and came to
Caesarea, where we went to the house of Philip the evan-
gelist, who was one of the Seven, and stayed with him.
9
  He had four virgin daughters
gifted with prophecy.




Church of St. John the Baptist at the Sea                  Bronze panels by Nazareno Panzeri - 2005
       Damascus Gate

                                    Cedron Valley
                          El-Aqsa




             Mount Sion




Jerusalem, al-Quds, Yerushalaim
   At 21 15 After these
days we made prepara-
                             Mount Sion
tions for our journey,
then went up to Jerusa-
lem. 16 Some of the disci-
ples from Caesarea came
along to lead us to the
house of Mnason, a Cy-
priot, a disciple of long
standing, with whom we                                       The Holy Cenacle. Interior view
were to stay. 17 When we
reached Jerusalem the
brothers welcomed us
warmly. 18 The next day,
Paul accompanied us              Photos: 1890 circa
on a visit to James, and
all the presbyters were
present. 19 He greeted
them, then proceeded to
tell them in detail what
God had accomplished
among the Gentiles
through his ministry.

                                 The Holy Cenacle. External view
   At 21 27When the seven
days were nearly completed,                                       Temple Mount
the Jews from the province
of Asia noticed him in the
temple, stirred up the whole
crowd, and laid hands on him,
28
  shouting, “Fellow Israelites,
help us. This is the man who is
teaching everyone everywhe-
re against the people and the
law and this place, and what      Fragment of a Greek inscription:
is more, he has even brought      “No Gentile may enter beyond
Greeks into the temple and        the dividing wall into the court
defiled this sacred place.”        around the Holy Place; whoever
29
  For they had previously seen    is caught will be to blame for
Trophimus the Ephesian in         his subsequent death.”
the city with him and suppo-
sed that Paul had brought him
into the temple. 30The whole
city was in turmoil with peo-
ple rushing together. They
seized Paul and dragged him
out of the temple, and imme-
diately the gates were closed.
                                  Fragment in the Rockefeller Museum
                                  (a complete exemplar is in a museum at Istambul)
Second Temple

Zerubbalel
                   phasing

                        I.
                              Temple Mount
(V cent. BC)


Seleucids - Acra        II.
(III cent. BC)


Asmonaeans             III.
(II cent. BC)                          Town of Jerusalem
                                      in the time of Jesus


Herod                  IV.
(I cent. AD)




Umayyads                V.
(VIII cent. AD)
                                      The Antonia fortress
                            Photo: 1910 circa




                                                             At 23 10 The dispute was so
                                                          serious that the commander,
                                                          afraid that Paul would be torn
                                                          to pieces by them, ordered his
                                                          troops to go down and re-
                                                          scue him from their midst
                                                          and take him into the com-
                                                          pound. 11 The following ni-
                                                          ght the Lord stood by him and
                                                          said, “Take courage. For just
                                                          as you have borne witness to
                                                          my cause in Jerusalem, so
                                                          you must also bear witness in
Photos and drawings from: L. Ritmeyer, The Quest (2007)   Rome.” .
   At 23 23 Then he                       Ottoman castle built to protect

summoned two of
                                          the sources of the Yarqon River

the centurions and
said, “Get two hun-
dred soldiers ready
                                                                            Antipatris
                                                                                •
to go to Caesarea by
nine o’clock tonight,                                                            •
along with seventy                                                           JERUSALEM
horsemen and two
hundred auxiliaries.
24
   Provide mounts for
Paul to ride and give
him safe conduct to
Felix the governor.”
31
   So the soldiers, ac-
cording to their or-
ders, took Paul and
escorted him by
night to Antipatris.
32
   The next day they
re turned to the com-
pound, leaving the

                          Antipatris, Ras el-‘Ayn, Rosh haAyn
horsemen to complete
the journey with him.
    The Roman Road
     and the sources
   of the Yarkon River


                                     The Paved Roman Road




Yarqon sources   Photo: 1920 circa
                           Caesarea, Kaisariya, Caesarea Maritima




                                                            •
                                                         Caesarea
                                                              •
                                                          JERUSALEM

Aereal photo of Caesarea
                     Herod’s Promontory Palace




                                                   Excavation
                                                      area
33
  When they arrived in Caesarea they delivered
the letter to the governor and presented Paul to
him. 34When he had read it and asked to what
province he belonged, and learned that he was
from Cilicia, 35he said, “I shall hear your case
when your accusers arrive.” Then he ordered that
he be held in custody in Herod’s praetorium.
                                           At 25 23The next day Agrippa and Bernice came with
                                        great ceremony and entered the audience hall in the
                                        company of cohort commanders and the prominent men of
                                        the city and, by command of Festus, Paul was brought in.
                                           At 26 28Then Agrippa said to Paul, “You will soon
                                        persuade me to play the Christian.” 29Paul replied, “I
                        Public area
                        of the palace
                                        would pray to God that sooner or later not only you but
                                        all who listen to me today might become as I am except
                                        for these chains.” 30Then the king rose, and with him
                                        the governor and Bernice and the others who sat with
                                        them. 31And after they had withdrawn they said to one
                                        another, “This man is doing nothing (at all) that deserves
                                        death or imprisonment.”
                            Private
                             area




The Promontory Palace
          Public
Private
           area
 area

                   The Promontory Palace
     1              2a               2b                 2c
                  Good            O Good            O Good
   To the          hope            Hope!             Hope!
   sacred         to the         I came to         I came to
  Genius        assistants       the gates         the gates
   of the      (adiutorib[us]) (adivi orib[us]) (adivi orib[us])
Frumentarii.   of the office of the office             of this
 Good luck     in charge of in charge of             office.
    in all       prisoners    prisoners             I will be
   things      (custodiar[um]) (custodiar[um])       secure
                                                    (custodiar)
                                                                                     A replica of
                           1                                      2                     Pilatus
                                                                                      inscription
                                           Drawing                                     found in
                                          of two on                                 secondary use




                                                                      degli scavi
                                          four latin                                in the theatre




                                                                        Area
                                         inscriptions
                                            found
                                            in the
                                           Roman
                                          Pretorium




                  The Roman Pretorium
          Excavation
             area




 The Palace of the
Byzantine Governor
                       Main Christian findings in the new excavations of Caesarea (1992-1997).
                                       Paintings (in red) and mosaics (in blue)
 Memories of St. Paul in the civic area
                                      Biblical
                                      mosaic
                                    inscriptions           Chapel
                                                         built upon
                                                          granaries




Liturgical objects
                                Christ and
                               the Apostles Cross and
                                             names




                                                                                 “Crux gemmata”
                                Paul[e]                         reconstruction    with inscription
                                                                                   “boast of the
                                                                                     Apostles”:
                                                                                   “[Aposto]lōn
                                                                                   kauchêm[a]”

                                                                                 From Paul’s Letter to the Galatians:
                     Marbles                                                     6 14 But may I never boast (kauchàsthai –>
                                                       Eucharistic               kauchêma) except in the cross of our Lord
                                                                                 Jesus Christ, through which the world has
                                                      bread stamp.
                                                    “Eulogìa Kyrìou…
                                                                                 been crucified to me, and I to the world.
                                                        P]aulo[u”
From Paul’s Letter                                                                From Paul’s Letter to the Romans:
to the Romans:                                Entrance to the Governor’s Palace
                                                                                  13 3 For rulers are not a cause of fear
13 3 … Do you wish to                                                             to good conduct, but to evil.
have no fear of au-                                                               Do you wish to have no fear of au-
thority? Then do what            Biblical                                         thority? Then do what is good and
is good and you will             mosaic                                           you will receive approval from it
receive approval from                                                             … 6 This is why you also pay taxes,
                               inscriptions

it, 4 for it is a servant of                                                      for the authorities are ministers of
God for your good. But                                                            God, devoting themselves to this
if you do evil, be afraid,                                                        very thing.
for it does not bear the
sword without purpose.
A




B
    Paintings found in the
    palace substructions:
    A: “Orantes” – Saints.
    B: Christ with apostles.
    Paul, at Jesus’ right,
    marked by a red arrow
    in this archaeol. relief)
                           The Byzantine and Crusader Churches




   Excavation
      area




            From Pagan Temple to
              Christian Church


Roman Temple of Augustus            Byzantine Octagonal Church
H. V. Morton, In the Steps of St. Paul, London 1936, p. 358-359, 361-364.
In Caesarea he meets a Greek monk, and visits the church and crypt of St. Paul’s prison.
“The Bishop (of Caesarea) lives in Jerusalem, and I, Father John, am merely a watch-dog
— a caretaker… I watch a piece of land which the Greek Orthodox Church has possessed
since the time of the Byzantine Empire. It is all that is left of our great possessions. All, all,
was once Christian… but now, well, you can see for yourself!”…
“Are there are no Christians in Caesarea to-day, not even one family?” I asked.
“There are four families – he replied – but they are Latins and Maronites. You, sir, seem
interested in such things?” I told him that I was writing a book about St. Paul. At the sound
of St. Paul’s name, he slipped a leg over the withers of his horse and jumped to the ground,
coming towards me with outstretched arms as if about to embrace me.
“Thrice welcome to Caesarea! – he cried – You come and see my church, which is dedicated
to St. Paul”.                                                                                        Photo: 1930 circa




                                         Cathedral Church:
                                       St. Peter’s or St. Paul’s?
       Photo: 1960 circa
              The sea port of                                                       •
                                                                                 ROME

             Caesarea Maritima                                                                     •
                                                                                              Caesarea

  At 27 1 When it was decided that we should sail to Italy, they handed Paul and some other prisoners over
to a centurion named Julius of the Cohort Augusta.2 We went on board a ship from Adramyttium bound
for ports in the province of Asia and set sail [with Rome as the final destination].




Crusader masonry upon the Herodian sea-walls.

								
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