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									www.osha.gov



                     Small Business Handbook




Small Business Safety and
Health Management Series

OSHA 2209-02R 2005
Employers are responsible for providing a safe and      Clause in Section 5(a)(1) of the Act for failure to fol-
healthful workplace for their employees. OSHA’s         low recommendations in this handbook.
role is to assure the safety and health of America’s        The materials in this handbook are based upon
workers by setting and enforcing standards; provid-     Federal OSHA standards and other requirements in
ing training, outreach and education; establishing      effect at the time of publication and upon generally
partnerships; and encouraging continual improve-        accepted principles and activities within the job
ment in workplace safety and health.                    safety and health field. They should be useful to
                                                        small business owners or managers and can be
About this Handbook                                     adapted easily to individual establishments.
                                                            It is important to point out that 24 states, Puerto
   This handbook is provided to owners, propri-         Rico and the Virgin Islands operate their own
etors and managers of small businesses by the           OSHA-approved safety and health programs under
Occupational Safety and Health Administration           Section 18 of the Act. While the programs in these
(OSHA), an agency of the U.S. Department of             State Plan States may differ in some respects from
Labor. For additional copies of this publication,       Federal OSHA, this handbook can be used by
write to the U.S. Government Printing Office,           employers in any state because the standards
(GPO), Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop           imposed by State Plan States must be at least as
SDE, 732 N. Capitol Street, NW, Washington, DC          effective as Federal OSHA standards. A list of
20401, or call the OSHA Publications Office at (202)    states that operate their own safety and health pro-
693-1888, or fax (202) 693-2498 for ordering infor-     grams can be found on OSHA’s website at
mation. Please note that the entire text of the         www.osha.gov.
Small Business Handbook is available on OSHA’s              Material in this publication is in the public
website at http://www.osha.gov/Publications/            domain and may be reproduced, fully or partially,
osha2209.pdf.                                           without permission. Source credit is requested but
   The handbook should help small business em-          not required.
ployers meet the legal requirements imposed by              This information will be made available to sen-
the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (the     sory impaired individuals upon request by voice
Act), and achieve an in-compliance status before an     phone (202) 693-1999 or teletypewriter (TTY) (877)
OSHA inspection. An excellent resource to accom-        889-5627   .
pany this information is OSHA’s Safety and Health
Program Management Guidelines, (54 Federal              Please Note: The small business employer seeking
Register 3904-3916, January 26, 1989), also avail-      information on procurement or contracting with the
able on OSHA’s website.                                 Department of Labor or OSHA should contact the
   This handbook is not a legal interpretation of the   Department of Labor’s Office of Small Business
provisions of the Act and does not place any addi-      Programs, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Room C-
tional requirements on employers or employees.          2318, Washington, DC 20210.
Employers cannot be cited under the General Duty
Small Business Handbook
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
U.S. Department of Labor

OSHA 2209-02R
2005




     U.S. Department of Labor
         www.osha.gov
Contents
PREFACE                                                                        4
Office of Small Business Assistance                                            4
Cooperative Programs                                                           4
State Plans                                                                    4
Office of Training and Education                                               4
OSHA’s Website                                                                 5
Safety and Health Add Value                                                    5

INTRODUCTION: The Value of a Safety and Health Management System               6
A Profit and Loss Statement                                                    6
Developing a Profitable Strategy for Handling Occupational Safety and Health   6

A FOUR-POINT WORKPLACE PROGRAM: The Basis of a Plan                             8
Using the Four-Point Program                                                    8
MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT                                  8
WORKSITE ANALYSIS                                                               9
HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL                                                   9
TRAINING FOR EMPLOYEES, SUPERVISORS AND MANAGERS                               10
Documenting Your Activities                                                    11
Safety and Health Recordkeeping                                                11
INJURY/ILLNESS RECORDS                                                         11
EXPOSURE RECORDS AND OTHERS                                                    12

STARTING A SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Creating a Plan                13
Decide to Start Now                                                            13
Designating Responsibility                                                     13
Ask for Help                                                                   13
Organize the Workplace                                                         14
Start Gathering Specific Facts About Your Situation                            14
Establish a Four-Point Safety and Health Program                               15
Develop and Implement Your Action Plan                                         15

SELF-INSPECTION                                                                17
Self-Inspection Scope                                                          17
Self-Inspection Checklists                                                     18
EMPLOYER POSTING                                                               18
RECORDKEEPING                                                                  18
SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM                                                      18
MEDICAL SERVICES AND FIRST AID                                                 19
FIRE PROTECTION                                                                19
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING                                     20
GENERAL WORK ENVIRONMENT                                                       20
WALKWAYS                                                                       21
FLOOR AND WALL OPENINGS                                                        21
STAIRS AND STAIRWAYS                                                           22
ELEVATED SURFACES                                                              22
EXITING OR EGRESS - EVACUATION                                                 22
EXIT DOORS                                                                     23
PORTABLE LADDERS                                                               23
HAND TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT                                                       24
PORTABLE (POWER OPERATED) TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT                                  24
ABRASIVE WHEEL EQUIPMENT GRINDERS                                              24
POWER-ACTUATED TOOLS                                                           25
MACHINE GUARDING                                                               25
LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURES                                                      26
WELDING, CUTTING AND BRAZING                                                   27
COMPRESSORS AND COMPRESSED AIR                                                 28
COMPRESSORS/AIR RECEIVERS                                                           28
COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS                                                            29
HOIST AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT                                                       29
INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS - FORKLIFTS                                                       29
SPRAYING OPERATIONS                                                                 30
ENTERING CONFINED SPACES                                                            30
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS                                                              31
FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS                                                 32
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL EXPOSURE                                                         33
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES COMMUNICATION                                                  34
ELECTRICAL                                                                          35
NOISE                                                                               37
FUELING                                                                             37
IDENTIFICATION OF PIPING SYSTEMS                                                    37
MATERIALS HANDLING                                                                  38
TRANSPORTING EMPLOYEES AND MATERIALS                                                38
CONTROL OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES BY VENTILATION                                        38
SANITIZING EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING                                                   39
TIRE INFLATION                                                                      39

ASSISTANCE IN SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR SMALL BUSINESSES                                40
OSHA Assistance                                                                     40
OSHA’S OFFICE OF SMALL BUSINESS ASSISTANCE                                          40
ON-SITE CONSULTATION                                                                40
OTHER COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS                                                          41
VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS (VPP)                                                 42
OSHA STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM (OSPP)                                           42
OSHA ALLIANCE PROGRAM                                                               42
States with Approved Plans                                                          42
OSHA Publications                                                                   42
Other Sources of Assistance                                                         43
VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS PARTICIPANTS’ ASSOCIATION (VPPPA)                     43
SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS                                                  43
NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH)                       44
WORKERS’ COMPENSATION CARRIERS AND OTHER INSURANCE COMPANIES                        44
TRADE ASSOCIATIONS AND EMPLOYER GROUPS                                              44
TRADE UNIONS AND EMPLOYEE GROUPS                                                    44
THE NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL AND LOCAL CHAPTERS                                      44
PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS                                                           44
SPECIFIC MEDICAL CONSULTATION                                                       44
YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY                                                                  45
FINANCING WORKPLACE IMPROVEMENT                                                     45
ADDITIONAL WEB PAGES OF INTEREST TO SMALL BUSINESSES                                45

Appendix A: Overall Action Plan Worksheet                                           46

Appendix B: Model Policy Statements                                                 48

Appendix C: Codes of Safe Practices                                                 49

Appendix D: OSHA Job Safety and Health Standards, Regulations
            and Requirements                                                        50

Appendix E:   Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (SBREFA)   51

OSHA Regional Offices                                                               52

OSHA’s Non-Retaliation Policy                                                       53
4   PREFACE
       American employers and workers want safe              sector and other government entities lead to
    and healthful places in which to work. They want         improved safety and health. As a result, OSHA
    everyone on the job to go home whole and healthy         continues to expand its cooperative programs
    each day. Determined to make that dream possi-           which currently include the free and confidential
    ble, OSHA is committed to assuring – so far as pos-      Consultation Program, the Voluntary Protection
    sible – that every working man and woman in the          Programs, the Strategic Partnership Program and
    nation has safe and healthful working conditions.        OSHA’s newest addition, Alliances. For a more
    OSHA believes that providing workers with a safe         detailed description of each of these programs,
    workplace is central to their ability to enjoy health,   please see pages 40- 42.
    security and the opportunity to achieve the                 Small businesses are encouraged to investigate
    American dream.                                          the full array of cooperative programs offered by
       OSHA seeks to cut unnecessary rules, regula-          OSHA. Participation can be on an individual com-
    tions and red tape. It is eliminating thousands of       pany basis or through an industry association.
    pages of outdated regulations and continues to           Detailed information on each program is also avail-
    rewrite standards in plain English. OSHA is paring       able on OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov, by con-
    down its regulatory agenda so that it more accu-         tacting any OSHA office, or by calling (800) 321-
    rately reflects realistic goals that best serve the      OSHA.
    needs of American employers and employees.
       Confronted by the realities and demands to            State Plans
    keep pace with the workforce and problems of the
    future, OSHA is developing new strategies to                 OSHA has important partnerships with the 24
    reduce occupational fatalities, injuries and illness-    states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands that oper-
    es. Coupled with strong, effective and fair enforce-     ate their own OSHA-approved safety and health
    ment, OSHA strives to provide improved outreach,         programs. State workplace safety and health pro-
    education and compliance assistance to America’s         grams frequently lead the way in developing inno-
    employers and employees.                                 vative approaches to making America’s workplaces
                                                             safer and healthier.
    Office of Small Business Assistance                          States that operate their own worker safety and
                                                             health plans must provide worker protection that is
        OSHA wants to provide quality service to our         “at least as effective as” the Federal program.
    small business customers. In October 2002, OSHA          However, because their standards and other proce-
    created the Office of Small Business Assistance to       dures may vary, businesses should become famil-
    provide small business direction, to facilitate infor-   iar with their state regulations and agencies. See
    mation sharing and to help in finding and achiev-        OSHA’s website for a list of State Plan States.
    ing regulatory compliance. The office also works to
    educate small businesses on using up-to-date tools       Office of Training and Education
    and materials, and facilitates opportunities to com-
    ment on OSHA’s regulatory agenda. The Office of              OSHA’s Office of Training and Education
    Small Business Assistance maintains OSHA’s spe-          provides training and instruction in all facets of
    cialized small business web pages found at http://       occupational safety and health. OSHA’s Training
    www.osha.gov/dcsp/smallbusiness/index.html.              Institute, located in Arlington Heights, IL, provides
        The Office of Small Business Assistance can be       training for OSHA compliance safety and health
    contacted by telephone at (202) 693-2220 or by           officers as well as for the general public and safety
    writing to: Director, Office of Small Business           and health staff from other Federal agencies. In
    Assistance, 200 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Room          addition to OSHA’s Training Institute, there are 32
    N-3700, Washington, DC 20210.                            additional education sites located throughout the
                                                             country. These OSHA education centers operate in
    Cooperative Programs                                     conjunction with universities, colleges and learning
                                                             centers to conduct OSHA courses for the private
       Years of experience show us that voluntary col-       sector and other Federal agencies, making safety
    laborative relationships between OSHA, the private       and health training and education more accessible



                                          OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                     5

to those who need it. There are tuition fees for pri-             If you would like to receive regular updates
vate sector students. For more information about              from OSHA about new programs, tools, best prac-
OSHA’s Training Institute, OSHA’s education cen-              tices and other useful information, subscribe to the
ters, or to obtain training catalogs with course              agency’s e-news memo, QuickTakes. QuickTakes is
schedules, write the OSHA Training Institute, 2020            issued twice monthly to subscribers and is always
South Arlington Heights Road, Arlington Heights, IL           available online. You can subscribe to OSHA’s
60005 or call (847) 297-4810. The information is              QuickTakes at www.osha.gov.
also fully accessible on the Internet at
www.osha.gov.                                                 Safety and Health Add Value

OSHA’s Website                                                   Addressing safety and health issues in the work-
                                                              place saves the employer money and adds value to
    OSHA has made every effort to continuously                the business. Recent estimates place the business
expand and improve its website. OSHA’s extensive              costs associated with occupational injuries at close
website provides employers and employees with                 to $170 billion–expenditures that come straight out
practical, easy-to-understand and up-to-date guid-            of company profits.
ance on regulations, compliance assistance and                   When workers stay whole and healthy, the
learning how to identify and control hazards. Each            direct cost-savings to businesses include:
OSHA cooperative program has individual web                      s lower workers’ compensation insurance costs;

pages describing program elements and highlight-                 s reduced medical expenditures;

ing successes of the participants. Several pages                 s smaller expenditures for return-to-work

are devoted to small business, technical links, news               programs;
items, publication lists and an inventory of compli-             s fewer faulty products;

ance assistance tools, including expert advisors                 s lower costs for job accommodations for

and e-tools. E-tools are “stand-alone” interactive,                injured workers;
web-based training tools on occupational safety                  s less money spent for overtime benefits.

and health topics. Regulations, standards, direc-
tives and interpretations relating to OSHA can be                Safety and health also make big reductions in
found as well. There is a Spanish version of the              indirect costs, due to:
OSHA website, and many posters and some publi-                   s increased productivity;

cations are also available in Spanish.                           s higher quality products;

    OSHA’s web pages include MyOSHA, which                       s increased morale;

allows users to create their own personalized                    s better labor/management relations;

OSHA web page with customized content and                        s reduced turnover;

links. Quick Start is another tool on OSHA’s                     s better use of human resources.

Compliance Assistance web page that allows the
user to identify many of the major OSHA require-                 Employees and their families benefit from
ments and guidance materials that apply to their              safety and health because:
individual workplaces or industry sectors.                       s their incomes are protected;

    Through its website, OSHA invites citizens to e-             s their family lives are not hindered by injury;

mail questions that can be routed to appropriate                 s their stress is not increased.

agency officials for response. Any communication
conducted via the “Contact Us” link on the OSHA                   Simply put, protecting people on the job is in
website is considered an informational exchange               everyone’s best interest–our economy, our commu-
rather than an official communication with the                nities, our fellow workers and our families. Safety
Department of Labor. For an official response to a            and health add value to businesses, workplaces
question or concern, inquiries should be submitted            and lives.
in writing.




                                                Occupational Safety and
                                                 Health Administration
6   INTRODUCTION: The Value of a Safety and Health Management System
    A Profit and Loss Statement                               Developing a Profitable Strategy for
                                                              Handling Occupational Safety and Health
        As a small business owner, you are, by nature,
    a risk taker. You wager your business acumen                  Nobody wants accidents to happen in his or her
    against larger, perhaps more heavily financed cor-        business. A serious fire, a permanent injury, or the
    porate groups and other free-spirited, self-employ-       death of an employee or owner can cause the loss
    ed individuals like yourself. There is excitement         of profit or even an entire business. To prevent
    and challenge in such a venture, but to succeed           such losses, you don’t have to turn your business
    you need good management information, an abili-           upside down. You may not have to spend a lot of
    ty to be a good manager of people and the intelli-        money, either. You do need to use good business
    gence and inner strength to make the right deci-          sense and apply recognized prevention principles.
    sions.                                                        There are reasons why accidents happen.
        Thousands of workers die each year and many,          Something goes wrong somewhere. It may take
    many more suffer injury or illness from conditions        some thought, and maybe the help of friends or
    at work. But how often does an owner or manager           other trained people, to figure out what went
    like you actually see or even hear about work-relat-      wrong, but an accident always has a cause–a rea-
    ed deaths, serious injuries or illnesses in the busi-     son why. Once you know why an accident hap-
    nesses with which you are familiar? How often has         pened, it is possible to prevent future incidents.
    your business actually sustained this type of loss?       You need some basic facts and perhaps some help
        In most small businesses, the answer is rarely.       from others who already know some of the an-
    For this reason, many owners or managers do not           swers. You also need a plan–a plan to prevent acci-
    understand why there is controversy about the             dents.
    Occupational Safety and Health Administration                 Not all dangers at your worksite depend on an
    (OSHA), job safety and health standards, inspec-          accident to cause harm, of course. Worker expo-
    tions, citations, etc.                                    sure to toxic chemicals or harmful levels of noise
        But others have learned why. Unfortunately,           or radiation may happen in conjunction with rou-
    they have experienced a loss. These owner/man-            tine work as well as by accident. You may not real-
    agers will tell you that it is too late to do anything    ize the extent of the exposure or harm that you and
    once a serious accident happens. They have learn-         your employees face. The effect may not be imme-
    ed that prevention is the only real way to avoid this     diate. You need a plan that includes prevention of
    loss.                                                     these health hazard exposures and accidents. You
        Reducing losses is a goal that you as an owner        need a safety and health management system.
    or manager share with us in OSHA. While we may                It is not difficult to develop such a plan. Basi-
    see this goal in a slightly different light, it remains   cally, your plan should address the types of acci-
    a common bond.                                            dents and health hazard exposures that could hap-
        We have learned from small employers, like            pen in your workplace. Because each workplace is
    you, that you place a high value on the well-being        different, your program should address your spe-
    of your employees. Like many small businesses,            cific needs and requirements.
    you may employ family members and personal                    There are four basic elements to all good safety
    acquaintances. And, if you don’t know your em-            and health programs. These are as follows:
    ployees before they are hired, then chances are
    that the very size of your workplace will promote         1. Management Commitment and Employee
    the closeness and concern for one another that            Involvement. The manager or management team
    small businesses value.                                   leads the way, by setting policy, assigning and sup-
        Assuming that you are committed to safe and           porting responsibility, setting an example and in-
    healthful work practices, OSHA wants to work with         volving employees.
    you to prevent all losses. We believe that, when you
    make job safety and health a real part of your every-     2. Worksite Analysis. The worksite is continually ana-
    day operations, you will not lose in the long run.        lyzed to identify all existing and potential hazards.
    Investing in safety and health activity now will better
    enable you to avoid possible losses in the future.        3. Hazard Prevention and Control. Methods to pre-



                                           OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                      7

vent or control existing or potential hazards are put         It will certainly give you a way to express and doc-
in place and maintained.                                      ument your good faith and commitment to protect-
                                                              ing your workers’ health and safety.
4.Training for Employees, Supervisors and                          This approach usually does not involve large
Managers. Managers, supervisors and employees                 costs. Developing a health and safety protection
are trained to understand and deal with worksite              plan does not have to be expensive and generally
hazards.                                                      does not require additional employees, especially
                                                              in smaller businesses. Safety and health can be
   Regardless of the size of your business, you               integrated into your other business functions with
should use each of these elements to prevent work-            modest effort on your part.
place accidents and possible injuries and illnesses.               The key to the success of a safety and health
   Developing a workplace program following                   plan is to see it as a part of your business opera-
these four points is a key step in protecting you             tion and to see it reflected in your day-to-day oper-
and your workers’ safety and health. If you already           ations. As you implement the plan and incorporate
have a program, reviewing it in relation to these             it into your business culture, safety and health
elements should help you improve what you have.               awareness will become second nature to you and
   Following this four-point approach to safety and           your employees.
health in your business may also improve efficien-                 The next section provides short descriptions
cy. It may help you reduce insurance claims and               and illustrations of each element. Since most
other costs. While having a safety and health plan            employers, like you, are pressed for time, these
based on these four elements does not guarantee               descriptions will assist you in getting started on
compliance with OSHA standards, the approach                  your own approach.
will help you toward full compliance and beyond.




                                                Occupational Safety and
                                                 Health Administration
8   A FOUR-POINT WORKPLACE PROGRAM: The Basis of a Plan
        The Four-Point Workplace Program described            assets you have. Their safety, health and goodwill
    here is based upon the Safety and Health Program          are essential to the success of your business. Hav-
    Management Guidelines issued by OSHA in                   ing them cooperate with you in protecting their
    January 1989. (For a free copy of the guidelines,         safety and health not only helps to keep them
    go to OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov, write to            healthy–it makes your job easier.
    OSHA Publications, U.S. Department of Labor, P  .O.          Here are some actions to consider:
    Box 37535, Washington, DC 200013-7535, or call
    (202) 693-1888.) Although voluntary, these guide-            s   Post your policy on worker safety and health
    lines represent OSHA’s policy on what every work-                next to the OSHA Workplace Poster where
    site should have in place to protect workers from                all employees can see it. (See Appendix B,
    occupational hazards. The guidelines are based                   Model Policy Statements.)
    heavily on OSHA’s experience with its Voluntary
    Protection Programs (VPP), which recognize excel-            s   Hold a meeting with all employees to commu-
    lence in workplace safety and health management.                 nicate your safety and health policy, and dis-
    For more information on these guidelines and                     cuss your objectives for safety and health.
    OSHA’s cooperative programs, contact OSHA’s
    Office of Small Business Assistance, U.S.                    s   Make sure that your support is visible by get-
    Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue,                    ting personally involved in the activities that
    NW, Room N-3700, Washington, DC 20210, (202)                     are part of your safety and health program.
    693-2220.                                                        For example, personally review all inspection
                                                                     and accident reports and ensure that follow-
    Using the Four-Point Program                                     up occurs when needed.

       As you review this publication, we encourage              s   Ensure that you, your managers and your
    you to use the Action Plan Worksheet in Appendix                 supervisors follow all safety requirements that
    A to jot down the things you want to do to make                  apply to all employees, even if you are only in
    your workplace safe for your employees. Noting                   an area briefly. If, for instance, you require a
    those actions as you go along will make it easier                hard hat, safety glasses and/or safety shoes in
    to assemble the total plan you need.                             an area, wear them yourself when you are in
                                                                     that area.
            MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT AND
               EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT                              s   Take advantage of your employees’ special-
         As the owner or manager of a small business,                ized knowledge and encourage them to buy
    your attitude toward job safety and health will be               into the program by having them make in-
    reflected by your employees. If you are not inter-               spections, conduct safety training, or investi-
    ested in preventing employee injury and illness,                 gate accidents.
    your employees will probably not give safety and
    health much thought either.                                  s   Make clear assignments of responsibility for
         Therefore, it is essential that you demonstrate at          every part of your safety and health program,
    all times your personal concern for employee safety              and make sure everyone understands them.
    and health, and the priority you place on them in                The more people who are involved, the better.
    your workplace. Your policy must be clear. Only you              A good rule of thumb is to assign safety and
    can show its importance through your own actions.                health responsibilities in the same way you
         You can demonstrate the depth of your commit-               assign production responsibilities. Make it a
    ment by involving your employees in planning and                 special part of everyone’s job to work safely.
    carrying out your efforts. If you seriously involve
    your employees in identifying and resolving safety           s   Give those with safety and health responsibili-
    and health problems, they will bring their unique                ty enough people, time, training, money and
    insights and energy to achieving the goals and                   authority to get the job done.
    objectives of your program. The men and women
    who work for you are among the most valuable                 s   Don’t forget your safety and health program



                                           OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                           9

      after you make assignments; make sure the                        ards. The checklists (at pages 18-39) provide a
      job gets done. Recognize and reward those                        starting point. Your state consultant can assist
      who do well and correct those who don’t.                         you in establishing an effective system.

  s   At least once a year, review what you have                   s   Make sure your employees feel comfortable in
      accomplished in meeting your objectives and                      alerting you or another member of manage-
      re-evaluate whether you need new objectives                      ment when they see things that look danger-
      or program revisions.                                            ous or out of place.

  s   Institute an accountability system where all                 s   Learn how to conduct a thorough investiga-
      personnel will be held accountable for not fol-                  tion when things go wrong. This will help you
      lowing work rules designed to promote work-                      develop ways to prevent recurrences. Exten-
      place safety and health.                                         sive information can be found on OSHA’s
                                                                       website under “Accident Investigation” in the
                WORKSITE ANALYSIS                                      index.
    It is your responsibility to know what items or
substances you have in your workplace that could                   s   Review several years of injury or illness rec-
hurt your workers. Worksite analysis is a group of                     ords to identify patterns that can help you
processes that helps you make sure that you know                       devise strategies to improve your safety and
what you need to keep your workers safe. For help                      health program. Periodically review several
in getting started with these processes, you can call                  months of experience to determine if any new
on your state on-site Consultation Program and                         patterns are developing.
have an experienced health and safety professional
visit your workplace for free and confidentially.                          HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL
Locations for each state are listed on OSHA’s web-                 Once you have identified your existing and
site. Also, OSHA’s booklet, Job Hazard Analysis,               potential hazards, you are ready to implement the
may be helpful. (See OSHA Publications at page                 systems that prevent or control those hazards.
42 for ordering information.)                                  Your state Consultation Program can help you do
    Here are some actions to consider:                         this. Whenever possible, hazards should be elimi-
                                                               nated. Sometimes that can be done through sub-
  s   Request a consultation visit from your state             stitution of a less toxic material or engineering con-
      on-site Consultation Program covering both               trols. When you cannot eliminate hazards, systems
      safety and health to get a full survey of the            should be established to control them.
      hazards that exist in your workplace and those               Here are some actions to consider:
      that could develop. You can also contract for
      such services from expert private consultants                s   Set up safe work procedures based on an
      if you prefer.                                                   analysis of the hazards in your workplace and
                                                                       ensure that employees understand and follow
  s   Establish a way to get professional advice                       them. It is a good idea to involve employees
      when you make changes to procedures or                           in the analysis that results in those procedures.
      equipment, to ensure that the changes are not                    (See Appendix C, Codes of Safe Practices.)
      introducing new hazards into your workplace.
      Find ways to keep current on newly recog-                    s   Be ready to enforce the rules for safe work
      nized hazards in your industry.                                  procedures. Ask your employees to help you
                                                                       establish a disciplinary system that will be fair
  s   Periodically review with employees each job,                     and understood by everyone.
      analyzing it step-by-step to see if there are any
      hidden hazards in the equipment or procedures.               s   Where necessary, ensure that personal protec-
                                                                       tive equipment (PPE) is used and that your em-
  s   Set up a self-inspection system to check your                    ployees know why they need it, how to use it
      hazard controls and evaluate any new haz-                        and how to maintain it.



                                                 Occupational Safety and
                                                  Health Administration
10

        s   Provide for regular equipment maintenance to               first aid. First aid supplies must be readily
            prevent breakdowns that can create hazards.                available for emergency use. Arrangements
            Ensure that preventive and regular mainte-                 for this training can be made through your
            nance are tracked to completion.                           local Red Cross chapter, your insurance carri-
                                                                       er, your local safety council, and others.
        s   Plan for emergencies, including fire and natu-
            ral disasters. Conduct frequent drills to en-          s   Check battery charging stations, maintenance
            sure that all employees know what to do                    operations, laboratories, heating and ventilat-
            under stressful conditions.                                ing operations and any corrosive materials
                                                                       areas to make sure the required eye-wash
        s   Ask your state consultant to help develop a                facilities and showers are operational.
            medical program that fits your worksite. In-
            volve nearby doctors and emergency facilities          s   Consider retaining a local doctor or an occu-
            by inviting them to visit your workplace and               pational health nurse on a part-time or as-
            help you plan the best way to avoid injuries               needed basis for advice on medical and first
            and illness during emergency situations.                   aid planning.

        s   Ensure the ready availability of medical per-              TRAINING FOR EMPLOYEES, SUPERVISORS
            sonnel for advice and consultation on matters                         AND MANAGERS
            of employee health. This does not mean that             An effective accident prevention program re-
            you must provide health care, but you must          quires proper job performance from everyone in
            be prepared to deal with medical emergencies        the workplace.
            or health problems connected to your work-              As an owner or manager, you must ensure that
            place.                                              all employees know about the materials and equip-
                                                                ment they work with, known hazards and how to
         To fulfill the above requirements, consider the        control the hazards.
     following:                                                     Each employee needs to know that:
                                                                      • no employee is expected to undertake a job
        s   Develop an emergency medical procedure to                   until he or she has received job instructions
            handle injuries, transport ill or injured workers           on how to do it properly and is authorized to
            and notify medical facilities. Posting emer-                perform that job. Also,
            gency numbers is a good idea.                             • no employee should undertake a job that
                                                                        appears unsafe.
        s   Survey the medical facilities near your place           You may be able to combine safety and health
            of business and make arrangements for them          training with other training, depending upon the
            to handle routine and emergency cases. Co-          types of hazards in your workplace.
            operative agreements may be possible with               Here are some actions to consider:
            nearby larger workplaces that have on-site
            medical personnel and/or facilities.                   s   Ask your state consultant to recommend train-
                                                                       ing for your worksite. The consultant may be
        s   Ensure that your procedure for reporting                   able to conduct training while he or she is
            injuries and illnesses is understood by all                there.
            employees.
                                                                   s   Make sure you have trained your employees
        s   Perform routine walkthroughs of the worksite               on every potential hazard that they could be
            to identify hazards and to track identified haz-           exposed to and how to protect themselves.
            ards until they are corrected.                             Then verify that they really understand what
                                                                       you taught them.
        s   If your business is remote from medical facili-
            ties, you are required to ensure that adequate-        s   Pay particular attention to your new employ-
            ly trained personnel are available to render               ees and to employees who are moving to new



                                             OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                          11

      jobs. Because they are learning new opera-                             INJURY/ILLNESS RECORDS
      tions, they are more likely to get hurt.                      OSHA rules for recording and reporting occupa-
                                                                tional injuries and illnesses affect 1.4 million estab-
  s   Train your supervisors to understand all the              lishments. Small businesses with 10 or fewer
      hazards faced by the employees and how to                 employees throughout the year are exempt from
      reinforce training with quick reminders and               most of the requirements of the OSHA recordkeep-
      refreshers, or with disciplinary action if neces-         ing rules, as are a number of specific industries
      sary.                                                     in the retail, service, finance, insurance and real
                                                                estate sectors that are classified as low-hazard.
  s   Make sure that your top management staff                  Detailed information about OSHA recordkeeping
      understand their safety and health responsi-              rules can be found at http://www.osha.gov/record-
      bilities and how to hold subordinate supervi-             keeping/index.html or refer to 29 Code of Federal
      sory employees accountable for theirs.                    Regulations (CFR) 1904 for the specific exceptions.
                                                                    OSHA recordkeeping can help the small busi-
Documenting Your Activities                                     ness employer evaluate the success of safety and
                                                                health activities. Success can be measured by a
    Document your activities in all elements of the             reduction or elimination of employee injuries and
Four-Point Workplace Program. Essential records,                illnesses during a calendar year.
including those legally required for workers’ com-                  The OSHA recordkeeping system has five steps:
pensation, insurance audits and government in-
spections must be maintained as long as the actual              1. Obtain a report on every injury or job-related ill-
need exists or as required by law. Keeping records              ness requiring medical treatment (other than basic
of your activities, such as policy statements, train-           first aid).
ing sessions, safety and health meetings, informa-
tion distributed to employees, and medical                      2. Record each injury or job-related illness on
arrangements made, is greatly encouraged.                       OSHA Form 300 (Log of Work-Related Injuries and
Maintaining essential records also will demonstrate             Illnesses) using the instructions provided.
sound business management as supporting proof
for credit applications, for showing “good faith” in            3. Prepare a supplementary record of occupational
reducing any proposed penalties from OSHA                       injuries and illnesses for recordable cases on
inspections, for insurance and other audits, and aid            OSHA Form 301 (Injury and Illness Incident Report).
efficient review of your current safety and health
activities for better control of your operations and            4. Every year, prepare an annual summary using
to plan improvements.                                           OSHA Form 300A (Summary of Work-Related
                                                                Injuries and Illnesses). Post it no later than
Safety and Health Recordkeeping                                 February 1, and keep it posted until May 1. A good
                                                                place to post it is next to the OSHA Workplace
   Records of sales, costs, profits and losses are              Poster.
essential to all successful businesses. They enable
the owner or manager to learn from experience                   5. Retain these records for at least five years.
and to make corrections for future operations.
Records of accidents, related injuries, illnesses and              Periodically review these records to look for any
property losses can serve the same purpose, if they             patterns or repeat situations. These records can
are used in the same way. The primary purpose of                help you to identify high-risk areas that require
OSHA-required recordkeeping is to retain informa-               your immediate attention.
tion about accidents that have happened to help
determine the causes and develop procedures to                     Basic OSHA recordkeeping requirements
prevent a recurrence.                                           address only injuries and illnesses, so you might
                                                                consider expanding your own records to include all




                                                  Occupational Safety and
                                                   Health Administration
12

     incidents, including those where no injury or illness            EXPOSURE RECORDS AND OTHERS
     resulted. This information may assist you in pin-           In addition to injury/illness records, certain
     pointing unsafe conditions and/or procedures.            OSHA standards require records on the exposure
     Safety councils, insurance carriers and others can       of employees to toxic substances and hazardous
     assist you in instituting such a system.                 exposures, physical examination reports and
        The employer is required to report to OSHA            employment records.
     within eight hours of the accident, all work-related        As you identify hazards, you will be able to
     fatalities or multiple hospitalizations that involve     determine whether these requirements apply to
     three or more employees.                                 your workplace. Your records should be used in
        Even if your business is exempt from routine          conjunction with your control procedures and with
     recordkeeping requirements, you may be selected          your self-inspection activity. They should not be
     by the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) or       considered merely as bookkeeping.
     a related state agency for inclusion in an annual
     sample survey. You will receive a letter directly from
     the agency with instructions, if you are selected.




                                           OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
STARTING A SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Creating a Plan                                                       13

   You can use this handbook to create a basic                Designating Responsibility
plan of action for starting a safety and health
management system at your business. The action                    You must decide who in your company is the
plan described in this section provides the most              most appropriate person to manage your safety
direct route to getting yourself organized to com-            and health system. Who can ensure that the pro-
plete the Four-Point Program outlined in the previ-           gram will become an integral part of your busi-
ous section.                                                  ness? In many cases it will be you, the owner.
                                                              Sometimes it will be a plant manager or key super-
Decide to Start Now                                           visor. It could even be an engineer, personnel spe-
                                                              cialist, or other staff member.
    The time to start your safety and health man-                 Whoever you choose should be committed to
agement system is now. You have a better picture              workplace safety and health, have the time to de-
of what constitutes a good safety and health pro-             velop and manage the program, and be willing to
gram. Now you can address the practical concerns              take on the responsibility and accountability that
of putting these elements together and coming up              goes with operating an effective program. The indi-
with a program to suit your workplace.                        vidual will need your full cooperation and support,
    Hopefully, you have been taking notes for your            but the ultimate responsibility for safety and health
action plan as you reviewed the preceding de-                 in your workplace rests on you.
scription of the Four-Point Program. You should
now be ready to decide what you want to accom-                Ask for Help
plish and to determine what steps are necessary
to achieve your goals. Next you need to deter-                    Federal occupational safety and health law
mine how and when each step will be done and                  allows a state to develop and operate its own occu-
who will do it.                                               pational safety and health program in place of the
    Your plan should consider your company’s                  Federal OSHA program. It is possible that the reg-
immediate needs and provide for ongoing, long-                ulatory aspect of the law (setting of mandatory
lasting worker protection. Once your plan is                  minimum standards and conducting inspections of
designed, it is important to follow through and               workplaces) is being operated by your state gov-
use it in the workplace. You will then have a pro-            ernment as opposed to Federal OSHA.
gram to anticipate, identify and eliminate condi-                 One of the first things to learn is which branch
tions or practices that could result in injuries and          of government, Federal or state, has current juris-
illnesses.                                                    diction over your business. If you are not sure
    If you have difficulty deciding where to begin, a         what agency is responsible for administering work-
phone call to your state Consultation Program will            place safety and health in your state, contact the
help get you started. A state consultant will survey          nearest OSHA Area Office to find out. (See
your workplace for existing or potential hazards.             www.osha.gov). You will need certain Federal
Then, if you request it, he or she will determine             OSHA publications (or comparable state publica-
what you need to make your safety and health pro-             tions) for use in your safety and health activities,
gram effective. The consultant will work with you             such as:
to develop a plan for making these improvements
and to keep your program effective.                               s   OSHA Workplace Poster (Job Safety and
    Whether you choose to work with a consultant                      Health Protection - OSHA 3165). You must dis-
or to develop your program yourself, many publi-                      play the Federal or state OSHA poster in your
cations are available from your state on-site Con-                    workplace. This poster is also available in
sultation Program or from OSHA that spell out in                      Spanish (Job Safety and Health Protection
greater detail the steps you can take to create an                    OSHA-3167).
effective safety and health program for your work-
place. The rewards for your efforts will be an effi-              s   OSHA standards that apply to your business.
cient and productive workplace with a low level of                    You need to have a copy of all OSHA stan-
loss and injury.                                                      dards that apply to your type of business
                                                                      available for reference. (See Appendix D.)



                                                Occupational Safety and
                                                 Health Administration
14

            Standards are the regulations that OSHA uses      vey should focus on evaluating workplace condi-
            to inspect for compliance and should be the       tions with respect to safety and health regulations
            baseline for your inspections in determining      and generally recognized safe and healthful work
            what to do when hazards are identified. Most      practices. It should include checking on the use of
            businesses fall under OSHA’s General Industry     any hazardous materials, observing employee work
            Standards. If you are involved with construc-     habits and practices, and discussing safety and
            tion or maritime operations, you will need the    health problems with employees. See the Self-
            standards that apply to these classifications.    Inspection Checklists (at pages 18-39), to help you
            (In states with state-run occupational safety     get a good start on creating this initial survey.
            and health programs, use the appropriate
            state standards.)                                 2. The second major activity is to assess your exist-
                                                              ing safety and health program and identify areas
        s   Recordkeeping requirements and the neces-         that work well and those that need improvement.
            sary forms.                                       You should gather as much information as you can
                                                              that relates to safety and health management in
        s   Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970.       your workplace. You should include the following
            You may want a copy of this legislation for       in this review:
            reference.
                                                                 s   Safety and health activities. Examine ongo-
     Organize the Workplace                                          ing activities as well as those tried previously,
                                                                     company policy statements, rules (both work
         Poor housekeeping can contribute to low                     and safety), guidelines for proper work prac-
     morale and sloppy work. Most safety action pro-                 tices and procedures, and records of training
     grams start with an intensive cleanup campaign in               programs.
     all areas of the workplace.
         Get rid of unecessary items; provide proper             s   Equipment. List your major equipment, what
     waste containers; store flammables properly; make               it is used for and where it is located. Special
     sure exits are not blocked; mark aisles and pas-                attention should be given to inspection sched-
     sageways; provide adequate lighting, etc.                       ules, maintenance activities, and plant and
         Get everyone involved and impress upon em-                  office layouts.
     ployees that you want to make your workplace
     safer, more healthful and more efficient.                   s   Employee capabilities. Make an alphabetical
                                                                     list of all employees, showing the date hired,
     Start Gathering Specific Facts                                  their job descriptions, and experience and
     About Your Situation                                            training.

         Before making changes in your safety and                s   Accident and injury/illness history. Review
     health operations, you should gather information                first aid cases and workers’ compensation
     about the current conditions and business practices             insurance payments and awards, and review
     that comprise your safety and health program.                   your losses. Compare your insurance rate
     This information can help you identify problems                 with others in your group. Give special atten-
     and determine what is needed to solve them.                     tion to recurring accidents, types of injuries,
         Your workplace assessment should be conduct-                etc.
     ed by the person responsible for your safety and
     health management system and/or a professional              After gathering facts, see if any major problem
     safety and health consultant. The assessment con-        areas emerge such as interruptions in your normal
     sists of two major activities:                           operations, too many employees taking too much
                                                              time off due to illness or injury, too many damaged
     1. A comprehensive safety and health survey of           products, etc. General help with this kind of prob-
     your entire facility will identify any existing or       lem identification can often be obtained from com-
     potential safety and health hazards. This initial sur-   pensation carriers, local safety councils, trade asso-



                                           OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                         15

ciations, state agencies, major suppliers or similar-               Establish and regularly conduct a worksite
ly situated businesses in the same industry.                    analysis. A successful safety and health program
    If you discover a major problem, see what can               depends on an accurate identification of all the haz-
be done to solve it. Once a problem is identified,              ards and potential hazards in your workplace. This
you can work on the corrective action or a plan to              is an ongoing process that includes routine self-
control the problem. Take immediate action and                  inspections.
make a record of what you have done. Even if you                    Create systems and procedures to prevent and
find no major problems, don’t stop there. Now it is             control hazards identified through your worksite
time to develop a comprehensive safety and health               analysis. OSHA standards can be helpful because
program to avoid any major problems in the future.              they address controls in order of effectiveness and
                                                                preference. The hierarchy of controls is engineer-
Establish a Four-Point Safety and                               ing, administrative, work practice and PPE. When-
Health Program                                                  ever feasible, engineering, administrative or work
                                                                practice controls should be instituted even if they
    The success of any workplace safety and health              do not eliminate the hazard or reduce exposure.
program depends on careful planning. This means                 Use of such controls in conjunction with PPE will
that you must take the time to analyze what you                 help reduce the hazard or exposure to the lowest
want to accomplish and develop an action plan in                practical level. Where no standard exists, creative
order to attain your goals. From this standpoint,               problem-solving and consultant resources may
you can design a step-by-step process to take you               help you create effective controls. The basic formu-
from the idea stage to an effective safety and                  la for controlling workplace hazards, in order of
health management system.                                       preference, includes:
    The best way to create a safe and healthful
workplace is to institute the Four-Point Program                   s   Eliminating the hazard from the machine, the
discussed at page 8 of this handbook.                                  method, the material or the facility.
    Establish your management commitment and
involve your employees. No safety and health                       s   Abating the hazard by limiting exposure or
program will work without this commitment and                          controlling it at its source.
involvement. The first step is to designate a person to
be responsible for your safety and health program.                 s   Training personnel to be aware of the hazard
    Involve your employees as widely as possible                       and to follow safe work procedures to avoid it.
from the beginning. They are most in contact with
the potential and actual safety and health hazards                 s   Prescribing PPE for protecting employees
at your worksite and will have constructive input                      against the hazard and ensuring that they not
on the development of your program. The ultimate                       only use it, but that they know how to use it
success of your safety and health program will                         correctly.
depend on their support.
    Make sure your program assigns responsibility                  Establish and provide ongoing training for
and accountability to all employees in your organi-             employees, supervisors and managers to ensure
zation. A good safety and health program makes it               that everyone at your worksite can recognize haz-
clear that each and every employee, from you                    ards and how to control them.
through the supervisory levels to the line worker,                 These points are crucial to a safe and healthful
carries responsibility for his or her part of the pro-          workplace for you and your employees, making it
gram. Make safety and health duties clear and                   more difficult for accidents to occur and for work-
hold every individual accountable for his or her                related health problems to develop.
safety- and health-related duties.
    Refer to the recommended actions to take in the             Develop and Implement Your Action Plan
Worksite Analysis paragraph at page 9. These will
help start your program off on the right track. You                Developing an action plan to build a safety and
will be building the foundation for a successful                health program around the four points can serve as
safety and health program.                                      a “road map” to take your program to where you



                                                 Occupational Safety and
                                                  Health Administration
16

     want it to be. An action plan tells you what has to     Remember, a safety and health program is a plan
     be done, the logical order in which to do it, who is    put into practice. Keep your program on track by
     responsible and where you want to be when you           periodically checking its progress and by calling on
     finish. It describes problems and solutions, but is     a state consultant when you need assistance.
     not ironclad. An action plan can and should be              Any good management system requires period-
     changed to correspond with changes in the work-         ic review. Take a careful look at each component of
     place.                                                  your safety and health program to determine what
         A good action plan has two parts:                   is working well and what changes are needed.
                                                             Once again, a state consultant can assist you in this
     1. A list of major changes or improvements to make      area. Any necessary improvements can be turned
     your safety and health program effective. Each          into new safety and health objectives for the com-
     item should be prioritized, have a target date for      ing year. Developing new action plans to imple-
     completion and identify who is responsible for          ment these improvements will continue progress
     implementation.                                         toward an effective safety and health program,
                                                             reduce your safety and health risks, and increase
     2. A specific plan to implement each major change       efficiency and profit.
     or improvement, including what you want to                  Remember that it is important to document
     accomplish, the steps required, who will be             your activities. The best way to evaluate the suc-
     assigned to do what and a schedule for comple-          cess of your safety and health program is to have
     tion.                                                   documentation of what you have done, which pro-
                                                             vides guidance on how you can make it work even
         A worksheet to help you design an overall           better.
     action plan and describe specific action steps              Technical assistance may be available to you as
     appears in Appendix A.                                  a small business owner or manager through your
         Once a plan is established, put it into action,     insurance carrier; your fellow business-people; sup-
     beginning with the highest priority item. Ensure        pliers of your durable equipment and raw materi-
     that it is realistic, manageable and addresses the      als; the local safety council; and many local, state
     steps you have planned for that item. A detailed        and Federal agencies, including the state on-site
     description of the steps required will help you keep    Consultation Programs and closest OSHA Area
     track of your progress. Keep in mind that you can       Office.
     work on more than one item at a time and that pri-          Establishing a quality safety and health man-
     orities may change as other needs are identified or     agement system will take time and involve some
     as your company’s resources change.                     resources, but you should be pleased with the
         Open communication with your employees is           results. Employees will feel reassured because of
     crucial to the success of your efforts. Their cooper-   your commitment to their safety and health on the
     ation depends on them understanding what the            job. You may save money through increased pro-
     safety and health program is all about, why it is       ductivity and reduced workers’ compensation in-
     important to them and how it affects their work.        surance costs. You may gain increased respect in
     The more you do to involve them in the changes you      your community. The tangible and intangible re-
     are making, the smoother your transition will be.       wards for a solid safety and health program far
         Putting your action plan into operation at your     outweigh the cost of an accident, injury or work-
     workplace will be a major step toward implement-        place fatality.
     ing an effective safety and health program.




                                          OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
SELF-INSPECTION                                                                                                            17

    The most widely accepted way to identify haz-                  s   Building and Grounds Conditions – floors,
ards is to conduct safety and health inspections                       walls, ceilings, exits, stairs, walkways, ramps,
because the only way to be certain of an actual sit-                   platforms, driveways, aisles.
uation is to look at it directly from time to time.
    Begin a program of self-inspection in your own                 s   Housekeeping Program – waste disposal,
workplace. Self-inspection is essential if you are to                  tools, objects, materials, leakage and spillage,
know where probable hazards exist and whether                          cleaning methods, schedules, work areas,
they are under control.                                                remote areas, storage areas.
    This section includes checklists designed to
assist you in self-inspection fact-finding. The check-             s   Electricity – equipment, switches, breakers,
lists can give you some indication of where to                         fuses, switch-boxes, junctions, special fixtures,
begin taking action to make your business safer                        circuits, insulation, extensions, tools, motors,
and more healthful for all of your employees.                          grounding, national electric code compliance.
    These checklists are by no means all-inclusive
and not all of the checklists will apply to your busi-             s   Lighting – type, intensity, controls, conditions,
ness. You might want to start by selecting the                         diffusion, location, glare and shadow control.
areas that are most critical to your business, then
expanding your self-inspection checklists over time                s   Heating and Ventilation – type, effectiveness,
to fully cover all areas that pertain to your busi-                    temperature, humidity, controls, natural and
ness. Remember that a checklist is a tool to help,                     artificial ventilation and exhausting.
not a definitive statement of what is mandatory.
Use checklists only for guidance.                                  s   Machinery – points of operation, flywheels,
    Don’t spend time with items that have no appli-                    gears, shafts, pulleys, key ways, belts, cou-
cation to your business. Make sure that each item                      plings, sprockets, chains, frames, controls,
is seen by you or your designee and leave nothing                      lighting for tools and equipment, brakes, ex-
to memory or chance. Write down what you see or                        hausting, feeding, oiling, adjusting, mainte-
don’t see and what you think you should do about it.                   nance, lockout/tagout, grounding, work space,
    Add information from your completed checklists                     location, purchasing standards.
to injury information, employee information, and
process and equipment information to build a                       s   Personnel – training, including hazard identifi-
foundation to help you determine what problems                         cation training; experience; methods of check-
exist. Then, as you use the OSHA standards in                          ing machines before use; type of clothing;
your problem-solving process, it will be easier for                    PPE; use of guards; tool storage; work prac-
you to determine the actions needed to solve these                     tices; methods for cleaning, oiling, or adjust-
problems.                                                              ing machinery.
    Once the hazards have been identified, insti-
tute the control procedures described at page 9                    s   Hand and Power Tools – purchasing stan-
and establish your four-point safety and health                        dards, inspection, storage, repair, types, main-
program.                                                               tenance, grounding, use and handling.

Self-Inspection Scope                                              s   Chemicals – storage, handling, transportation,
                                                                       spills, disposals, amounts used, labeling, toxi-
Your self-inspections should cover safety and                          city or other harmful effects, warning signs,
health issues in the following areas:                                  supervision, training, protective clothing and
                                                                       equipment, hazard communication require-
   s   Processing, Receiving, Shipping and Storage –                   ments.
       equipment, job planning, layout, heights, floor
       loads, projection of materials, material han-               s   Fire Prevention – extinguishers, alarms, sprin-
       dling and storage methods, training for mate-                   klers, smoking rules, exits, personnel assign-
       rial handling equipment.                                        ed, separation of flammable materials and
                                                                       dangerous operations, explosion-proof fix-



                                                 Occupational Safety and
                                                  Health Administration
18

            tures in hazardous locations, waste disposal              appropriate information concerning employee
            and training of personnel.                                access to medical and exposure records and
                                                                      Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) been
        s   Maintenance – provide regular and preventive              posted or otherwise made readily available to
            maintenance on all equipment used at the                  affected employees?
            worksite, recording all work performed on the
            machinery and by training personnel on the
            proper care and servicing of the equipment.
                                                                 ❏ Are signs loading, biohazards, exposures to x-
                                                                   ties, floor
                                                                               concerning exit routes, room capaci-

                                                                      ray, microwave, or other harmful radiation or
        s   PPE – type, size, maintenance, repair, age, stor-         substances posted where appropriate?
            age, assignment of responsibility, purchasing
            methods, standards observed, training in care        ❏ Is the Summary of Work-Related Injuries and
                                                                   Illnesses (OSHA Form 300A) posted during the
            and use, rules of use, method of assignment.
                                                                      months of February, March and April?
        s   Transportation – motor vehicle safety, seat belts,
            vehicle maintenance, safe driver programs.                             RECORDKEEPING

        s   First Aid Program/Supplies – medical care            ❏ Are occupational injuriesonlyillnesses, except
                                                                   minor injuries requiring
                                                                                             or
                                                                                                  first aid, recorded
            facilities locations, posted emergency phone
                                                                      as required on the OSHA 300 log?
            numbers, accessible first aid kits.

        s   Evacuation Plan – establish and practice pro-        ❏ Are employee medical hazardous substances
                                                                   employee exposure to
                                                                                        records and records of

            cedures for an emergency evacuation, e.g.,                or harmful physical agents up-to-date and in
            fire, chemical/biological incidents, bomb                 compliance with current OSHA standards?
            threat; include escape procedures and routes,
            critical plant operations, employee accounting
            following an evacuation, rescue and medical
                                                                 ❏ Are employee training records kept and acces-
                                                                   sible for review by employees, as required by
            duties and ways to report emergencies.                    OSHA standards?


     Self-Inspection Checklists                                  ❏ Have arrangements been made to retain each
                                                                   records for the time period required for
                                                                      specific type of record? (Some records must
        These checklists are by no means all-inclusive.               be maintained for at least 40 years.)
     You should add to them or delete items that do not
     apply to your business; however, carefully consider
     each item and then make your decision. You should
                                                                 ❏ Areitems suchpermits and records up-to-date
                                                                   for
                                                                       operating
                                                                                 as elevators, air pressure tanks,
     refer to OSHA standards for specific guidance that               liquefied petroleum gas tanks, etc.?
     may apply to your work situation. (Note: These
     checklists are typical for general industry but not for               SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM
     construction or maritime industries.)

                       EMPLOYER POSTING                          ❏ Do you have an active safety and healthsafety
                                                                   gram in operation that includes general
                                                                                                           pro-


     ❏ Is the required OSHA Job Safety and Health
       Protection Poster displayed in a prominent loca-
                                                                      and health program elements as well as the
                                                                      management of hazards specific to your work-
            tion where all employees are likely to see it?            site?


     ❏ Are emergency telephone found in case of
       where they can be readily
                                 numbers posted                  ❏ Is one person clearly responsible for the safety
                                                                   and health program?
            emergency?
                                                                 ❏ Do youup of management and laborgroup
                                                                           have a safety committee or

     ❏ Where employees mayphysical agents,toxic
       substances or harmful
                             be exposed to
                                           has
                                                                   made                                 represen-
                                                                      tatives that meets regularly and reports in
                                                                      writing on its activities?


                                              OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                       19


❏ Do you have a working procedure to handle
  in-house employee complaints regarding safe-
                                                               ❏ If employees have hadpathogens, was an im-
                                                                 involving bloodborne
                                                                                       an exposure incident

    ty and health?                                                    mediate post-exposure medical evaluation and

❏ Are your employees the safety and health pro-
                     advised of efforts and
                                                                      follow-up provided?
  accomplishments of
    gram made to ensure they will have a work-
                                                               ❏ Are medicalconsultationreadily available for
                                                                 advice and
                                                                             personnel
                                                                                         on matters of employ-
    place that is safe and healthful?                                 ees’ health?

❏ Have you consideredexcel in reducing work-
                      incentives for employees                 ❏ Are emergency phone numbers posted?
  or workgroups who
    place injury/illnesses?                                    ❏ Areeach work area,first aid kits easily accessible
                                                                 to
                                                                     fully supplied
                                                                                    periodically inspected and
                                                                      replenished as needed?

                                                               ❏ Havephysician, indicating that they are ade-
        MEDICAL SERVICES AND FIRST AID
                                                                      first aid kits and supplies been approved
❏   Is there a hospital, clinic, or infirmary for med-
    ical care near your workplace or is at least one
                                                                 by a
                                                                      quate for a particular area or operation?
    employee on each shift currently qualified to
    render first aid?                                          ❏ Is there an eye-washorstation or of the eyes and
                                                                 for quick drenching    flushing
                                                                                                  sink available


❏ Have all employees emergencies as part of
  respond to medical
                     who are expected to                              body in areas where corrosive liquids or mate-
                                                                      rials are handled?
    their job responsibilities received first aid
    training; had hepatitis B vaccination made                                       FIRE PROTECTION
    available to them; had appropriate training on
    procedures to protect them from bloodborne                 ❏ Is your local fire department familiar with your
                                                                 facility, its location and specific hazards?
    pathogens, including universal precautions;
    and have available and understand how to use
    appropriate PPE to protect against exposure to
                                                               ❏ If you have aand tested annually?is it certified
                                                                 as required
                                                                                  fire alarm system,

    bloodborne diseases?*
    *Pursuant to an OSHA memorandum of July 1,
                                                               ❏ If youinspected regularly? and valves, are
                                                                 they
                                                                         have interior standpipes

1992, employees who render first aid only as a col-
lateral duty do not have to be offered pre-exposure            ❏ If youflushedoutside privateafire hydrants,aare
                                                                 they
                                                                         have
                                                                                  at least once year and on rou-
hepatitis B vaccine only if the employer includes
                                                                      tine preventive maintenance schedule?
and implements the following requirements in
his/her exposure control plan: (1) the employer
must record all first aid incidents involving the
                                                               ❏ Are fire doors and shutters in good operating
                                                                 condition?
presence of blood or other potentially infectious
materials before the end of the work shift during              ❏ Are fire doors andobstructions, including and
                                                                 protected against
                                                                                    shutters unobstructed
                                                                                                           their
which the first aid incident occurred; (2) the em-
                                                                      counterweights?
ployer must comply with post-exposure evaluation,
prophylaxis and follow-up requirements of the                  ❏ Are fire door and shutter fusible links in place?
Bloodborne Pathogens standard with respect to
“exposure incidents,” as defined by the standard;              ❏ Are automatic sprinkler systemcheckedcontrol
                                                                 valves, air and water pressure
                                                                                                  water
                                                                                                           periodi-
(3) the employer must train designated first aid                      cally as required?
providers about the reporting procedure; (4) the
employer must offer to initiate the hepatitis B vac-
cination series within 24 hours to all unvaccinated
                                                               ❏ Is the assigned to responsible persons or to a
                                                                 tems
                                                                        maintenance of automatic sprinkler sys-

first aid providers who have rendered assistance in                   sprinkler contractor?
any situation involving the presence of blood or
other potentially infectious materials.
                                                               ❏ Are sprinkler heads protected bydamage?
                                                                 if exposed to potential physical
                                                                                                  metal guards




                                                 Occupational Safety and
                                                  Health Administration
20

                                                                  Pathogens standard, 29 CFR 1910.1030(b), for
     ❏ Is proper clearance maintained below sprinkler
       heads?
                                                                  the definition of “other potentially infectious
                                                                  materials.”
     ❏ Are portable fire extinguishers provided inin
       adequate number and type and mounted                  ❏ Are hard hats required, providedexists?worn
                                                                                                   and
                                                               where danger of falling objects
         readily accessible locations?

     ❏ Are fire extinguishers recharged regularly with       ❏ Are hard hats periodically inspected for dam-
                                                               age to the shell and suspension system?
       this noted on the inspection tag?

     ❏ Are employees periodically instructed in the          ❏ Is appropriate footfoot injuriesrequired where
                                                               there is the risk of
                                                                                    protection
                                                                                                from hot, corro-
       use of fire extinguishers and fire protection              sive, or poisonous substances, falling objects,
         procedures?                                              crushing, or penetrating actions?

            PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
                    AND CLOTHING
                                                             ❏ Are approvedCFR 1910.134provided when need-
                                                               ed? (See 29
                                                                            respirators
                                                                                        for detailed infor-
                                                                  mation on respirators or check OSHA’s website
     ❏   Has the employer determined whether hazards              at www.osha.gov).
         that require the use of PPE (e.g., head, eye,
         face, hand, or foot protection) are present or      ❏ Is allreadymaintained in a sanitary condition
                                                               and
                                                                      PPE
                                                                          for use?
         are likely to be present?

     ❏ If hazards or the likelihood of hazards are           ❏ Are food or beverages consumed only in areas
                                                               where there is no exposure to toxic material,
       found, are employers selecting appropriate
                                                                  blood, or other potentially infectious materials?
         and properly fitted PPE suitable for protection
         from these hazards and ensuring that affected
         employees use it?
                                                             ❏ Is protection against thesound levels exceed
                                                               al noise provided when
                                                                                         effects of occupation-


     ❏ Have trained on PPE procedures,employeesPPE
            both the employer and the
                                                                  those of the OSHA Noise standard?
       been                           i.e., what
         is necessary for job tasks, when workers need
                                                             ❏ Are adequate work procedures,when and other
                                                               equipment provided and used
                                                                                             PPE
                                                                                                 cleaning
         it, and how to properly wear and adjust it?              up spilled hazardous materials?

     ❏ Areand worn where there is any danger of fly-
       ed
           protective goggles or face shields provid-        ❏ Areorappropriate procedures in place to dispose
                                                               of    decontaminate PPE contaminated with,
         ing particles or corrosive materials?                    or reasonably anticipated to be contaminated

     ❏ Are approved safetyareas where thereto berisk
       worn at all times in
                            glasses required
                                             is a
                                                                  with, blood or other potentially infectious
                                                                  materials?
         of eye injuries such as punctures, abrasions,
                                                                      GENERAL WORK ENVIRONMENT
         contusions, or burns?

     ❏ Are employees who wear correctivewith harm-
                                           lenses            ❏ Are all worksites clean, sanitary and orderly?
       (glasses or contacts) in workplaces
         ful exposures required to wear only approved        ❏ Are work surfaces kept the surfaces are slip-
                                                               means taken to assure
                                                                                        dry and appropriate

         safety glasses, protective goggles, or use               resistant?
         other medically approved precautionary proce-
         dures?                                              ❏ Are all spilled hazardous materials or infec-
                                                               including blood and other potentially
                                                                                                      liquids,

     ❏ Are protective gloves,required where employ-
       means provided and
                              aprons, shields, or other           tious materials, cleaned up immediately and
                                                                  according to proper procedures?
         ees could be cut or where there is reasonably
         anticipated exposure to corrosive liquids,
         chemicals, blood, or other potentially infec-
                                                             ❏ Is combustible scrap, debrisfrom the worksite
                                                               stored safely and removed
                                                                                             and waste

         tious materials? See the OSHA Bloodborne                 promptly?




                                          OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                         21


❏ Is all regulated waste, asstandard (29the OSHA
                              defined in                      ❏ Are spilled materials cleaned up immediately?
  Bloodborne Pathogens                   CFR
    1910.1030), discarded according to Federal,               ❏ Are changes of direction or elevations readily
                                                                identifiable?
    state and local regulations?

❏ Are accumulations ofelevated surfaces includ-
                       combustible dust rou-                  ❏ Areoperating machinery,that pass near moving
                                                                or
                                                                    aisles or walkways
                                                                                          welding operations,
  tinely removed from
                                                                     or similar operations arranged so employees
    ing the overhead structure of buildings, etc.?
                                                                     will not be subjected to potential hazards?
❏ Is combustible dustsuspension ofwith a particles
  system to prevent
                      cleaned up
                                   dust
                                         vacuum
                                                              ❏ Is adequate headroomwalkway? for the entire
                                                                                       provided
                                                                length of any aisle or
    in the environment?

❏ Is metallic or conductive dustor around electri-
                                 prevented from               ❏ Are standard guardrails provided wherever
                                                                aisle or walkway surfaces are elevated more
  entering or accumulating on
                                                                     than 30 inches (76.20 centimeters) above any
    cal enclosures or equipment?
                                                                     adjacent floor or the ground?
❏ Are covered metal waste cans used for oily or
  paint-soaked waste?                                         ❏ Are hazards?provided over conveyors and sim-
                                                                     bridges
                                                                ilar
❏ Are allfailure controls todevices equipped with
  flame
          oil and gas-fired
                            prevent flow of fuel if                         FLOOR AND WALL OPENINGS
    pilots or main burners are not working?

❏ Are paint spray booths, dip tanks, etc., cleaned            ❏ Are floor openings guardedall sides (except at
                                                                guardrail, or equivalent on
                                                                                            by a cover, a

  regularly?                                                         stairways or ladder entrances)?
❏ Are facilities provided and maintained in wash-
  ing
      the minimum number of toilets and
                                             a                ❏ Are toeboards installed around the edges of
                                                                permanent floor openings where persons may
    clean and sanitary fashion?                                      pass below the opening?
❏ Are all work areas adequately illuminated?                  ❏ Areatskylight screens able to kilograms)? load
                                                                                              withstand a
❏ Are pits and floor openings covered or other-                 of least 200 pounds (90.7
  wise guarded?
                                                              ❏ Is thesubjectin windows,human glass walls,suf-
                                                                       glass              doors,
❏ Have all confined29 CFR 1910.146? (Permit-
  compliance with
                     spaces been evaluated for                  etc.,         to possible         impact, of
                                                                     ficient thickness and type for the condition of
    required confined spaces.)                                       use?

                    WALKWAYS                                  ❏ Are gratessuchsimilar type covers over floor
                                                                openings
                                                                           or
                                                                                as floor drains designed to

❏ Are aisles and passageways kept clear and
  marked as appropriate?
                                                                     allow unimpeded foot traffic or rolling equip-
                                                                     ment?

❏ Are wet surfaces covered with non-slip mate-                ❏ Are in use either covered or protected bypits
                                                                not
                                                                    unused portions of service pits and
  rials?
                                                                     guardrails or equivalent?
❏ Are surfaceinrepaired properly, covered, orwalk-
  ing
       holes the floor, sidewalk, or other
                                              oth-            ❏ Are manholetheir supports designedandcarry a
                                                                             covers, trench covers    similar
                                                                covers, and                        to
    erwise made safe?
                                                                     truck rear axle load of at least 20,000 pounds
❏   Is there safe clearance for walking in aisles
    where motorized or mechanical handling
                                                                     (9,072 kilograms) when located in roadways
                                                                     and subject to vehicle traffic?

                                                              ❏ Are floor provided with doorsfire-resistant con-
    equipment is operating?
                                                                          or wall openings in
❏   Are materials or equipment stored in such a
    way that sharp projections will not interfere
                                                                struction                      or covers com-
                                                                     patible with the fire rating of the structure and
    with the walkway?


                                                Occupational Safety and
                                                 Health Administration
22

         provided with a self-closing feature when
         appropriate?                                        ❏ Do stairwaydirection of traveldimension meas-
                                                               ured in the
                                                                           landings have a
                                                                                              at least equal to
                   STAIRS AND STAIRWAYS                           the width of the stairway?


     ❏ Do standardatstair rails orrisers? on all stair-
                                    handrails                ❏ Is thelimited todistance (3.6576 meters) or land-
                                                               ings
                                                                       vertical
                                                                                12 feet
                                                                                         between stairway
                                                                                                           less?
       ways have least four

     ❏ Are all stairways at least 22 inches (55.88 cen-
       timeters) wide?
                                                                             ELEVATED SURFACES


     ❏ Do incheshave landing platformsthe direction
           stairs                           not less than
                                                             ❏ Are elevated surface loadappropriate, showing
                                                               the
                                                                   signs posted, when
                                                                                         capacity?
       30         (76.20 centimeters) in
         of travel and extend 22 inches (55.88 centime-      ❏ Are surfaces that are elevated more with stan-
                                                               inches (76.20 centimeters) provided
                                                                                                    than 30
         ters) in width at every 12 feet (3.6576 meters)
         or less of vertical rise?                                dard guardrails?

     ❏ Do stairsdegrees? more than 50 and no less
                  angle no                                   ❏ Are or machinerysurfacesbe exposed to falling
                                                               ple
                                                                   all elevated
                                                                                could
                                                                                        beneath which peo-
       than 30
                                                                  objects provided with standard 4-inch (10.16-
     ❏ Are stairs of hollow-pan typethe panand land-
       ings filled to the top edge of
                                      treads
                                             with solid
                                                                  centimeter) toeboards?

         material?                                           ❏ Is a permanent means of access and egress
                                                               provided to elevated storage and work sur-
     ❏ Are step risers on stairs uniform from top to
       bottom?
                                                                  faces?


     ❏ Are steps slip-resistant?                             ❏ Is required headroom provided where neces-
                                                               sary?

     ❏ Are stairway handrails located between 30
       inches (76.20 centimeters) and 34 inches (86.36
                                                             ❏ Is materialinon manner to preventpiled, stacked,
                                                               or racked a
                                                                               elevated surfaces
                                                                                                 it from tip-
         centimeters) above the leading edge of stair             ping, falling, collapsing, rolling, or spreading?
         treads?

     ❏   Do stairway handrails have at least 3 inches
                                                             ❏ Are dock boards or bridge plates usedand
                                                               transferring materials between docks
                                                                                                     when

           .62
         (7 centimeters) of clearance between the                 trucks or railcars?
         handrails and the wall or surface they are
         mounted on?                                                 EXITING OR EGRESS - EVACUATION

     ❏ Where doors or gates open so the swing stair-
       way, is a platform provided
                                   directly on a
                                                 of          ❏ Are all exits amarked with an exit sign and illu-
                                                               minated by reliable light source?
         the door does not reduce the width of the plat-
         form to less than 21 inches (53.34 centime-
         ters)?
                                                             ❏ Are the directions to exits, when notsigns?
                                                               ately apparent, marked with visible
                                                                                                      immedi-


     ❏ Are stairway handrails(90.7 kilograms), applied
       a load of 200 pounds
                              capable of withstanding        ❏ Are doors, passagewaysto exits, but could are
                                                               neither exits nor access
                                                                                          or stairways that
                                                                                                            be
         within 2 inches (5.08 centimeters) of the top            mistaken for exits, appropriately marked “NOT
         edge in any downward or outward direction?               AN EXIT,” “TO BASEMENT,” “STOREROOM,”

     ❏ Where stairsvehicles may be operated,into ade-
                    or stairways exit directly     any
                                                                  etc.?
       area where                              are
         quate barriers and warnings provided to pre-
                                                             ❏ Are exit signs labeled with the word “EXIT” in
                                                               lettering at least 5 inches (12.70 centimeters)
         vent employees from stepping into the path of            high and the stroke of the lettering at least l/2-
         traffic?                                                 inch (1.2700 centimeters) wide?

                                                             ❏ Are exit doors side-hinged?

                                          OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                         23


❏ Are all exits kept free of obstructions?                    ❏ Where panic hardware it allow the on a to
                                                                                         is installed

❏ Are atelevated platforms, pits, or rooms where
  from
         least two means of egress provided
                                                                required exit door, will              door
                                                                     open by applying a force of 15 pounds (6.80
                                                                     kilograms) or less in the direction of the exit
    the absence of a second exit would increase
                                                                     traffic?
    the risk of injury from hot, poisonous, corro-
    sive, suffocating, flammable, or explosive sub-
    stances?
                                                              ❏ Are doors on cold storage rooms provided
                                                                with an inside release mechanism that will

❏ Are there sufficient exits to permit prompt
  escape in case of emergency?
                                                                     release the latch and open the door even if the
                                                                     door is padlocked or otherwise locked on the
                                                                     outside?
❏ Are special during construction and repair
  employees
              precautions taken to protect
                                                              ❏ Where alley,doors open directly onto any may
                                                                        exit
                                                                street,      or other area where vehicles
    operations?
                                                                     be operated, are adequate barriers and warn-
❏   Is the number of exits from each floor of a
    building and the number of exits from the
                                                                     ings provided to prevent employees from
                                                                     stepping into the path of traffic?

                                                              ❏ Are locatedthat swingrooms where thereandfre-
    building itself appropriate for the building
                                                                     doors            in both directions
    occupancy load?
                                                                are         between                      is
❏ Are exit stairwaysparts of arequired to be sepa-
  rated from other
                     that are
                               building enclosed
                                                                     quent traffic provided with viewing panels in
                                                                     each door?
    by at least 2-hour fire-resistive construction in
    buildings more than four stories in height, and                             PORTABLE LADDERS
    not less than 1-hour fire-resistive construction
    elsewhere?                                                ❏ Are allbetween maintainedsidegood tight, all
                                                                joints
                                                                        ladders
                                                                                steps and
                                                                                           in
                                                                                              rails
                                                                                                    condition,

❏ Where ramps are usedthe part ofslope limited
  ing from a building, is
                          as
                             ramp
                                  required exit-
                                                                     hardware and fittings securely attached, and
                                                                     moveable parts operating freely without bind-
    to 1 foot (0.3048 meter) vertical and 12 feet
                                                                     ing or undue play?
    (3.6576 meters) horizontal?

❏ Where glass exit doors, storm frameless glass
         exiting will be through                              ❏ Arerung ladder, andfeet provided on each metal
                                                                or
                                                                    non-slip safety
                                                                                    are ladder rungs and steps
  doors,                         doors, etc., are
                                                                     free of grease and oil?
    the doors fully tempered and meet the safety
    requirements for human impact?                            ❏ Are in front of doors opening toward thealad-
                                                                der
                                                                    employees prohibited from placing lad-

                   EXIT DOORS                                        der unless the door is blocked open, locked, or
                                                                     guarded?
❏ Are doorsand constructed so that theaspath of
  designed
            that are required to serve   exits
                                                              ❏ Are employees barrels, or other placing lad-
                                                                               prohibited from
                                                                ders on boxes,                  unstable bases
    exit travel is obvious and direct?
                                                                     to obtain additional height?
❏   Are windows that could be mistaken for exit
    doors made inaccessible by means of barriers              ❏ Are employees required to face the ladder
                                                                when ascending or descending?
    or railings?

❏ Are exit doors able to be opened from of a key
                                           the                ❏ Are employees prohibited from usingrungs, or
                                                                that are broken, have missing steps,
                                                                                                     ladders
  direction of exit travel without the use
                                                                     cleats, broken side rails, or other faulty equip-
    or any special knowledge or effort when the
                                                                     ment?
    building is occupied?

❏ Is a revolving,serving asoraoverhead exit door?
                  sliding,             door pro-              ❏ Are employees instructed notastoause the top
                                                                step of ordinary stepladders      step?
  hibited from                required




                                                Occupational Safety and
                                                 Health Administration
24


     ❏ When portable rung ladders are used to gain
       access to elevated platforms, roofs, etc., does
                                                             ❏ Are tool cutting edges kept sharp so theskip-
                                                               will move smoothly without binding or
                                                                                                        tool

         the ladder always extend at least 3 feet (0.9144         ping?
         meters) above the elevated surface?
                                                             ❏ Are tools stored in abedry, secure location
     ❏   Are employees required to secure the base of          where they cannot       tampered with?
         a portable rung or cleat type ladder to prevent
         slipping, or otherwise lash or hold it in place?    ❏ Is eye andor tempered studs or when driving
                                                               hardened
                                                                          face protection used
                                                                                                 nails?
     ❏ Are portable metal “CAUTION - Domarked
       with signs reading
                          ladders legibly
                                          Not Use                   PORTABLE (POWER OPERATED) TOOLS
         Around Electrical Equipment” or equivalent                         AND EQUIPMENT
         wording?

     ❏ Areguys, braces,prohibited from using ladders
           employees                                         ❏ Are grinders, saws and safety guards? pro-
                                                               vided with appropriate
                                                                                      similar equipment

       as               skids, gin poles, or for other
         than their intended purposes?                       ❏ Are power attachments, as proper shields, by
                                                               guards, or
                                                                          tools used with
                                                                                          recommended
     ❏ Are employees instructed toat a base (not
       sion ladders while standing
                                   only adjust exten-             the manufacturer?

         while standing on the ladder or from a posi-
         tion above the ladder)?
                                                             ❏ Are portable circular sawsthe base shoe?
                                                               guards above and below
                                                                                          equipped with


     ❏ Are metal ladders inspected for damage?               ❏ Are circular saw guards checked to ensure that
                                                               they are not wedged up, leaving the lower
     ❏ Areinches (30.48 centimeters) centerspaced at
       12
           the rungs of ladders uniformly
                                            to center?
                                                                  portion of the blade unguarded?


               HAND TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
                                                             ❏ Are rotatingprevent physical contact?
                                                               guarded to
                                                                            or moving parts of equipment



     ❏ Are all tools and equipment (both company             ❏ Are alland equipment effectively grounded or
                                                               tools
                                                                       cord-connected, electrically operated
       and employee-owned) used at the workplace
                                                                  of the approved double insulated type?
         in good condition?

     ❏ Are hand tools,mushroomed heads during
                      such as chisels, punches, etc.,        ❏ Are effectiveand sprockets onover belts, pul-
                                                               leys, chains
                                                                             guards in place
                                                                                             equipment such
       which develop
                                                                  as concrete mixers, air compressors, etc.?
         use, reconditioned or replaced as necessary?

     ❏ Are broken or fractured handles on hammers,           ❏ Are portable fans provided with full guards or
                                                               screens having openings 1/2 inch (1.2700 cen-
       axes and similar equipment replaced promptly?
                                                                  timeters) or less?
     ❏ Are worn or bent wrenches replaced?                   ❏ Is hoisting equipmentand are hoist ratingsfor
                                                                                      available and used
     ❏ Are tools? handles used on files and sim-
       ilar
            appropriate                                        lifting heavy objects,                     and
                                                                  characteristics appropriate for the task?

     ❏ Are employees aware of hazardstools? by
       faulty or improperly used hand
                                          caused
                                                             ❏ Areall temporary circuit interrupters provided
                                                               on
                                                                   ground-fault
                                                                                electrical 15 and 20 ampere

     ❏ Are appropriate using hand tools or shields,
                        safety glasses, face
                                                                  circuits used during periods of construction?
       etc., used while                      equip-
         ment that might produce flying materials or be
                                                             ❏ Are pneumatic checked regularly foron power-
                                                               operated tools
                                                                              and hydraulic hoses
                                                                                                  deteriora-
         subject to breakage?                                     tion or damage?

     ❏ Are in good operating condition?ensure they
       are
            jacks checked periodically to
                                                                  ABRASIVE WHEEL EQUIPMENT GRINDERS


     ❏ Arealltool handles wedged tightly into the heads
       of      tools?
                                                             ❏ Is the work rest used and kept the wheel? within
                                                               1/8 inch (0.3175 centimeter) of
                                                                                               adjusted to




                                          OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                     25


❏ Is the adjustable tongue on the topwithinof1/4
  grinder used and kept adjusted to
                                      side the               ❏ Are power-actuated tools inspected for ob-
                                                               structions or defects each day before use?
    inch (0.6350 centimeters) of the wheel?
                                                             ❏ Do power-actuated tool operators hats, safety
                                                                                                 have and
❏ Do sideand 75 percentthethe wheelnut and
  flange
           guards cover
                         of
                            spindle,
                                     diameter?
                                                               use appropriate PPE such as hard
                                                                    goggles, safety shoes and ear protectors?

❏ Are bench and pedestal grinders permanently
  mounted?
                                                                               MACHINE GUARDING


❏ Are goggles or face shields always worn when
  grinding?
                                                             ❏ Is theresafe methods of machine operation?
                                                               ees on
                                                                        a training program to instruct employ-


❏ Is the maximum revolutions per minute (rpm)
  rating of each abrasive wheel compatible with
                                                             ❏ Is there adequate supervision machine operat-
                                                               employees are following safe
                                                                                              to ensure that

    the rpm rating of the grinder motor?                            ing procedures?

❏ Are fixed ortopermanently mounted grinders
  connected their electrical supply system
                                                             ❏ Is there a regular program of safety inspection
                                                               of machinery and equipment?
    with metallic conduit or other permanent
    wiring method?                                           ❏ Is all machinery and equipment kept clean and
                                                               properly maintained?
❏ Does each grinder have an individual on and
  off control switch?                                        ❏ Is sufficient clearance provided safe opera-
                                                               between machines to allow for
                                                                                                around and


❏ Is each electrically operated grinder effectively
  grounded?
                                                                    tions, set up and servicing, material handling
                                                                    and waste removal?

❏ Are new abrasive wheels visually inspected
  and ring tested before they are mounted?
                                                             ❏ Is equipment andprevent tipping or other
                                                               and anchored to
                                                                                machinery securely placed

                                                                    movement that could result in personal injury?
❏ Are dust collectorsused powered exhaustspro-
  vided on grinders
                        and
                            in operations that
                                                pro-
                                                             ❏ Is there a power shut-off switchmachine? of
                                                                                                within reach
    duce large amounts of dust?                                the operator’s position at each

❏ Are splash guards mountedcoolant from reach-
  use coolant to prevent the
                             on grinders that                ❏ Canfor maintenance, repair,machine be locked
                                                               out
                                                                    electric power to each
                                                                                            or security?
    ing employees?
                                                             ❏ Are the noncurrent-carrying metal partsandof
❏ Is cleanliness maintained around grinders?                   electrically operated machines bonded
                                                                    grounded?
             POWER-ACTUATED TOOLS
                                                             ❏ Are foot-operated switches guarded or by per-
                                                                                                      ar-

❏ Are employees who operate power-actuated
  tools trained in their use and required to carry
                                                               ranged to prevent accidental actuation
                                                                    sonnel or falling objects?
    a valid operator’s card?                                 ❏ Are manually operated valves and switches
❏ Is each container when not being used? own
  locked
           power-actuated tool stored in its
                                                               controlling the operation of equipment and
                                                                    machines clearly identified and readily acces-
                                                                    sible?
❏ Is a10 inchesleast 7 inches (17.78 centimeters)
  by
       sign at
                 (25.40 centimeters) with bold face          ❏ Are all emergency stop buttons colored red?
    type reading “POWER-ACTUATED TOOL IN
    USE” conspicuously posted when the tool is
                                                             ❏ Are all pulleys floorbelts within 7 feetproperly
                                                               meters) of the
                                                                               and
                                                                                     or working level
                                                                                                        (2.1336

    being used?                                                     guarded?

❏ Are power-actuated tools left unloaded until
  they are ready to be used?
                                                             ❏ Are all moving chains and gears properly
                                                               guarded?



                                               Occupational Safety and
                                                Health Administration
26


     ❏ Are splash guards mountedcoolant from reach-
       use coolant to prevent the
                                  on machines that
                                                             ❏ If the power disconnect electrical control cir-
                                                               not also disconnect the
                                                                                       for equipment does

         ing employees?                                           cuit, are the appropriate electrical enclosures

     ❏ Are methods providedintothe machine operator
       and other employees
                                protect the
                                            area
                                                                  identified and is a means provided to ensure
                                                                  that the control circuit can also be disconnect-
                                                                  ed and locked out?
         from hazards created at the point of operation,
         ingoing nip points, rotating parts, flying chips
         and sparks?
                                                             ❏ Is the locking out power disconnectsinstead of
                                                               locking out main
                                                                                  of control circuits
                                                                                                      prohibited?

     ❏ Are machinecause a hazard whilearranged so
       they do not
                     guards secure and
                                          in use?
                                                             ❏ Are allwith a means for locking out? pro-
                                                               vided
                                                                        equipment control valve handles


     ❏ If special hand toolsdo they protect the opera-
       removing material,
                             are used for placing and
                                                             ❏ Does the lockout procedure requireetc.) be re-
                                                               energy (mechanical, hydraulic, air,
                                                                                                      that stored

         tor’s hands?                                             leased or blocked before equipment is locked

     ❏ Are revolving drums, barrels andinterlocked
                                         containers
                                                                  out for repairs?
       guarded by an enclosure that is
         with the drive mechanism so that revolution
                                                             ❏ Are appropriatepersonal safety locks? with indi-
                                                               vidually keyed
                                                                                employees provided

         cannot occur unless the guard enclosure is in
         place?                                              ❏ Are of their key(s) while they have safety locks
                                                               trol
                                                                    employees required to keep personal con-


     ❏ Do arborsand are they free from play? secure
                 and mandrels have firm and                       in use?
       bearings,
                                                             ❏ Is itthe hazardthat only the employee exposed
                                                                      required
     ❏ Are provisions made to prevent machinesis
       from automatically starting when power
                                                               to
                                                                  lock?
                                                                               can place or remove the safety

         restored after a power failure or shutdown?
                                                             ❏ Is itthe lockoutthat attempting acheck theafter
                                                                      required      employees             safety
     ❏   Are machines constructed so as to be free
         from excessive vibration when the largest size
                                                               of               by
                                                                  making sure no one is exposed?
                                                                                                 startup

         tool is mounted and run at full speed?
                                                             ❏ Are employeesstop button to always push the
                                                                               instructed
     ❏   If machinery is cleaned with compressed air, is
         air pressure controlled and PPE or other safe-
                                                               control circuit            prior to re-energiz-
                                                                  ing the main power switch?
         guards utilized to protect operators and other
         workers from eye and body injury?                   ❏ Is there a meansare working on locked-out all
                                                               employees who
                                                                               provided to identify any or


     ❏ Are fan blades protectedl/2 inch guard having
       openings no larger than
                                with a
                                        (1.2700 cen-
                                                                  equipment by their locks or accompanying
                                                                  tags?
         timeters) when operating within 7 feet (2.1336
         meters) of the floor?                               ❏ Are a or tags and safety of accident prevention
                                                               signs
                                                                     sufficient number
                                                                                        padlocks provided for
     ❏ Are sawsdevicesfor ripping equipped with anti-
                 used                                             any reasonably foreseeable repair emergency?
       kickback          and spreaders?
                                                             ❏ When machine operator to leave the control
                                                                               operations, configuration, or
     ❏ Are radial will gently so arranged that the cut-
       ting head
                  arm saws
                              return to the back of the
                                                               size require an
                                                                  station and part of the machine could move if
         table when released?                                     accidentally activated, is the part required to
                                                                  be separately locked out or blocked?
              LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PROCEDURES
                                                             ❏ If equipment ortagged, is a safe shutprocedure
                                                                               lines cannot be       down,

     ❏ Is all machinerytoorbe de-energized or disengaged
       ment required
                            equipment capable of move-         locked out and                   job
                                                                  established and rigidly followed?
         and blocked or locked out during cleaning, serv-
         icing, adjusting, or setting up operations?



                                          OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                    27

         WELDING, CUTTING AND BRAZING
                                                              ❏ Is red used to identifyfor the oxygen(and other
                                                                                        the acetylene
❏   Are only authorized and trained personnel per-
    mitted to use welding, cutting, or brazing
                                                                fuel-gas) hose, green                 hose and
                                                                     black for inert gas and air hoses?
    equipment?
                                                              ❏ Are gas and pressures for which they are in- for
                                                                    pressure-reducing regulators used only
❏   Does each operator have a copy of and follow
    the appropriate operating instructions?
                                                                the
                                                                     tended?

❏ Are compressed gas cylinders regularlyrusting,
  ined for obvious signs of defects, deep
                                          exam-               ❏ Is open circuit (no-load) voltage possible and
                                                                and cutting machines as low as
                                                                                                  of arc welding

    or leakage?                                                      not in excess of the recommended limits?

❏ Is caresafety valves, reliefand storage of cylin-
  ders,
          used in handling
                               valves, etc., to pre-
                                                              ❏ Under wet conditions,voltage used? controls
                                                                for reducing no-load
                                                                                      are automatic

    vent damage?
                                                              ❏ Is grounding of the machine frame and safety
❏ Areair or oxygen takenflammable gases, except
  of
       precautions
                   with
                          to prevent the mixture                ground connections of portable machines
                                                                     checked periodically?
    at a burner or in a standard torch?
                                                              ❏ Are electrodes removed from the holders
❏   Are only approved apparatuses (torches, regu-               when not in use?
    lators, pressure reducing valves, acetylene
    generators, manifolds) used?                              ❏ Is itshut off when no one is in attendance?
                                                                be
                                                                      required that electric power to the welder


❏ Are cylinders kept awaygangways? of heat
  and elevators, stairs, or
                             from sources
                                                              ❏ Is suitable fire extinguishing equipment avail-
                                                                able for immediate use?
❏ Is it prohibited to use cylinders as rollers or
  supports?                                                   ❏ Is the welder forbidden hiscoil or loop welding
                                                                                           to
                                                                electrode cable around        body?
❏ Are empty cylinders appropriately marked and
  their valves closed?                                        ❏ Are wetuse? thoroughly dried and tested
                                                                          machines
                                                                before
❏ Are signs posted reading “DANGER, NO or
  SMOKING, MATCHES, OR OPEN LIGHTS,”                          ❏ Are work and wear and damage, andfrequently
                                                                                electrode lead cables
                                                                inspected for                           replaced
    the equivalent?                                                  when needed?
❏ Are cylinders,and apparatuses couplings,ofregu-
  lators, hoses
                 cylinder valves,
                                  kept free oily              ❏ Are cable connectors adequately insulated?
    or greasy substances?                                     ❏ When the objecthazardswelded cannot be
                                                                moved and fire
                                                                                to be
                                                                                       cannot be removed,
❏ Is care taken not to drop or strike cylinders?                     are shields used to confine heat, sparks and
❏ Are regulators removed and valve-protection                        slag?
  caps put in place before moving cylinders,
    unless they are secured on special trucks?                ❏ Are fireis performed in locations where a seri-
                                                                cutting
                                                                         watchers assigned when welding or


❏ Do cylindersnon-adjustablewheels have keys,
               without fixed                                         ous fire might develop?
  handles, or
    valves when in service?
                             wrenches on stem
                                                              ❏ Are combustible floors kept wet, covered with
                                                                damp sand, or protected by fire-resistant
❏ Are liquefiedvalve covers inand shipped valve-
                gases stored                                         shields?
  end up with                  place?
                                                              ❏ Areshock whenprotected from possible electri-
                                                                    personnel
❏ Are employees trained never to of ignition?
                                   crack a fuel                 cal             floors are wet?
  gas cylinder valve near sources
                                                              ❏ Arethe other sidetaken to protectwhen welding
                                                                    precautions                  combustibles
❏ Before and gas released? is the valve
  closed
         a regulator is removed,                                on
                                                                     is underway?
                                                                                  of metal walls




                                                Occupational Safety and
                                                 Health Administration
28


     ❏ Are used drums, barrels, tankssubstances con-
       tainers thoroughly cleaned of
                                      and other
                                                that
                                                            ❏ When usingwear protective chip cleaning, do
                                                              employees
                                                                         compressed air for
                                                                                             guarding and
         could explode, ignite, or produce toxic vapors          PPE?
         before hot work begins?
                                                            ❏ Are safety chainscouplings suitable locking
                                                                                or other
     ❏   Do eye protection, helmets, hand shields and
         goggles meet appropriate standards?
                                                              devices used at            of high-pressure
                                                                 hose lines where a connection failure would

     ❏ Arewelding, cutting, or brazing operations pro-
           employees exposed to the hazards created
                                                                 create a hazard?
       by
         tected with PPE and clothing?
                                                            ❏ Before compressedthe safe working pressure
                                                              tainers of liquid, is
                                                                                    air is used to empty con-


     ❏ Is a check made for adequate ventilation in               of the container checked?
       and where welding or cutting is performed?
                                                            ❏ Whencleaning equipment, is the operating
                                                                    compressed air is used with abrasive

     ❏ When working in confined places, are environ-
       mental monitoring tests done and means pro-
                                                              blast
                                                                 valve a type that must be held open manually?
         vided for quick removal of welders in case of
         an emergency?
                                                            ❏ Whenare a clip-on chuck and an inline regula-
                                                              tires,
                                                                     compressed air is used to inflate auto

                                                                 tor preset to 40 psi required?
           COMPRESSORS AND COMPRESSED AIR
                                                            ❏ Are employeesclean up or move using com-
                                                                             prohibited from

     ❏ Are compressors equipped with pressure relief
       valves and pressure gauges?
                                                              pressed air to                 combustible
                                                                 dust if such action could cause the dust to be
                                                                 suspended in the air and cause a fire or explo-
     ❏ Are compressorto ensure that only clean,
       equipped so as
                       air intakes installed and                 sion hazard?

         uncontaminated air enters the compressor?                      COMPRESSORS/AIR RECEIVERS

     ❏ Are air filters installed on the compressor
       intake?                                              ❏ Is everyand one orequipped with a pressure
                                                                       receiver
                                                              gauge              more automatic, spring-
     ❏ Are compressorsthe manufacturer’s recom-
                           operated and lubricated in            loaded safety valves?

                                                            ❏ Is the able to preventcapacity ofin the receiver
       accordance with
                                                                     total relieving            the safety
         mendations?
                                                              valve                  pressure
     ❏ Are safety devices on compressed air systems
       checked frequently?
                                                                 from exceeding the maximum allowable work-
                                                                 ing pressure of the receiver by more than 10

     ❏ Before aiscompressor’s bled off and the system
                              pressure system is re-             percent?
       paired, the pressure
         locked out?
                                                            ❏ Is every airatreceiver provided for the drain pipe
                                                              and valve the lowest point
                                                                                              with a
                                                                                                      removal

     ❏ Are signs postedoftothe compressors?
                             warn of the automatic               of accumulated oil and water?
       starting feature
                                                            ❏ Are compressed air receivers periodically
     ❏ Is theprotection for the front, back, top and pro-
              belt drive system totally enclosed to           drained of moisture and oil?
       vide
         sides?
                                                            ❏ Aredetermine whether they areregular intervals
                                                              to
                                                                  all safety valves tested at
                                                                                              in good operat-

     ❏ Are compressedstrictly prohibited from direct-
           employees                                             ing condition?
       ing             air towards a person?
                                                            ❏ Is there a current operating permit?
     ❏ Are employees prohibited from using highly
       compressed air for cleaning purposes?
                                                            ❏ Is thefree ofofaccumulated oil and carbonaceous
                                                              kept
                                                                      inlet air receivers and piping systems


     ❏ When compressed air is used to clean clothing,
       are employees trained to reduce the pressure to
                                                                 materials?

         less than 10 pounds per square inch (psi)?


                                         OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                        29

          COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS
                                                              ❏ Is thevisible to theofoperator? legibly marked
                                                                        rated load each hoist
❏   Are cylinders with a water weight capacity                  and
    over 30 pounds (13.6 kilograms) equipped
    with a means to connect a valve protector                 ❏ Aretrolley provided at the safe limits of travel
                                                                for
                                                                     stops
                                                                             hoists?
    device, or with a collar or recess to protect
    the valve?                                                ❏ Are the controls of hoiststravel or marked to
                                                                indicate the direction of
                                                                                             plainly
                                                                                                     motion?
❏ Are type of gas? marked to clearly identify
  the
      cylinders legibly
                                                              ❏ Is each cage-controlled hoist equipped with an
                                                                effective warning device?
❏ Are compressedexternal heat sources such as
  protected from
                   gas cylinders stored in areas
                                                              ❏ Are close-fittingonguardshoist to ensure that
                                                                                           or other suitable de-
    flame impingement, intense radiant heat, elec-              vices installed      each
    tric arcs, or high-temperature lines?                            hoist ropes will be maintained in the sheave
                                                                     grooves?
❏ Are cylindersbe damaged by passing orwhere
  they will not
                located or stored in areas
                                           falling            ❏ Are all hoistfull range of movement of the to
                                                                               chains or ropes long enough
    objects or subject to tampering by unautho-                 handle the
    rized persons?                                                   application while maintaining two full wraps
                                                                     around the drum at all times?
❏ Are to preventstored from creating ainhazard by
  ner
      cylinders
                 them
                       or transported a man-
                                                              ❏ Are guards provided for nipand sheaves per-
                                                                                           points or contact
    tipping, falling, or rolling?                               points between hoist ropes
                                                                     manently located within 7 feet (2.1336 meters)
❏ Are cylinders containingaliquefied fuelthat the
  stored or transported in position so
                                          gas                        of the floor, ground, or working platform?

    safety relief device is always in direct contact
    with the vapor space in the cylinder?
                                                              ❏ Are employees prohibited from usingand pro-or
                                                                rope slings that are kinked or twisted
                                                                                                       chains

                                                                     hibited from using the hoist rope or chain wrap-
❏   Are valve protectors always placed on cylin-
    ders when the cylinders are not in use or con-
                                                                     ped around the load as a substitute for a sling?

    nected for use?                                           ❏ Is the operator instructed to avoid carrying
                                                                loads above people?
❏ Are all valves closed off before a cylinderatisthe
  moved, when the cylinder is empty and
                                                                          INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS - FORKLIFTS
    completion of each job?

❏ Are low-pressure fuel gas cylindersdistortion,
  periodically for corrosion, general
                                      checked                 ❏ Are type of industrial truck they operate? of
                                                                the
                                                                     employees properly trained in the use

    cracks, or any other defect that might indicate
    a weakness or render them unfit for service?
                                                              ❏ Are only trained personnel allowed to operate
                                                                industrial trucks?

❏ Doescylinders include a close inspection of the
  gas
       the periodic check of low-pressure fuel
                                                              ❏ Is substantialhigh lift rider equipment?
                                                                provided on
                                                                                overhead protective equipment

    cylinders’ bottoms?
                                                              ❏ Areand enforced?lift truck operating rules post-
                                                                ed
                                                                     the required
        HOIST AND AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT

❏ Is each overhead electric hoistatequipped with a            ❏ Is directional lighting provided on with less
                                                                trial truck that operates in an area
                                                                                                     each indus-

  limit device to stop the hook its highest and                      than 2 footcandles per square foot of general
    lowest point of safe travel?                                     lighting?
❏ Will load up to 125 percent ofstoprated load if
  any
       each hoist automatically
                                 its
                                     and hold
                                                              ❏ Does each industrial or other device that can
                                                                horn, whistle, gong,
                                                                                     truck have a warning

    its actuating force is removed?                                  be clearly heard above normal noise in the
                                                                     areas where it is operated?



                                                Occupational Safety and
                                                 Health Administration
30


     ❏ Arebringing the on eachto a complete and safe
       of
           the brakes
                       vehicle
                               industrial truck capable
                                                             ❏ Is the20 feetarea free of hotfrom flames, at
                                                               least
                                                                      spray
                                                                            (6.096 meters)
                                                                                             surfaces and

         stop when fully loaded?                                  sparks, operating electrical motors and other

     ❏ Does thethe vehicle fromofmoving when unat-
                parking brake the industrial truck
                                                                  ignition sources?
       prevent
         tended?
                                                             ❏ Are portable lamps usedatohazardous location?
                                                               areas suitable for use in
                                                                                          illuminate spray


     ❏ Are industrial vapors,that operate where flam-
       mable gases,
                      trucks
                              combustible dust, or
                                                             ❏ Is approved respiratory equipment provided
                                                               and used when appropriate during spraying
         ignitable fibers may be present approved for             operations?
         such locations?
                                                             ❏ Do solvents used for Fahrenheit (deg.flash
                                                                                    cleaning have a
     ❏   Are motorized hand and hand/rider trucks
         designed so that the brakes are applied and
                                                               point to 100 degrees
                                                                  more?
                                                                                                     F) or

         power to the drive motor shuts off when the
         operator releases his or her grip on the device     ❏ Are fire control sprinkler heads kept clean?
         that controls the truck’s travel?                   ❏ Are “NO SMOKING”paint booths and spray
                                                                                      signs posted in

     ❏ Are industrialare operatedinternal combustion
       engines that
                      trucks with
                                  in buildings or
                                                               areas, paint rooms,
                                                                  storage areas?
                                                                                                      paint


         enclosed areas carefully checked to ensure
         that such operations do not cause harmful
                                                             ❏ Is the spray area kept clean of combustible
                                                               residue?
         concentrations of dangerous gases or fumes?
                                                             ❏ Are spray or otherconstructed noncombusti-
                                                                          booths              of metal,
     ❏ Areelevated ramps and platforms? the edges
       of
            safe distances maintained from                     masonry,
                                                                  ble material?
                                                                                  substantial


     ❏ Are employeeselevated portionsstanding or
       passing under
                        prohibited from
                                        of trucks,
                                                             ❏ Are spray booth floors and baffles noncom-
                                                               bustible and easily cleaned?
         whether loaded or empty?
                                                             ❏ Is infrared drying apparatusoperations and is
                                                                                            kept out of the
     ❏ Are unauthorized employees prohibited from
       riding on trucks?
                                                               spray area during spraying
                                                                  the spray booth completely ventilated before

     ❏ Are operators prohibited of a fixed object?to
       anyone standing in front
                                 from driving up
                                                                  using the drying apparatus?

                                                             ❏ Is the electric drying apparatus properly
     ❏ Are arms and legs kept inside the running
       lines of the truck?
                                                               grounded?

                                                             ❏ Are lightingbooth with the interior lighted
                                                                             fixtures for spray booths located

     ❏ Areofloadstruck? only within the rated capac-
       ity the
                  handled
                                                               outside the
                                                                  through sealed clear panels?


     ❏ Are trucks in need of repair removed from             ❏ Are the electric or ducts? exhaust fans placed
                                                               outside booths
                                                                                motors for
       service immediately?

                   SPRAYING OPERATIONS
                                                             ❏ Are belts and pulleys inside the booth fully
                                                               enclosed?

     ❏ Is adequate ventilation provided before spray-        ❏ Do ducts have access doors to allow cleaning?
       ing operations are started?
                                                             ❏ Do all drying spaces have adequate ventilation?
     ❏ Is mechanical ventilation provided when spray-
       ing operations are performed in enclosed areas?                  ENTERING CONFINED SPACES

     ❏ When mechanical ventilation so provided dur-
       ing spraying operations, is it
                                      is
                                         arranged that
                                                             ❏ Are confined spaces thoroughly emptiedsuch
                                                               any corrosive or hazardous substances,
                                                                                                      of

         it will not circulate the contaminated air?              as acids or caustics, before entry?



                                          OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                          31

                                                                    equipment such as salamanders, torches, fur-
❏ Are alltoxic, flammable, or space thatmaterials
  inert,
           lines to a confined
                               corrosive
                                         contain                    naces, etc., in a confined space, is sufficient air
                                                                    provided to assure combustion without reduc-
    valved off and blanked or disconnected and                      ing the oxygen concentration of the atmos-
    separated before entry?                                         phere below 19.5 percent by volume?
❏ Are alland equipment insideor other moving
  parts
          impellers, agitators,
                                confined spaces              ❏ Whenever combustion-type equipment is to used
                                                               in a confined space, are provisions made
    locked out if they present a hazard?                            ensure the exhaust gases are vented outside
❏   Is either natural or mechanical ventilation pro-                of the enclosure?
    vided prior to confined space entry?
                                                             ❏ Is each confined space checked for may pro-
                                                                                                  decaying
❏ Arecheck for oxygen deficiency, toxic sub-
  to
      appropriate atmospheric tests performed                  vegetation or animal matter which
                                                                    duce methane?
    stances and explosive concentrations in the
    confined space before entry?                             ❏ Is the confined space checkedcontain toxic
                                                               industrial waste which could
                                                                                             for possible


❏ Is adequate illuminationconfined space? work
                           provided for the                         properties?
  to be performed in the
                                                             ❏ If theareas where motorbelow groundbe oper-
                                                                     confined space is               and
❏ Is the atmosphereor continuously monitored
  frequently tested
                     inside the confined space                 near                    vehicles will
                                                                    ating, is it possible for vehicle exhaust or car-
    during work?                                                    bon monoxide to enter the space?

❏ Is there a trained and outside thestandby
  employee positioned
                         equipped
                                      confined
                                                                           ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS

    space, whose sole responsibility is to watch
    the work in progress, sound an alarm if neces-
                                                             ❏ Are all work areas properly illuminated?
    sary and render assistance?                              ❏ Are employees instructed in proper first aid
                                                               and other emergency procedures?
❏ Is theequipped to handle an emergency?trained
  and
         standby employee appropriately
                                                             ❏ Are hazardous substances, blood and other
                                                               potentially infectious materials, which may
❏ Are employees prohibited from entering the
  confined space without lifelines and respira-
                                                                    cause harm by inhalation, ingestion, or skin
                                                                    absorption or contact, identified?
    tory equipment if there is any question as to
    the cause of an emergency?                               ❏ Are employees aware of thethey may involved
                                                               with the various chemicals
                                                                                           hazards
                                                                                                   be ex-
❏ Is approved respiratorythe confinedrequired if
  the atmosphere inside
                          equipment
                                      space can-
                                                                    posed to in their work environment, such as
                                                                    ammonia, chlorine, epoxies, caustics, etc.?
    not be made acceptable?

❏   Is all portable electrical equipment used inside
                                                             ❏ Is employee exposure acceptable levels?
                                                               workplace kept within
                                                                                       to chemicals in the

    confined spaces either grounded and insulated
    or equipped with ground fault protection?                ❏ Can a less harmful method or product be
                                                               used?
❏ Are confined space? bottles forbidden inside
  the
      compressed gas
                                                             ❏ Is the workwork performed?system appropri-
                                                                           area ventilation
                                                               ate for the
❏ Before gas welding or burning is started in a
  confined space, are hoses checked for leaks,               ❏ Are spray painting operations performed in
    torches lighted only outside the confined area             spray rooms or booths equipped with an
    and the confined area tested for an explosive                   appropriate exhaust system?
    atmosphere each time before a lighted torch is
    taken into the confined space?
                                                             ❏ Is employee exposureusewelding fumes expo-
                                                               trolled by ventilation,
                                                                                       to
                                                                                          of respirators,
                                                                                                          con-


❏ If employees will be using oxygen-consuming                       sure time limits, or other means?




                                               Occupational Safety and
                                                Health Administration
32


     ❏ Arewith flashand other nearby workers provid-
       ed
           welders
                     shields during welding opera-
                                                             ❏ Are employees’assigned capacities assessed
                                                               before they are
                                                                               physical
                                                                                        to jobs requiring
         tions?                                                   heavy work?

     ❏ If forklifts andenclosed areas,are usedcarbon
       ings or other
                        other vehicles
                                       are the
                                               in build-
                                                             ❏ Are for lifting heavy objects? the proper man-
                                                               ner
                                                                   employees instructed in

         monoxide levels kept below maximum accept-
         able concentration?                                 ❏ Wherebeen provided with have cooling or air
                                                               areas
                                                                       heat is a problem,
                                                                                           spot
                                                                                                 all fixed work


     ❏ Hasinthere facilitiesdetermination that noise lev-
                   been a                                         conditioning?
       els the
         els?
                             are within acceptable lev-
                                                             ❏ Are employees screened before ifassignment to
                                                               areas of high heat to determine their health
     ❏ Are steps beingexcessiveuse engineering con-
       trols to reduce
                        taken to
                                  noise levels?
                                                                  might make them more susceptible to having
                                                                  an adverse reaction?

     ❏ Are proper precautions being taken when han-
       dling asbestos and other fibrous materials?
                                                             ❏ Are employeesexposed to the hazards of traffic
                                                               ways who are
                                                                             working on streets and road-


     ❏ Are cautionsubstances (e.g., asbestos)warn of
       hazardous
                    labels and signs used to
                                                and bio-
                                                                  required to wear bright colored (traffic orange)
                                                                  warning vests?
         hazards (e.g., bloodborne pathogens)?
                                                             ❏ Are exhaustcontaminated air will not be re-
                                                                           stacks and air intakes located so

     ❏ Are wet the emission ofwhen practicable, to
       prevent
               methods used,
                              airborne asbestos
                                                               that nearby
                                                                  circulated within a building or other enclos-
                                                                  ed area?
         fibers, silica dust and similar hazardous mate-
         rials?
                                                             ❏ Is equipment producing ultraviolet radiation
     ❏ Are engineering controlsscheduled basis?main-
                                 examined and
                                                               properly shielded?
       tained or replaced on a
                                                             ❏ Are universalexposure to blood or other po-
                                                                             precautions observed where

     ❏ Is vacuuming with appropriate equipment
       used whenever possible rather than blowing
                                                               occupational
                                                                  tentially infectious materials can occur and in
                                                                  all instances where differentiation of types of
         or sweeping dust?
                                                                  body fluids or potentially infectious materials
     ❏ Are grinders, saws and other machinesindustri-
       produce respirable dusts vented to an
                                             that                 is difficult or impossible?

         al collector or central exhaust system?                FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS

     ❏ Are all local exhaust ventilationflow and vol-
       signed to provide sufficient air
                                         systems de-
                                                             ❏ Are combustible scrap, debris and covered
                                                                                                     waste
                                                               materials (oily rags, etc.) stored in
         ume for the application, and are ducts not
                                                                  metal receptacles and promptly removed from
         plugged and belts not slipping?
                                                                  the worksite?
     ❏ Is PPE provided, used and maintained wherev-
       er required?                                          ❏ Is proper storagespontaneousminimize the risk
                                                                                  practiced to
                                                               of fire, including               combustion?
     ❏ Are there the selection andoperating proce-
       dures for
                 written standard
                                  use of respirators         ❏ Are approved containers andand combustible
                                                                                               tanks used to
                                                               store and handle flammable
         where needed?
                                                                  liquids?
     ❏   Are restrooms and washrooms kept clean and
         sanitary?                                           ❏ Are allpiping, vapor on drums and combustible
                                                                       connections
                                                               liquid               and liquid tight?
     ❏ Is all water provided for drinking, washing and
       cooking potable?                                      ❏ Are all flammablein use (e.g., parts cleaning
                                                                                  liquids kept in closed con-
                                                               tainers when not
     ❏ Are all outlets for water that is not suitable for
       drinking clearly identified?
                                                                  tanks, pans, etc.)?




                                          OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                      33


❏ Are bulk drumscontainers during dispensing?
  and bonded to
                   of flammable liquids grounded             ❏ Where sprinkler systemsheadspermanently or
                                                               installed, are the nozzle
                                                                                         are
                                                                                             so directed

❏ Do storage rooms forexplosion-proof lights
  bustible liquids have
                          flammable and com-
                                                                    arranged that water will not be sprayed into
                                                                    operating electrical switchboards and equip-
                                                                    ment?
    and mechanical or gravity ventilation?

❏ Is liquefiedinpetroleum gas stored, practices
                                      handled                ❏ Arecombustible liquidsfor dispensingofflammable
                                                               or
                                                                   safety cans used
                                                                                       at the point use?
  and used accordance with safe
    and standards?                                           ❏ Are all spills of flammable or combustible liq-
❏ Are “NO SMOKING” and inpostedwhere flam-
                      signs       on liquefied
                                                               uids cleaned up promptly?
  petroleum gas tanks       areas
    mable or combustible materials are used or
                                                             ❏ Are storage tanks adequately vented to pre- or
                                                               vent the development of excessive vacuum
    stored?                                                         pressure as a result of filling, emptying, or

❏ Areprevent damage fromstorage tanks guarded
      liquefied petroleum
                                                                    atmosphere temperature changes?
  to                        vehicles?                        ❏ Are storage tanksrelieve excessiveemergency
                                                                                 equipped with

❏ Are all solvent wastescovered containers until
  kept in fire-resistant,
                          and flammable liquids
                                                               venting that will                  internal
                                                                    pressure caused by fire exposure?
    they are removed from the worksite?                      ❏ Are rulesofenforced in areas involving storage
❏ Is vacuuming or sweeping combustiblerather
  than blowing
                 used whenever possible
                                         dust?
                                                               and use hazardous materials?

                                                                         HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL EXPOSURE
❏ Arecombustibles or flammables that are stack-
  of
       firm separators placed between containers
                                                             ❏ Are employeessafe handling practices hazards
                                                                              aware of the potential
    ed one upon another to ensure their support                and trained in                        for situ-
    and stability?                                                  ations involving various chemicals stored or
                                                                    used in the workplace such as acids, bases,
❏ Are fuel gas cylinders and oxygen cylinders
  separated by distance and fire-resistant barri-
                                                                    caustics, epoxies, phenols, etc.?

    ers while in storage?                                    ❏ Is employeelevels? to chemicals kept within
                                                               acceptable
                                                                            exposure

❏ Arethe types of materials in theand provided
  for
      fire extinguishers selected
                                   areas where               ❏ Are eye-wash fountains and safety chemicals
                                                                                                 showers
    they are to be used?                                       provided in areas where corrosive
                                                                    are handled?
    Class A - Ordinary combustible material fires.

    Class B - Flammable liquid, gas or grease fires.
                                                             ❏ Are all containers,their contents,storage tanks,
                                                               etc., labeled as to
                                                                                   such as vats,
                                                                                                  e.g., “CAUS-
                                                                    TICS”?
    Class C - Energized-electrical equipment fires.

❏   Are appropriate fire extinguishers mounted
                                                             ❏ Are all employees required to use personal
                                                               protective clothing and equipment when han-
    within 75 feet (22.86 meters) of outside areas                  dling chemicals (gloves, eye protection, respi-
    containing flammable liquids and within 10                      rators, etc.)?

                                                             ❏ Are flammable or toxic chemicals kept in
    feet (3.048 meters) of any inside storage area
    for such materials?
                                                               closed containers when not in use?
❏ Are extinguishers free from obstructions or
  blockage?                                                  ❏ Aretheir content? systems clearly marked as
                                                                    chemical piping
                                                               to
❏ Are all extinguishers serviced, maintained and
  tagged at intervals not to exceed one year?                ❏ Where corrosive liquids are frequently handled
                                                               in open containers or drawn from storage ves-
❏ Are all extinguishers fully charged and in their
  designated places?
                                                                    sels or pipelines, are adequate means readily



                                               Occupational Safety and
                                                Health Administration
34

         available for neutralizing or disposing of spills or
         overflows and performed properly and safely?           ❏ Do employees complain aboutordizziness,
                                                                  headaches, nausea, irritation, other factors
     ❏ Are standard being followed when cleaning up
       and are they
                    operating procedures established                  of discomfort when they use solvents or other
                                                                      chemicals?
         chemical spills?

     ❏   Are respirators stored in a convenient, clean
                                                                ❏ Is there a dermatitis problem? Do employees
                                                                  complain about dryness, irritation, or sensitiza-
         and sanitary location, and are they adequate                 tion of the skin?
         for emergencies?

     ❏   Are employees prohibited from eating in areas
                                                                ❏ Have you or environmental health specialist
                                                                  hygienist
                                                                            considered having an industrial

         where hazardous chemicals are present?                       evaluate your operation?

     ❏ Is PPE used and maintained whenever neces-
       sary?
                                                                ❏ If internal combustion engines are used, is car-
                                                                  bon monoxide kept within acceptable levels?

     ❏ Are there the selection andoperating proce-
       dures for
                 written standard
                                  use of respirators
                                                                ❏ Is vacuuming used rather possible for or
                                                                  sweeping dust whenever
                                                                                            than blowing

         where needed?                                                cleanup?

     ❏ If you have a respirator protection the correct
       are your employees instructed on
                                           program,
                                                                ❏ Are materials that give offfumes asphyxiant,
                                                                  suffocating, or anesthetic
                                                                                              toxic,
                                                                                                     stored in
         usage and limitations of the respirators?                    remote or isolated locations when not in use?
         Are the respirators National Institute for
         Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-                   HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES COMMUNICATION
         approved for this particular application?
         Are they regularly inspected, cleaned, sani-
         tized and maintained?
                                                                ❏ Is there a list of hazardous substancesavailable
                                                                  your workplace and an MSDS readily
                                                                                                          used in


     ❏ If hazardous substances are used in your pro-                  for each hazardous substance used?
       cesses, do you have a medical or biological
         monitoring system in operation?
                                                                ❏ Is there a currentexposure to bloodborne plan
                                                                  for occupational
                                                                                     written exposure control


     ❏ Are youpermissible exposure limits of airborne
       ues or
               familiar with the threshold limit val-
                                                                      pathogens and other potentially infectious
                                                                      materials, where applicable?
         contaminants and physical agents used in
         your workplace?
                                                                ❏ Is there a written hazard communication pro-
                                                                  gram dealing with MSDSs, labeling and

     ❏ Have appropriate controlmaterials, including
                                procedures been
                                                                      employee training?
       instituted for hazardous
         safe handling practices and the use of respira-
                                                                ❏ Is each container for a hazardousetc.) labeled
                                                                  (i.e., vats, bottles, storage tanks,
                                                                                                       substance

         tors and ventilation systems?                                with product identity and a hazard warning

     ❏ Whenever possible, designed and exhausted
       handled in properly
                           are hazardous substances
                                                                      (communication of the specific health hazards
                                                                      and physical hazards)?
         booths or similar locations?                           ❏ Is there substances that includes: for haz-
                                                                           an employee training program

     ❏ Do you usesystems to control dusts,exhaust
       ventilation
                   general dilution or local
                                             vapors,
                                                                  ardous
                                                                  s   an explanation of what an MSDS is and how
         gases, fumes, smoke, solvents, or mists that                 to use and obtain one;
         may be generated in your workplace?
                                                                  s   MSDS contents for each hazardous substance
     ❏   Is operational ventilation equipment provided
         for removal of contaminants from production
                                                                      or class of substances;

         grinding, buffing, spray painting, and/or vapor          s   explanation of “A Right to Know”;
         degreasing?




                                            OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                        35

  s   identification of where an employee can see                      follow-up that will be made available;
      the written hazard communication program;
                                                                   s   information on post-exposure evaluations and
  s   location of physical and health hazards in par-                  follow-up; and
      ticular work areas and the specific protective
      measures to be used; and                                     s   an explanation of signs, labels and color
                                                                       coding.
      details of the hazard communication program,
                                                                ❏ Are employees trained in:
  s

      including how to use the labeling system and
      MSDSs.                                                       s   how to recognize tasks that might result in

❏ Does the employee training program on the
                                                                       occupational exposure;
  bloodborne pathogens standard contain the                        s   how to use work practice, engineering con-
      following elements:                                              trols and PPE, and their limitations;
  s   an accessible copy of the standard and an                    s   how to obtain information on the types, selec-
      explanation of its contents;
                                                                       tion, proper use, location, removal, handling,
  s   a general explanation of the epidemiology                        decontamination and disposal of PPE; and
      and symptoms of bloodborne diseases;                         s   who to contact and what to do in an emer-
  s   an explanation of the modes of transmission                      gency.
      of Bloodborne Pathogens;
                                                                                       ELECTRICAL
  s   an explanation of the employer’s exposure
      control plan and the means by which employ-
      ees can obtain a copy of the written plan;
                                                                ❏ Do youfor all contract electrical work? stan-
                                                                  dards
                                                                           require compliance with OSHA


  s   an explanation of the appropriate methods for
      recognizing tasks and the other activities that
                                                                ❏ Are all employeesor property in connection
                                                                  ous hazard to life
                                                                                      required to report any obvi-

      may involve exposure to blood and other                          with electrical equipment or lines as soon as
      potentially infectious materials;                                possible?

  s   an explanation of the use and limitations of              ❏ Are employees instructed to make preliminary
                                                                  inspections and/or appropriate tests to deter-
      methods that will prevent or reduce exposure,
                                                                       mine conditions before starting work on elec-
      including appropriate engineering controls,
                                                                       trical equipment or lines?
      work practices and PPE;

  s   information on the types, proper use, location,
                                                                ❏ When electrical equipment or linesare neces-
                                                                  serviced, maintained, or adjusted,
                                                                                                     are to be

      removal, handling, decontamination and dis-                      sary switches opened, locked out or tagged,
      posal of PPE;                                                    whenever possible?
  s   an explanation of the basis for selection of
      PPE;
                                                                ❏ Are portable electrical toolsinsulated type?
                                                                  grounded or of the double
                                                                                                and equipment


  s   information on the hepatitis B vaccine;                   ❏ Are electrical appliances suchmachines, etc.,
                                                                  cleaners, polishers, vending
                                                                                                  as vacuum

  s   information on the appropriate actions to take                   grounded?
      and persons to contact in an emergency in-
      volving blood or other potentially infectious             ❏ Do extension cords have a grounding con-
                                                                  ductor?
      materials;
                                                                ❏ Are multiple plug adaptors prohibited?
      an explanation of the procedure to follow if an
                                                                ❏ Areeach temporary 15 orinterrupters installed
  s
                                                                      ground-fault circuit
      exposure incident occurs, including the meth-
                                                                  on                       20 ampere, 120 volt
      ods of reporting the incident and the medical
                                                                       alternating current (AC) circuit at locations


                                                 Occupational Safety and
                                                  Health Administration
36

         where construction, demolition, modifications,
         alterations, or excavations are being per-          ❏ Are all electrical raceways and enclosures
                                                               securely fastened in place?
         formed?

     ❏ Are all temporary circuits protected by suitable      ❏ Are all energized parts of electrical circuits and
                                                               equipment guarded against accidental contact
       disconnecting switches or plug connectors at
         the junction with permanent wiring?                      by approved cabinets or enclosures?

     ❏ Do you dust or vapor areas? If so, do haz-
              have electrical installations in               ❏ Is sufficient access and working space provid-
                                                               ed and maintained around all electrical equip-
       ardous                                  they
         meet the National Electrical Code (NEC) for              ment to permit ready and safe operations and
         hazardous locations?                                     maintenance?

     ❏ Are exposed insulation repairedwithreplacedor
                    wiring and cords       frayed            ❏ Are all unusedelectrical enclosures and fittings
                                                               knockouts) in
                                                                              openings (including conduit
       deteriorated                    or
         promptly?                                                closed with appropriate covers, plugs, or
                                                                  plates?
     ❏ Are flexible cords and cables free of splices or
       taps?                                                 ❏ Are electrical enclosures such as switches, re-
                                                               ceptacles, junction boxes, etc., provided with
     ❏ Areflexible cords or cables at plugs, recepta-
       on
           clamps or other securing means provided                tight-fitting covers or plates?

         cles, tools, equipment, etc., and is the cord       ❏ Are disconnectingofswitches for electrical to
                                                               motors in excess two horsepower able
         jacket securely held in place?
                                                                  open the circuit when the motor is stalled
     ❏   Are all cord, cable and raceway connections
         intact and secure?
                                                                  without exploding? (Switches must be horse-
                                                                  power rated equal to or in excess of the motor

     ❏ In wet or damp appropriate forelectrical tools
                      locations, are                              rating.)
       and equipment
         tion or otherwise protected?
                                       the use or loca-
                                                             ❏ Is low voltagemotors driving machines orcon-
                                                               trol device of
                                                                              protection provided in the


     ❏ Is the location of electrical powerunder and
       cables (overhead, underground,
                                           lines
                                                 floor,
                                                                  equipment that could cause injury from inad-
                                                                  vertent starting?
         other side of walls, etc.) determined before
         digging, drilling, or similar work is begun?
                                                             ❏ Is each motor disconnecting of the motor con-
                                                               breaker located within sight
                                                                                            switch or circuit


     ❏ Aresimilar devices withtapes, ropes, hand-lines
            metal measuring                                       trol device?
       or                       metallic thread woven
         into the fabric prohibited where they could
                                                             ❏ Is eachor is thelocated within sight of its con-
                                                               troller
                                                                       motor
                                                                                controller disconnecting means
         come in contact with energized parts of equip-           able to be locked open or is a separate discon-
         ment or circuit conductors?                              necting means installed in the circuit within

     ❏ Is the use of metal ladders prohibited where               sight of the motor?
       the ladder or the person using the ladder
         could come in contact with energized parts of
                                                             ❏ Is thehorsepowerfor each motor that exceeds
                                                               two
                                                                      controller
                                                                                 rated equal to or above the
         equipment, fixtures, or circuit conductors?              rating of the motor it serves?

     ❏ Are all disconnecting switches and circuitequip-
       breakers labeled to indicate their use or
                                                             ❏ Are employees who regularly work on or lines
                                                               around energized electrical equipment or
         ment served?                                             instructed in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

     ❏ Are disconnecting means always opened                      (CPR)?
       before fuses are replaced?
                                                             ❏ Areenergized lines or equipmentworking alone
                                                                   employees prohibited from

     ❏ Do allfor grounding metal parts of electrical
       sions
              interior wiring systems include provi-           on
                                                                  volts?
                                                                                               over 600

         raceways, equipment and enclosures?



                                          OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                      37

                      NOISE
                                                            ❏ In fueling operations,containeralways metal
                                                                                     is there
❏   Are there areas in the workplace where contin-
    uous noise levels exceed 85 decibels?
                                                              contact between the
                                                                   tank?
                                                                                              and the fuel


❏ Is there an ongoing preventivelevels ofprogram
  to educate employees in safe
                                  health
                                          noise,
                                                            ❏ Are fueling hoses designed to handle the spe-
                                                              cific type of fuel?
    exposures, effects of noise on their health and
    the use of personal protection?                         ❏ Are employees prohibited from handling or
                                                              transferring gasoline in open containers?
❏ Have work areas where noise levels make dif-
  voice communication between employees                     ❏ Are equipment prohibited nearsparking,or arc-
                                                                   open lights, open flames,          or
                                                              ing                             fueling
    ficult been identified and posted?                             transfer of fuel operations?
❏   Are noise levels measured with a sound level
    meter or an octave band analyzer and are                ❏ Is smoking prohibited in the vicinity of fueling
                                                              operations?
    records being kept?

❏ Have engineeringnoise levels? Whereto
                   controls been used                       ❏ Areother enclosed areasprohibitednot buildings
                                                              or
                                                                  fueling operations
                                                                                      that are
                                                                                                 in
                                                                                                    specifical-
  reduce excessive                    engi-                        ly ventilated for this purpose?
    neering controls are determined to be infeasi-
    ble, are administrative controls (i.e., worker
    rotation) being used to minimize individual
                                                            ❏ Where fueling or transfer of fuelare done
                                                              through a gravity flow system,
                                                                                                is
                                                                                                   the nozzles
    employee exposure to noise?                                    self-closing?

❏ Is approved hearing protective equipment
  (noise attenuating devices) available to every
                                                                        IDENTIFICATION OF PIPING SYSTEMS

    employee working in noisy areas?
                                                            ❏ When nonpotable water ispostedthrough a
                                                                                            piped

❏ Have you tried isolating noisy machinery from
  the rest of your operation?
                                                              facility, are outlets or taps       to alert
                                                                   employees that the water is unsafe and not to
                                                                   be used for drinking, washing, or other per-
❏ If you use and protectors,in their use? prop-
  erly fitted
              ear
                  instructed
                              are employees                        sonal use?


❏ Are employees intestingnoise areas that you
                      high             given peri-          ❏ When hazardous substances are transported
                                                              through above-ground piping, is each pipeline
  odic audiometric           to ensure                             identified at points where confusion could
    have an effective hearing protection system?                   introduce hazards to employees?

                     FUELING                                ❏ When pipelines are the bandsby color painted
                                                              bands or tapes,
                                                                              are identified
                                                                                             or tapes located
❏ Are employees prohibited from fueling an
  internal combustion engine with a flammable
                                                                   at reasonable intervals and at each outlet,
                                                                   valve, or connection, and are all visible parts
    liquid while the engine is running?                            of the line so identified?

❏ Are fueling operations performed to minimize
  spillage?
                                                            ❏ Whencode posted atidentified by color, isconfu-
                                                              color
                                                                    pipelines are
                                                                                  all locations where
                                                                                                        the


❏ When is the spilled fuelduring fueling opera-
         spillage occurs
                                                                   sion could introduce hazards to employees?
  tions,                   washed away com-
    pletely, evaporated, or are other measures
                                                            ❏ When theor name abbreviation,arethe informa-
                                                              by name
                                                                       contents of pipelines
                                                                                             is
                                                                                                identified

    taken to control vapors before restarting the                  tion readily visible on the pipe near each valve
    engine?                                                        or outlet?

❏ Are fuelstarting thereplaced and secured
  before
           tank caps
                       engine?
                                                            ❏ When pipelines carrying hazardousconstructed
                                                              are identified by tags, are the tags
                                                                                                   substances

                                                                   of durable materials, the message printed




                                              Occupational Safety and
                                               Health Administration
38

         clearly and permanently, and are tags installed
         at each valve or outlet?                           ❏ Are securing chains, ropes, chockers, or slings
                                                              adequate for the job?
     ❏ When pipelines external source, are suitable
       steam, or other
                       are heated by electricity,
                                                            ❏ Are provisions made to ensureor equipment?
                                                                                             that no one is
         warning signs or tags placed at unions, valves,      below when hoisting material
         or other serviceable parts of the system?
                                                            ❏ Are MSDSssubstances? employees handling
                                                              hazardous
                                                                          available to

                   MATERIALS HANDLING
                                                               TRANSPORTING EMPLOYEES AND MATERIALS
     ❏ Is there safe clearance for equipment through
       aisles and doorways?
                                                            ❏ Do employees have operate vehicleslicenses?
                                                                            who                    on public

     ❏ Are aisleways unhindered passage? and kept
                       permanently marked                     thoroughfares     valid operator’s
       clear to allow
                                                            ❏ When sevenin amore bus, or truck, is regularly
                                                                          or      employees are

     ❏ Are motorized vehicles and mechanized equip-
       ment inspected daily or prior to use?
                                                              transported    van,                  the oper-
                                                                 ator’s license appropriate for the class of vehi-
                                                                 cle being driven and are there enough seats?
     ❏ Are vehicles shut off and brakes set prior to
       loading or unloading?                                ❏ Are vehicles used to transporthorns, mirrors,
                                                                                            employees
                                                              equipped with lamps, brakes,
     ❏ Are containersstacked while being moved,
       mables, when
                        of liquid combustibles or flam-          windshields and turn signals, and are they in
                                                                 good repair?
         always protected by dunnage (packing materi-
         al) sufficient to provide stability?               ❏ Are transport vehicles provided with handrails,
                                                              steps, stirrups, or similar devices, placed and
     ❏ Are dockorboards (bridge plates) usedtaking
       loading    unloading operations are
                                             when                arranged to allow employees to safely mount
                                                                 or dismount?
         place between vehicles and docks?

     ❏   Are trucks and trailers secured from move-
                                                            ❏ Aretimes with at least two reflective-type at
                                                              all
                                                                   employee transport vehicles equipped

         ment during loading and unloading opera-                flares?
         tions?

     ❏   Are dock plates and loading ramps construct-
                                                            ❏ Is a fully charged fire extinguisher, in good
                                                              condition, with at least a 4 B:C rating main-
         ed and maintained with sufficient strength to           tained in each employee transport vehicle?
         support imposed loading?

     ❏   Are hand trucks maintained in safe operating
                                                            ❏ When cutting passenger compartmentsedges
                                                              are carried in
                                                                             tools or tools with sharp
                                                                                                       of
         condition?                                              employee transport vehicles, are they placed

     ❏ Are chutes equipped with sideboardsbeing
       cient height to prevent the materials
                                             of suffi-           in closed boxes or containers that are secured
                                                                 in place?
         handled from falling off?
                                                            ❏ Areany load thatprohibited from riding other-
                                                                  employees                           on top

     ❏ Are chutessecured to prevent sections firmly
       placed or
                   and gravity roller
                                      displacement?
                                                              of              could shift, topple, or
                                                                 wise become unstable?

     ❏ Arethe handled made to brake the movementof
       of
            provisions
                       materials at the delivery end
                                                                   CONTROL OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES
                                                                           BY VENTILATION
         rollers or chutes?

     ❏ Are palletsmoved? inspected before being
                   usually                                  ❏ Is the volume sufficient to gatherin each ex-
                                                              haust system
                                                                            and velocity of air
                                                                                                 the dusts,
       loaded or
                                                                 fumes, mists, vapors, or gases to be controll-
     ❏ Are safety latches and othermaterialsbeing
       used to prevent slippage of
                                   devices
                                             off of
                                                                 ed, and to convey them to a suitable point of
                                                                 disposal?
         hoisting hooks?



                                         OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                           39


❏ Are exhaust inlets, ductssupported to prevent
  signed, constructed and
                            and plenums de-                      ❏ When clothing intoare requiredclothing, is from
                                                                   street
                                                                          employees
                                                                                      protective
                                                                                                  to change
                                                                                                              a
    collapse or failure of any part of the system?                     clean change room with a separate storage

❏ Are clean-out ports12 feet (3.6576 meters)inter-
  vals not to exceed
                      or doors provided at
                                              in all
                                                                       facility for street and protective clothing pro-
                                                                       vided?
    horizontal runs of exhaust ducts?                            ❏ Are employees required to shower aand wash
❏ Wherecontrolled through the operations are
  being
        two or more different
                              same exhaust
                                                                   their hair as soon as possible after known
                                                                       contact with a carcinogen has occurred?
    system, could the combination of substances
    involved create a fire, explosion, or chemical
                                                                 ❏ When into or removed from aorcarcinogen-reg-
                                                                   taken
                                                                         equipment, materials,   other items are

    reaction hazard in the duct?                                       ulated area, is it done in a manner that will not

❏ Is adequate makeup air provided to areas
  where exhaust systems are operating?
                                                                       contaminate non-regulated areas or the exter-
                                                                       nal environment?

❏ Is theonly clean, fresh air, free ofair located so
  that
         source point for makeup
                                       contaminants
                                                                                     TIRE INFLATION

    will enter the work environment?                             ❏ Where tires are mounted and/or inflated on
                                                                   drop center wheels or on wheels with split
❏ Where two orismore ventilationsuch that serve
  a work area, their operation
                                 systems
                                          one
                                                                       rims and/or retainer rings, is a safe practice
                                                                       procedure posted and enforced?
    will not offset the functions of the other?

     SANITIZING EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING
                                                                 ❏ Does each tireleast 2.54 hose have a centime-
                                                                   chuck with at
                                                                                  inflation
                                                                                            inches (6.45
                                                                                                         clip-on

                                                                       ters) of hose between the chuck and an in-line
❏   Is required personal protective clothing or                        hand valve and gauge?

                                                                 ❏ Doesshuttire inflation control valve valve is
    equipment able to be cleaned and disinfected
                                                                         the                            automati-
    easily?
                                                                   cally     off the air flow when the
❏ Are employees prohibited fromequipment,
                                  interchanging                        released?

                                                                 ❏ Is aotherrestrainingmeans used while cage, rack,
  personal protective clothing or
                                                                        tire            device such as a
    unless it has been properly cleaned?
                                                                   or        effective                   inflating
❏ Are machines and equipment that process,
  handle, or apply materials that could injure
                                                                       tires mounted on split rims or rims using
                                                                       retainer rings?

                                                                 ❏ Are employees prohibited afrom while it is
    employees cleaned and/or decontaminated
                                                                                                     standing
    before being overhauled or placed in storage?
                                                                   directly over or in front of tire
❏ Are employees prohibitedcontaminants are
  eating in any area where
                           from smoking or                             being inflated?

    present that could be injurious if ingested?




                                                  Occupational Safety and
                                                   Health Administration
40   ASSISTANCE IN SAFETY AND HEALTH FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
     OSHA Assistance                                          needs and set up a visit date based on the priority
                                                              assigned to your request, your work schedule and
     OSHA’S OFFICE OF SMALL BUSINESS ASSISTANCE               the time needed for the consultant to prepare ade-
        OSHA created the Office of Small Business             quately to serve you. OSHA encourages a com-
     Assistance to help small business employers              plete review of your firm’s safety and health situa-
     understand their safety and health obligations,          tion; however, if you wish, you may limit the visit
     access compliance information, provide guidance          to one or more specific problems.
     on regulatory standards, and to educate them                 Opening Conference. When the consultant
     about cost-effective means for ensuring the safety       arrives at your worksite for the scheduled visit, he
     and health of worksites.                                 or she will first meet with you in an opening con-
        OSHA’s Office of Small Business Assistance can        ference to briefly review the consultant’s role and
     be contacted by telephone at (202) 693-2220 or by        the obligations you incur as an employer.
     writing to the U.S. Department of Labor, 200                 Walk-through. Together, you and the consultant
     Constitution Avenue, NW, Room N-3700,                    will examine conditions in your workplace. OSHA
     Washington, DC 20210.                                    strongly encourages maximum employee partici-
                                                              pation in the walk-through. Better informed and
                   ON-SITE CONSULTATION                       alert employees can help you identify and correct
          Using the free and confidential on-site consulta-   potential injury and illness hazards in your work-
     tion service largely funded by the Federal OSHA,         place. Talking with employees during the walk-
     employers can find out about potential hazards at        through helps the consultant identify and judge the
     their worksites, improve their occupational safety       nature and extent of specific hazards.
     and health management systems, and even qualify              The consultant will study your entire workplace,
     for a one-year exemption from routine OSHA in-           or only those specific operations you designate,
     spections.                                               and discuss applicable OSHA standards. The con-
          The service is delivered at your workplace by       sultant also will point out other safety or health
     state governments using well-trained professional        risks which might not be cited under OSHA stan-
     staff. Most consultations take place on-site, though     dards, but which nevertheless may pose safety or
     limited services away from the worksite are avail-       health risks to your employees. He or she may
     able.                                                    suggest and even provide measures such as self-
          Primarily targeted for smaller businesses, this     inspection and safety and health training that you
     safety and health Consultation Program is com-           and your employees can apply to prevent future
     pletely separate from OSHA’s enforcement efforts.        hazardous situations.
     It is also confidential. No inspections are triggered        A comprehensive consultation also includes: (1)
     by using the Consultation Program and no citations       appraisal of all mechanical and environmental haz-
     are issued or penalties proposed.                        ards and physical work practices; (2) appraisal of
          Your name, your firm’s name and any informa-        the present job safety and health program or help
     tion you provide about your workplace, plus any          in establishing one; (3) a conference with manage-
     unsafe or unhealthful working conditions that the        ment on findings; (4) a written report of recommen-
     consultant uncovers, will not routinely be reported      dations and agreements; and (5) training and assis-
     to the OSHA enforcement staff.                           tance with implementing recommendations.
          Your only obligation will be to commit to cor-          Closing Conference. The consultant will then
     recting serious job safety and health hazards dis-       review detailed findings with you in a closing con-
     covered -- a commitment that you are expected to         ference. You will learn not only what you need to
     make prior to the actual consultation visit. If haz-     improve but what you are doing right, as well. At
     ards are discovered, the consultant will work with       that time you can discuss problems, possible solu-
     you to ensure they are corrected in a reasonable         tions and abatement periods to eliminate or control
     timeframe agreed upon by all parties.                    any serious hazards identified during the walk-
          Getting Started. Since consultation is a volun-     through.
     tary activity, you must request it. Your telephone           In rare instances, the consultant may find an
     call or letter sets the consulting machinery in          “imminent danger” situation during the walk-
     motion. The consultant will discuss your specific        through. In that case, you must take immediate



                                           OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                            41

action to protect employees. In certain other situa-            changes in working conditions or processes occur
tions–those that would be judged a “serious viola-              that may introduce new hazards. Employers who
tion” under OSHA criteria–you and the consultant                meet these specific SHARP requirements may be
must develop and agree to a reasonable plan and                 removed from OSHA’s programmed inspection list
schedule to eliminate or control that hazard. The               for one year.
consultant will offer general approaches and op-
tions to you. He or she may also suggest other                      The on-site consultants will:
sources for technical help.
    Abatement and Follow-through. Following the                     s   help you recognize hazards in your workplace,
closing conference, the consultant will send you a
detailed written report explaining the findings and                 s   suggest general approaches or options for
confirming any abatement periods agreed upon.                           solving a safety or health problem,
The consultant may also contact you from time to                    s   identify kinds of help available if you need fur-
time to check your progress. You, of course, may
                                                                        ther assistance,
always contact him or her for assistance.
    Ultimately, OSHA does require hazard abate-                     s   provide you with a written report summarizing
ment so that each consultation visit achieves its                       findings,
objective–effective employee protection. If you fail
to eliminate or control identified serious hazards                  s   assist you in developing or maintaining an
(or an imminent danger) according to the plan and                       effective safety and health program,
within the limits agreed upon or an agreed-upon
extension, the situation must be referred from con-
                                                                    s   provide training and education for you and
sultation to an OSHA enforcement office for appro-                      your employees,
priate action. This type of referral is extremely rare.             s   recommend you for a one-year exclusion from
    Benefits. Knowledge of your workplace hazards                       OSHA programmed inspections, once pro-
and ways to eliminate them can only improve your                        gram criteria are met.
own operations–and the management of your firm.
You will get professional advice and assistance on                  The on-site consultants will not:
the correction of workplace hazards and benefit
from on-site training and assistance provided. The                  s   issue citations or propose penalties for viola-
consultant can help you establish or strengthen an                      tions of OSHA standards,
employee safety and health program, making safe-
ty and health activities routine rather than crisis-                s   report possible violations to OSHA enforce-
oriented responses.                                                     ment staff,

                                                                    s   guarantee that your workplace will “pass” an
    In many states, employers may participate in
                                                                        OSHA inspection.
OSHA’s Safety and Health Achievement
Recognition Program (SHARP). This program is                       For a list of consultation projects in each state,
designed to provide incentives and support to                   see the OSHA website at www.osha.gov/dcsp/
smaller, high-hazard employers to develop, imple-               smallbusiness/consult_directory.html
ment and continuously improve effective safety
and health programs at their worksite(s). SHARP                             OTHER COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS
provides recognition of employers who have                         Information about OSHA’s different cooperative
demonstrated exemplary achievements in work-                    programs is available from any OSHA Regional
place safety and health, beginning with a compre-               Office, OSHA Area Office, or by contacting OSHA’s
hensive safety and health consultation visit, correc-           Directorate of Cooperative and State Programs at
tion of all workplace safety and health hazards,                the U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety
adoption and implementation of effective safety                 and Health Administration, 200 Constitution
and health management systems, and agreement                    Avenue, NW, Room N-3700, Washington, DC 20210,
to request further consultative visits if major                 phone (202) 693-2200.




                                                  Occupational Safety and
                                                   Health Administration
42

         VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS (VPP)                 These state plans operate under authority of state
         OSHA’s VPP provide an opportunity for labor,        law and are required to be, in structure and per-
     management and government to work together              formance, “at least as effective as” the Federal
     cooperatively to further the goal of providing effec-   OSHA Program. Although many states have adopt-
     tive safety and health protection in the workplace.     ed standards and procedures identical to Federal
     The VPP grant recognition to worksites that provide     standards, states may have different or additional
     or are committed to providing effective protection      requirements parallel to those described in the
     for their employees through implementation of           Federal program.
     systematically managed safety and health pro-               To determine which set of standards and regula-
     grams. The Star Program is for worksites that have      tions apply to you, you need to know whether you
     at least one year’s experience with an effectively      are covered by a state plan or subject to Federal
     implemented safety and health program. The Merit        OSHA. Please visit http://www.oshaslc.gov/fso/osp
     Program is for worksites working toward an effec-       /index.html, call the OSHA Area Office nearest you,
     tively implemented program. The Demonstration           or (800) 321-OSHA to obtain this information.
     Program is for worksites with programs at Star              If you are subject to state enforcement, the
     quality but with some aspect of their program that      OSHA Area Office will refer you to your state office
     requires further study by OSHA. All participants        which can provide all relevant information, such as
     work in partnership with OSHA and provide mod-          whether the state is using the Federal standards,
     els for OSHA and for their industries.                  information on the poster and recordkeeping
                                                             requirements, and special services available to
     OSHA STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM (OSPP)               small businesses. The state office also can provide
        OSPP is designed to enable groups of employ-         you with further assistance, including directing you
     ers, employees and employee representatives to          to the free, on-site consultation services described
     partner with OSHA and enter into an extended, vol-      above.
     untary, cooperative relationship in order to encour-        See the list of OSHA-approved state plans at
     age, assist and recognize efforts to eliminate seri-    www.osha.gov.
     ous hazards and achieve a high level of worker
     safety and health.                                      OSHA Publications
                                                             A single free copy of the following materials can be
                 OSHA ALLIANCE PROGRAM                       obtained from the OSHA Area or Regional Office,
         Alliances are goal-oriented written agreements      or contact the OSHA Publications Office, U.S.
     between OSHA and organizations to work together         Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue,
     to prevent workplace injuries and illnesses. Organ-     NW, N-3101, Washington, DC 20210, or call (202)
     izations include employers, employees, labor unions,    693-1888, or fax (202) 693-2498.
     trade or professional groups, educational institu-
                                                             Access to Medical and Exposure Records –
     tions and government agencies. Alliances focus on
                                                             OSHA 3110
     one or more of the following goals: training and
     education, outreach and communications, and pro-        All About OSHA – OSHA 2056
     moting the national dialogue on occupational safe-      (Spanish version 3173)
     ty and health.
                                                             Asbestos Standard for General Industry –
                                                             OSHA 3095
     States with Approved Plans
         The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970      Consultation Services for the Employer –
     encourages states to develop and operate their          OSHA 3047
     own job safety and health programs. OSHA                Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) –
     approves and monitors state plans and provides up       OSHA 3120
     to 50 percent of an approved plan’s operating costs.
         Twenty-four states, Puerto Rico and the Virgin      Emergency Exit Routes Quick Card – OSHA 3183
     Islands currently operate approved state plans.         Employee Workplace Rights – OSHA 3021
                                                             (Spanish version 3049)




                                          OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                     43

Employer Rights and Responsibilities Following                Government Printing Office, Superintendent of
an OSHA Inspection – OSHA 3000                                Documents, phone toll-free (866) 512-1800.
(Spanish version 3195)
                                                              Emergencies—For life-threatening situations, call
Hand and Power Tools – OSHA 3080                              (800) 321-OSHA. Your call will be directed to the
                                                              nearest OSHA Area or state office for help.
How to Plan for Workplace Emergencies and
Evacuations – OSHA 3088                                          For further information on any OSHA program,
                                                              contact your nearest OSHA Area or Regional Office
It’s the Law Poster – OSHA 3165
                                                              or call (800) 321-OSHA.
(Spanish version 3167)
Job Hazard Analysis – OSHA 3071                               Other Sources of Assistance
Model Plans & Programs for the OSHA Bloodborne
                                                                          VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS
Pathogens and Hazard Communications Standard
                                                                          PARTICIPANTS’ ASSOCIATION (VPPPA)
– OSHA 3186
                                                                  The VPPPA is a private organization made up of
Occupational Safety and Health Act – OSHA 2001                VPP participant companies. The VPPPA has mem-
OSHA Inspections – OSHA 2098                                  bers in most states where the Federal OSHA pro-
                                                              gram operates and in many states where state
Personal Protective Equipment – OSHA 3151                     plans are in force. The VPPPA is willing to provide
Servicing Single-Piece and Multi-Piece Rim Wheels –           information, outreach, and mentoring to help work-
OSHA 3086                                                     sites improve their safety and health programs.
                                                              Chapters of the national association have been
    The following publications are available from             formed in most OSHA regions. Members of these
the U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO),                    chapters also are willing to provide the kind of
Superintendent of Documents, Washington, DC                   assistance provided by the national organization.
20402, phone toll-free (866) 512-1800, fax (202) 512-         To contact your regional chapter of the VPPPA, call
2250. Include GPO Order Number and make                       or write the OSHA Regional Office listed in the back
checks payable to Superintendent of Documents.                of this publication for the address and telephone
All prices are subject to change by GPO.                      number of the chapter in your region. To contact
Hazard Communication: A Compliance Kit – OSHA                 the VPPPA national organization, please call (703)
3111                                                          761-1146 or write to the following address:
Order No. 029-016-00200-6. Cost: $21.00
                                                              Voluntary Protection Programs Participants’
Construction Industry Digest – OSHA 2202                      Association
Order No. 029-016-00212-0. Cost: $8.00                        7600 East Leesburg Pike, Suite 440
Materials Handling and Storing – OSHA 2236                    Falls Church, VA 22043
Order No. 029-016-00215-4. Cost: $3.75                        (703) 761-1146

Internet—There is an enormous amount of compli-                     SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTERS
ance assistance information on OSHA’s website                    The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA)
that can be useful to the small business owner,               administers the Small Business Development
found at http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/compliance_                 Center Program to provide management and tech-
assistance/index.html. OSHA standards, interpreta-            nical assistance to current and prospective small
tions, directives and additional information are              business owners. There is a Small Business
also available at http://www.osha.gov/ and                    Development Center (SBDC) in every state, the
http://www.osha-slc.gov/.                                     District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, Samoa,
CD-ROM—A wide variety of OSHA materials,                      and the U.S. Virgin Islands, with more than 1,000
including standards, interpretations, directives, and         service centers across the country. SBDC assis-
more, can be purchased on CD-ROM from the U.S.                tance is tailored to the local community and the




                                                Occupational Safety and
                                                 Health Administration
44

     needs of individual clients and designed to deliver     advance planning will produce action on common
     up-to-date counseling, training, and technical assis-   goals. Many trade unions have safety and health
     tance. Services could include helping small busi-       expertise that they are willing to share.
     nesses with financial, marketing, production,
     organization, engineering, and technical problems.             THE NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL AND
                                                                             LOCAL CHAPTERS
         NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL                    The National Safety Council (NSC) has a broad
              SAFETY AND HEALTH (NIOSH)                      range of information services available. If you
         NIOSH is a research agency in the U.S.              have a local chapter of the NSC in your area, you
     Department of Health and Human Services. (OSHA          can call or visit to see how you can use materials
     is a regulatory agency in the U.S. Department of        pertaining to your business. If there is no chapter
     Labor). NIOSH conducts research and makes rec-          nearby, you can write to:
     ommendations to prevent work-related illness and
     injury. NIOSH has produced a useful guide, Safety       National Safety Council
     and Health Resource Guide for Small Businesses,         1121 Spring Lake Drive
     with telephone numbers, e-mail and Internet ad-         Itasca, IL 60143-3201
     dresses, and mailing information to enable small
     businesses to contact government agencies, pri-                    PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS
     vate organizations, consultants, and others who            The following professional associations are an
     can help with occupational safety and health is-        additional resource that may be able to provide
     sues. The NIOSH toll-free phone number is (800)         assistance to you:
     356-4674, and its website address is www.cdc.
     gov/niosh.                                              American Society of Safety Engineers
                                                             1800 East Oakton Street
         WORKERS’ COMPENSATION CARRIERS AND                  Des Plaines, IL 60018-2187
             OTHER INSURANCE COMPANIES
        Many workers’ compensation carriers, as well         American Industrial Hygiene Association
     as many liability and fire insurance companies,         2700 Prosperity Avenue
     conduct periodic inspections and visits to evaluate     Suite 250
     safety and health hazards. Managers of small and        Fairfax, VA 22031-4319
     medium-sized businesses need to know what serv-
     ices are available from these sources. Contact your     American Conference of Governmental
     carrier and see what it has to offer.                   Industrial Hygienists
                                                             1330 Kemper Meadow Drive
       TRADE ASSOCIATIONS AND EMPLOYER GROUPS                Cincinnati, OH 45240
         Because of the increase in job safety and health
     awareness resulting from OSHA activities, many                   SPECIFIC MEDICAL CONSULTATION
     trade associations and employer groups have put a           Talk to your local doctors or clinics for advice on
     new emphasis on safety and health matters to bet-       workplace medical matters on a consulting basis.
     ter serve their members. If you are a member of         Contact your local Red Cross chapter for assistance
     such a group, find out how it is assisting its mem-     in first aid training. If you cannot identify a local
     bers. If you are not a member, find out if these        chapter, call (800) 667-2968 or write to:
     groups are circulating their materials to nonmem-
     bers, as many do.                                       American National Red Cross
                                                             National Headquarters
          TRADE UNIONS AND EMPLOYEE GROUPS                   Safety Programs
        If your employees are organized, set up some         2025 E Street, NW
     communications, as you do in normal labor rela-         Washington, DC 20006
     tions, to get coordinated action on hazards in your
     business. Safety and health is one area where




                                          OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                                                                                    45

               YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY                               Interest rate information on SBA loans may be
    Many local or university libraries contain infor-        obtained from any SBA office. They fluctuate but
mation on specific safety and health subjects per-           are generally lower than you can obtain elsewhere.
taining to your business. These materials are usu-           You may wish to consult your own bank. It pays to
ally in reference rooms or technical subject areas.          shop around for loans.
Ask your librarian what is available. The library               Don’t forget to check with your accountant at
may be able to obtain materials for you through              income tax time, since safety and health improve-
inter-library loan, purchase, etc.                           ments can often be expensed or depreciated.
    Two basic publications of the National Safety
Council will give you many sources of technical                          ADDITIONAL WEB PAGES OF INTEREST
information. The Accident Prevention Manual for                                TO SMALL BUSINESSES
Industrial Operations is a basic reference book                 (Internet websites change frequently; these list-
for all safety and health work. The second book,             ings may not be current.)
Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene, contains excel-
lent information on toxic materials and recom-               http://www.firstgov.gov
mended health and hygiene practices. Both of                 A website for all agencies of the Federal govern-
these references list other sources at the end of            ment.
each chapter that may help you in solving specific
problems.                                                    http://www.sba.gov
                                                             The U.S. Small Business Administration’s home
      FINANCING WORKPLACE IMPROVEMENT                        page.
    The SBA is authorized to make loans to assist
small businesses with meeting OSHA standards.                http://www.businesslaw.gov
Because SBA’s definition of a “small” business               Legal and regulatory information for small busi-
varies from industry to industry, contact your local         nesses by state.
SBA field office to determine whether you qualify.
    A helpful hint: if you decide to apply for an SBA        http://www.regulations.gov
loan, experience indicates that most delays in pro-          A site to enable small business owners to find all
cessing SBA/OSHA loans are because applications              Federal regulations that are open for comment, to
(1) do not adequately describe each workplace con-           read them and to submit their views.
dition to be corrected and identify one or more
OSHA standards applicable to the condition to be             http://www.assistancecenters.net/
corrected, or (2) do not provide a reasonable esti-          For help with understanding environmental regula-
mate of the cost to correct each condition.                  tions that relate to the operation of your business.
    In most cases, safety hazards can be corrected
without financial assistance. Health hazards may             http://www.irs.gov/businesses/small/index.html
be more costly to correct. The age and condition of          This Internal Revenue Service website offers indus-
the building and equipment are major factors to be           try- and profession-specific tax information and
considered.                                                  guidelines.




                                               Occupational Safety and
                                                Health Administration
46   Appendix A: Overall Action Plan Worksheet

     Major Action Steps to be Taken                      Priority          Projected    Actual
                                                         (Assign each      Completion   Completion
                                                         Step a Number)    Date         Date


     1.




     2.




     3.




     4.




     5.




     6.




     7.




     8.




     9.




     10.




                                      OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
Action Steps                                                                                       47

Description of Action to be Taken:




Specific Steps Required                            Persons     Projected  Problems/   Actual
                                                   Assigned    Completion Delays      Completion
                                                               Date       Encountered Date


1.




2.




3.




4.




5.




                                     Occupational Safety and
                                      Health Administration
48   Appendix B: Model Policy Statements
     The following statements provide examples that           “Our safety and health program will include:
     can be used or modified by employers to help pre-
     vent employee injury and illness.                           s   Providing mechanical and physical safeguards
                                                                     to the maximum extent possible.
     “The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
     clearly states our common goal of safe and health-          s   A program of safety and health inspections to
     ful working conditions. The safety and health of                identify and eliminate unsafe working condi-
     our employees continues to be the first considera-              tions or practices, to control health hazards,
     tion in the operation of this business.”                        and to comply fully with the safety and health
                                                                     standards for every job.
     “Safety and health in our business must be a part
     of every operation. Without question it is every            s   Training all employees in good safety and
     employee’s responsibility at all levels.”                       health practices.

     “It is the intent of this company to comply with all        s   Providing necessary personal protective
     laws. To do this we must constantly be aware of                 equipment and instructions for its use and
     conditions in all work areas that can produce in-               care.
     juries. No employee is required to work at a job he
     or she knows is not safe or healthful. Your cooper-         s   Developing and enforcing safety and health
     ation in detecting hazards and, in turn, controlling            rules and requiring that employees cooperate
     them is a condition of your employment. Inform                  with these rules as a condition of employ-
     your supervisor immediately of any situation                    ment.
     beyond your ability or authority to correct.”
                                                                 s   Investigating, promptly and thoroughly, every
     “The personal safety and health of each employee                accident to find out what caused it and to cor-
     of this company is of primary importance. The pre-              rect the problem so that it won’t happen again.
     vention of occupationally-induced injuries and ill-
     nesses is of such consequence that it will be given         s   Setting up a system of recognition and awards
     precedence over operating productivity whenever                 for outstanding safety service or performance.”
     necessary. To the greatest degree possible, man-
     agement will provide all mechanical and physical         “We recognize that the responsibilities for safety
     facilities required for personal safety and health in    and health are shared:
     keeping with the highest standards.”
                                                                 s   The employer accepts responsibility for lead-
     “We will maintain a safety and health program con-              ership of the safety and health program, for
     forming to the best practices of organizations of               its effectiveness and improvement, and for
     this type. To be successful, such a program must                providing safe conditions.
     embody the proper attitudes toward injury and ill-
     ness prevention on the part of supervisors and              s   Supervisors are responsible for developing
     employees. It also requires cooperation in all safe-            the proper attitudes toward safety and health
     ty and health matters, not only between supervisor              in themselves and in those they supervise,
     and employee, but also between each employee                    and for ensuring that all operations are per-
     and his or her co-workers. Only through such a                  formed with the utmost regard for the safety
     cooperative effort can a safety program in the best             and health of all personnel involved, including
     interest of all be established and preserved.”                  themselves.

     “Our objective is a safety and health program that          s   Employees are responsible for compliance
     will reduce the number of injuries and illnesses to             with all rules and regulations and for continu-
     an absolute minimum, not merely in keeping with,                ously practicing safety while performing their
     but surpassing, the best experience of operations               duties.”
     similar to ours. Our goal is zero accidents and in-
     juries.”


                                           OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
Appendix C: Codes of Safe Practices                                                                                        49

This is a suggested code. It is general in nature              lines in a manner not within the scope of their
and includes many types of small business activi-              duties, unless they have received instructions from
ties. It is intended only as a model that you can              their supervisor/employer.
customize to describe your own work environment.
                                                               10. All injuries shall be reported promptly to the
                                                               supervisor/employer so that arrangements can be
General Policy
                                                               made for medical and/or first aid treatment. First
1. All employees of this firm shall follow these safe          aid materials are located in ____________; emer-
practice rules, render every possible aid to safe              gency, fire, ambulance, rescue squad, and doctors’
operations, and report all unsafe conditions or                telephone numbers are located ___________; and
practices to the supervisor/employer.                          fire extinguishers are located at ___________.
2. Supervisors shall insist that employees observe
                                                               Suggested Safety Rules
and obey every rule, regulation, and order neces-
sary to the safe conduct of the work and take such                 s   Do not throw material, tools, or other objects
action necessary to obtain compliance.                                 from heights (whether structures or buildings)
                                                                       until proper precautions are taken to protect
3. All employees shall be given frequent accident
                                                                       others from the falling object hazard.
prevention instructions. Instructions, practice drills,
and articles concerning workplace safety and                       s   Wash thoroughly after handling injurious or
health shall be given at least once every _____                        poisonous substances.
working days.                                                      s   Gasoline shall not be used for cleaning purposes.
4. Anyone known to be under the influence of alco-                 s   When using a ladder, always face the steps
hol and/or drugs shall not be allowed on the job
                                                                       and use both hands while climbing.
while in that condition. Persons with symptoms of
alcohol and/or drug abuse are encouraged to dis-
                                                               Use of Tools and Equipment
cuss personal or work-related problems with the
supervisor/employer.                                               s   Keep faces of hammers in good condition to
                                                                       avoid flying nails and bruised fingers.
5. No one shall knowingly be permitted or required
to work while his or her ability or alertness is im-               s   Files shall be equipped with handles; never
paired by fatigue, illness, or other causes that                       use a file as a punch or pry.
might expose the individual or others to injury.                   s   Do not use a screwdriver as a chisel.
6. Employees should be alert to see that all guards                s   Do not lift or lower portable electric tools by
and other protective devices are in proper places
                                                                       the power cords; use a rope.
and adjusted, and they shall report deficiencies.
Approved protective equipment shall be worn in                     s   Do not leave the cords of tools where cars or
specified work areas.                                                  trucks will run over them.

 .
7 Horseplay, scuffling, and other acts that tend to
                                                               Machinery and Vehicles
endanger the safety or well-being of employees are
prohibited.                                                        s   Do not attempt to operate machinery or equip-
                                                                       ment without special permission unless it is
8. Work shall be well planned and supervised to
                                                                       part of your regular duties.
prevent injuries when working with equipment and
handling heavy materials. When lifting heavy                       s   Loose or frayed clothing, dangling ties, finger
objects, employees should bend their knees and                         rings, etc., must not be worn around moving
use the large muscles of the legs instead of the                       machinery or other places where they can get
smaller muscles of the back. Back injuries are the                     caught.
most frequent and often the most persistent and                    s   Machinery shall not be repaired or adjusted
painful type of workplace injury.                                      while in operation.
9. Workers shall not handle or tamper with any
electrical equipment, machinery, or air or water



                                                 Occupational Safety and
                                                  Health Administration
50   Appendix D: OSHA Job Safety and Health Standards,
                 Regulations and Requirements
     OSHA has four separate sets of standards: General      knows that the standard does not adequately
     Industry (29 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR]         address the hazard.
     1910), Construction (29 CFR 1926), Maritime
     Employment (29 CFR 1915-1919), and Agriculture         General Industry, Maritime, and Construction
     (29 CFR 1928). OSHA has regulations on posting         OSHA standards are available at www.osha.gov.
     and other administrative matters in 29 CFR 1903
     and on recording and reporting of injuries and ill-    After you have obtained a copy of the current stan-
     nesses in 29 CFR 1904.                                 dards, identify those that apply to your business by
                                                            a process of elimination. Read the introduction to
     The OSH Act also has a general duty clause, sec-       the subpart heading, and then analyze the possible
     tion 5(a)(1), 29 U.S.C. 654(b)(1), which provides      hazards in terms of your workplace, your equip-
     that:                                                  ment, your materials and of your employees. For
                                                            example, if you are engaged in retail trade or serv-
     (a) Each employer – –                                  ice and you do not have compressed gases, flam-
                                                            mables, or explosives on your premises, you can
     (1) shall furnish to each of his employees employ-     eliminate Hazardous Materials (Subpart H) as not
     ment and a place of employment which are free          applying to your business.
     from recognized hazards that are causing or are
     likely to cause death or serious physical harm to      If you have any questions in determining whether a
     his employees.                                         standard is applicable to your workplace, you may
                                                            contact the nearest OSHA Area Office for assis-
     A recognized hazard is a danger recognized by the      tance. Staff there should be able to answer any
     employer’s industry or industry in general, by the     questions you may have about standards and pro-
     employer, or by common sense. The general duty         vide general guidelines on methods of implemen-
     clause does not apply if there is an OSHA standard     tation in your workplace. Small businesses are
     dealing with the hazard, unless the employer           encouraged to participate in the development of
                                                            standards.




                                         OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
Appendix E: Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996 (SBREFA)                                       51

In 1996, Congress passed the Small Business                      an electronic comment/complaint with the SBA
Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act, or SBREFA,                  Ombudsman over the Internet at:
in response to concerns expressed by the small                   http://www.sba.gov/ombudsman/comments/com-
business community that Federal regulations were                 mentform1.html
too numerous, too complex and too expensive to                   Or you may contact the SBA's Office of the
implement. SBREFA was designed to give small                     National Ombudsman by:
businesses assistance in understanding and com-
plying with regulations and more of a voice in the                   s   Toll Free Phone: (888) REG-FAIR (734-3247)
development of new regulations. Under SBREFA,
the Occupational Safety and Health Administration                    s   Fax: (202) 481-5719
(OSHA) and other Federal agencies must:                              s   E-mail: ombudsman@sba.gov
  s   Produce Small Entity Compliance Guides for                     s   Mail: Office of the National Ombudsman
      some rules;                                                        U.S. Small Business Administration
                                                                         409 3rd Street, S.W., MC2120
  s   Be responsive to small business inquiries
                                                                         Washington, DC 20416-0005
      about compliance with the agency’s regula-
      tions;                                                     To view the SBREFA Act in its entirety, please
                                                                 visit the following web link:
  s   Submit final rules to Congress for review;
                                                                 http://www.sba.gov/advo/laws/sbrefa.html
  s   Have a penalty reduction policy for small busi-
      nesses; and                                                For more information on SBREFA the following
                                                                 web links may prove helpful:
  s   Involve small businesses in the development                http://www.sba.gov/ombudsman/
      of some proposed rules through Small                       http://www.sba.gov/ombudsman/dsp_overview.html
      Business Advocacy Review Panels.                           http://www.sba.gov/ombudsman/dsp_faq.html
                                                                 http://www.sba.gov/advo/
Commenting on Enforcement Actions                                http://www.sba.gov/advo/laws/is_oshapanel.html

Under a law passed by Congress in 1996, the Small                NOTE: Filing a complaint with the SBA
Business Administration (SBA) has established an                 Ombudsman does not affect any obligation that
SBA Ombudsman and SBA Regional Fairness                          you may have to comply with an OSHA citation or
Boards to investigate small business complaints                  other enforcement action. Nor does it mean that
about Federal agency enforcement actions.                        you need not take other available legal steps to
If you are a small business and believe that you                 protect your interests.
have been treated unfairly by OSHA, you may file




                                                   Occupational Safety and
                                                    Health Administration
52

     OSHA Regional Offices                                 Region VIII
                                                           (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT,* WY*)
     Region I                                              1999 Broadway, Suite 1690
     (CT,* ME, MA, NH, RI, VT*)                            PO Box 46550
     JFK Federal Building, Room E340                       Denver, CO 80201-6550
     Boston, MA 02203                                      (303) 844–1600
     (617) 565–9860
                                                           Region IX
     Region II                                             (American Samoa, AZ,* CA,* HI,* NV,* Northern
     (NJ,* NY,* PR,* VI*)                                  Mariana Islands)
     201 Varick Street, Room 670                           71 Stevenson Street, Room 420
     New York, NY 10014                                    San Francisco, CA 94105
     (212) 337–2378                                        (415) 975–4310

     Region III                                            Region X
     (DE, DC, MD,* PA, VA,* WV)                            (AK,* ID, OR,* WA*)
     The Curtis Center                                     1111 Third Avenue, Suite 715
     170 S. Independence Mall West                         Seattle, WA 98101-3212
     Suite 740 West                                        (206) 553–5930
     Philadelphia, PA 19106-3309
     (215) 861–4900                                        *These states and territories operate their own
                                                           OSHA-approved job safety and health programs
     Region IV                                             (Connecticut, New Jersey, New York and Puerto
     (AL, FL, GA, KY,* MS, NC,* SC,* TN*)                  Rico plans cover public employees only). States
     SNAF                                                  with approved programs must have a standard that
     61 Forsyth Street SW, Room 6T50                       is identical to, or at least as effective as, the Federal
     Atlanta, GA 30303                                     standard.
     (404) 562–2300                                        Note: To get contact information for OSHA Area
                                                           Offices, OSHA-approved State Plans, and OSHA
     Region V                                              Consultation Projects, please visit us online at
     (IL, IN,* MI,* MN,* OH, WI)                           www.osha.gov or call us at (800) 321-OSHA (6742).
     230 South Dearborn Street, Room 3244
     Chicago, IL 60604
     (312) 353–2220                                        Contact Information

     Region VI                                             The most complete and current information and e-
     (AR, LA, NM,* OK, TX)                                 mail addresses for OSHA Regional and Area Offices
     525 Griffin Street, Room 602                          and the state Consultation Projects can be found
     Dallas, TX 75202                                      on OSHA’s website at www.osha.gov/html/
     (214) 767–4731 or 4736 x224                           oshdir.html or by contacting:

     Region VII                                            U.S. Department of Labor
     (IA,* KS, MO, NE)                                     Occupational Safety and Health Administration
     City Center Square                                    Directorate of Cooperative and State Programs
     1100 Main Street, Suite 800                           Office of Small Business Assistance
     Kansas City, MO 64105                                 200 Constitution Ave., NW
     (816) 426–5861                                        Washington, DC 20210
                                                           (800) 321-OSHA




                                        OSHA HANDBOOK FOR SMALL BUSINESSES
                                                         53

OSHA’s Non-Retaliation Policy

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) has a long-established policy that informa-
tion inquiries received by the agency regarding
safety and health regulations or other safety-related
subjects shall not trigger an inspection. This policy
is outlined in OSHA Instruction CPL 02-00-103 (CPL
2.103), Field Inspection Reference Manual, Section
5 - Chapter I, B.4.b. The exact wording is:

Employer Contacts. Contacts for information initiat-
ed by employers or their representatives shall not
trigger an inspection, nor shall such employer
inquiries protect them against regular inspections
conducted pursuant to guidelines established by
the agency. Further, if an employer or its represen-
tatives indicates that an imminent danger exists or
that a fatality or catastrophe has occurred, the Area
Director shall act in accordance with established
inspection priority procedures.

While exceptions to this policy exist, such as the
presence of an imminent danger or the occurrence
of a fatality, OSHA policy is to provide assistance to
help employers prevent and reduce workplace
fatalities, illnesses and injuries.
www.osha.gov

								
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