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STUDIUM BIBLICUM FRANCISCANUM - JERUSALEM 34TH BIBLICAL & THEOLOGICAL COURSE ST. PAUL march 25 – 28, 2008 Memories of St. Paul in the Holy Land Presentation S. Paul the Apostle. by E. Alliata, ofm Detail of a painting by M. Barberis (1930) updated version in the Church of the Flagellation - Jerusalem • Giscala Giscala el-Jish, Gush Halav • JERUSALEM Panorama of El-Jish (Galilee) About Epaphra, prisoner with Paul we have heard this story (fabulam): It has been reported that the parents of the Apostle were of the region of Giscala of Judaea but, when all the Roman province was subverted and the Jews dispersed throughout the world, they had moved themsel- ves to Tarsus, a city of Cilicia. The adolescent Paul would have followed its parents and therefo- re what he says of himself would be also true. (Jerome, Comm. Fil., 23) Ancient Synagogue (IVth century) Catholic Maronite church At 22 3 “I am a Jew, • born in Tarsus in Tarsus Cilicia, but brought up in this city. At the feet of Gama- • liel I was educated JERUSALEM strictly in our an- cestral law and was zealous for God, just as all of you are to- day. 4 I persecuted this Way to death, Theodotos’ inscription found here… binding both men and women and deliver- Theodotos, son of Vettenos, kohen and ar- chisynagogos (synagogue leader), son of an ing them to prison. archisynagogos, grandson of an archisyna- 5 Even the high priest gogos, who built the synagogue f o r t h e and the whole coun- r e a din g o f t h e l a w a n d t h e t e a ch in g o f t h e c o m m a n dm e n t s , and the guest cil of elders can tes- house, chambers, and water supplies to tify on my behalf. serve as an inn for those who come from abroad, and whose fathers, with the elders and Simonidus, founded the synagogue. Jerusalem, al-Quds, Yerushalaim At 7 58 They threw him out of the city, and be- Cedron Valley gan to stone him. The witnesses laid down their cloaks at the feet of a young man named Saul. The Rock of the Martyrdom of St. Stephen Photo: 1890 circa Greek-orthodox chapel at present St-Étienne of the dominicans Jerusalem, al-Quds, Yerushalaim Acre, Akko, Akka, Ptolemais Acre • • JERUSALEM The promontory upon which the Old City od Acre is built At 21 7 We continued the voyage and came from Tyre to Ptolemais, where we greeted the brothers and stayed a day with them. 8 On the next day we resumed the trip and came to Caesarea, where we went to the house of Philip the evan- gelist, who was one of the Seven, and stayed with him. 9 He had four virgin daughters gifted with prophecy. Church of St. John the Baptist at the Sea Bronze panels by Nazareno Panzeri - 2005 Damascus Gate Cedron Valley El-Aqsa Mount Sion Jerusalem, al-Quds, Yerushalaim At 21 15 After these days we made prepara- Mount Sion tions for our journey, then went up to Jerusa- lem. 16 Some of the disci- ples from Caesarea came along to lead us to the house of Mnason, a Cy- priot, a disciple of long standing, with whom we The Holy Cenacle. Interior view were to stay. 17 When we reached Jerusalem the brothers welcomed us warmly. 18 The next day, Paul accompanied us Photos: 1890 circa on a visit to James, and all the presbyters were present. 19 He greeted them, then proceeded to tell them in detail what God had accomplished among the Gentiles through his ministry. The Holy Cenacle. External view At 21 27When the seven days were nearly completed, Temple Mount the Jews from the province of Asia noticed him in the temple, stirred up the whole crowd, and laid hands on him, 28 shouting, “Fellow Israelites, help us. This is the man who is teaching everyone everywhe- re against the people and the law and this place, and what Fragment of a Greek inscription: is more, he has even brought “No Gentile may enter beyond Greeks into the temple and the dividing wall into the court deﬁled this sacred place.” around the Holy Place; whoever 29 For they had previously seen is caught will be to blame for Trophimus the Ephesian in his subsequent death.” the city with him and suppo- sed that Paul had brought him into the temple. 30The whole city was in turmoil with peo- ple rushing together. They seized Paul and dragged him out of the temple, and imme- diately the gates were closed. Fragment in the Rockefeller Museum (a complete exemplar is in a museum at Istambul) Second Temple Zerubbalel phasing I. Temple Mount (V cent. BC) Seleucids - Acra II. (III cent. BC) Asmonaeans III. (II cent. BC) Town of Jerusalem in the time of Jesus Herod IV. (I cent. AD) Umayyads V. (VIII cent. AD) The Antonia fortress Photo: 1910 circa At 23 10 The dispute was so serious that the commander, afraid that Paul would be torn to pieces by them, ordered his troops to go down and re- scue him from their midst and take him into the com- pound. 11 The following ni- ght the Lord stood by him and said, “Take courage. For just as you have borne witness to my cause in Jerusalem, so you must also bear witness in Photos and drawings from: L. Ritmeyer, The Quest (2007) Rome.” . At 23 23 Then he Ottoman castle built to protect summoned two of the sources of the Yarqon River the centurions and said, “Get two hun- dred soldiers ready Antipatris • to go to Caesarea by nine o’clock tonight, • along with seventy JERUSALEM horsemen and two hundred auxiliaries. 24 Provide mounts for Paul to ride and give him safe conduct to Felix the governor.” 31 So the soldiers, ac- cording to their or- ders, took Paul and escorted him by night to Antipatris. 32 The next day they re turned to the com- pound, leaving the Antipatris, Ras el-‘Ayn, Rosh haAyn horsemen to complete the journey with him. The Roman Road and the sources of the Yarkon River The Paved Roman Road Yarqon sources Photo: 1920 circa Caesarea, Kaisariya, Caesarea Maritima • Caesarea • JERUSALEM Aereal photo of Caesarea Herod’s Promontory Palace Excavation area 33 When they arrived in Caesarea they delivered the letter to the governor and presented Paul to him. 34When he had read it and asked to what province he belonged, and learned that he was from Cilicia, 35he said, “I shall hear your case when your accusers arrive.” Then he ordered that he be held in custody in Herod’s praetorium. At 25 23The next day Agrippa and Bernice came with great ceremony and entered the audience hall in the company of cohort commanders and the prominent men of the city and, by command of Festus, Paul was brought in. At 26 28Then Agrippa said to Paul, “You will soon persuade me to play the Christian.” 29Paul replied, “I Public area of the palace would pray to God that sooner or later not only you but all who listen to me today might become as I am except for these chains.” 30Then the king rose, and with him the governor and Bernice and the others who sat with them. 31And after they had withdrawn they said to one another, “This man is doing nothing (at all) that deserves death or imprisonment.” Private area The Promontory Palace Public Private area area The Promontory Palace 1 2a 2b 2c Good O Good O Good To the hope Hope! Hope! sacred to the I came to I came to Genius assistants the gates the gates of the (adiutorib[us]) (adivi orib[us]) (adivi orib[us]) Frumentarii. of the ofﬁce of the ofﬁce of this Good luck in charge of in charge of ofﬁce. in all prisoners prisoners I will be things (custodiar[um]) (custodiar[um]) secure (custodiar) A replica of 1 2 Pilatus inscription Drawing found in of two on secondary use degli scavi four latin in the theatre Area inscriptions found in the Roman Pretorium The Roman Pretorium Excavation area The Palace of the Byzantine Governor Main Christian ﬁndings in the new excavations of Caesarea (1992-1997). Paintings (in red) and mosaics (in blue) Memories of St. Paul in the civic area Biblical mosaic inscriptions Chapel built upon granaries Liturgical objects Christ and the Apostles Cross and names “Crux gemmata” Paul[e] reconstruction with inscription “boast of the Apostles”: “[Aposto]lōn kauchêm[a]” From Paul’s Letter to the Galatians: Marbles 6 14 But may I never boast (kauchàsthai –> Eucharistic kauchêma) except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has bread stamp. “Eulogìa Kyrìou… been cruciﬁed to me, and I to the world. P]aulo[u” From Paul’s Letter From Paul’s Letter to the Romans: to the Romans: Entrance to the Governor’s Palace 13 3 For rulers are not a cause of fear 13 3 … Do you wish to to good conduct, but to evil. have no fear of au- Do you wish to have no fear of au- thority? Then do what Biblical thority? Then do what is good and is good and you will mosaic you will receive approval from it receive approval from … 6 This is why you also pay taxes, inscriptions it, 4 for it is a servant of for the authorities are ministers of God for your good. But God, devoting themselves to this if you do evil, be afraid, very thing. for it does not bear the sword without purpose. A B Paintings found in the palace substructions: A: “Orantes” – Saints. B: Christ with apostles. Paul, at Jesus’ right, marked by a red arrow in this archaeol. relief) The Byzantine and Crusader Churches Excavation area From Pagan Temple to Christian Church Roman Temple of Augustus Byzantine Octagonal Church H. V. Morton, In the Steps of St. Paul, London 1936, p. 358-359, 361-364. In Caesarea he meets a Greek monk, and visits the church and crypt of St. Paul’s prison. “The Bishop (of Caesarea) lives in Jerusalem, and I, Father John, am merely a watch-dog — a caretaker… I watch a piece of land which the Greek Orthodox Church has possessed since the time of the Byzantine Empire. It is all that is left of our great possessions. All, all, was once Christian… but now, well, you can see for yourself!”… “Are there are no Christians in Caesarea to-day, not even one family?” I asked. “There are four families – he replied – but they are Latins and Maronites. You, sir, seem interested in such things?” I told him that I was writing a book about St. Paul. At the sound of St. Paul’s name, he slipped a leg over the withers of his horse and jumped to the ground, coming towards me with outstretched arms as if about to embrace me. “Thrice welcome to Caesarea! – he cried – You come and see my church, which is dedicated to St. Paul”. Photo: 1930 circa Cathedral Church: St. Peter’s or St. Paul’s? Photo: 1960 circa The sea port of • ROME Caesarea Maritima • Caesarea At 27 1 When it was decided that we should sail to Italy, they handed Paul and some other prisoners over to a centurion named Julius of the Cohort Augusta.2 We went on board a ship from Adramyttium bound for ports in the province of Asia and set sail [with Rome as the ﬁnal destination]. Crusader masonry upon the Herodian sea-walls.
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