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					Compressed Natural Gas Station
       Location Study
            Final Report


               Prepared for:

     Bucks County Planning Commission

           1260 Almshouse Road

              Doylestown, PA



                Prepared by:




      4351 Garden City Drive, Suite 600

               Landover, MD




                 March 2006
Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                                                               March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                                                                    Final Report

Table of Content
  Executive Summary .................................................................................................................... 1
    Analysis................................................................................................................................... 1
    NGV Program Plan ................................................................................................................. 3
  Background and Introduction ..................................................................................................... 6
  CNG Station Location Project .................................................................................................... 8
    Current Vehicle Fleets ............................................................................................................ 8
    Current Refueling Locations................................................................................................... 9
    Potential CNG Fleets ............................................................................................................ 12
    Determination of Optimal Refueling Locations ................................................................... 14
      Potential Fleets.................................................................................................................. 14
      Roadways.......................................................................................................................... 14
      Population ......................................................................................................................... 15
      Candidate Station Site Selection....................................................................................... 18
      Initial CNG Station Capacity and Fleet Service ............................................................... 22
    Funding Opportunities for CNG Refueling Stations ............................................................ 24
  NGV Program Plan for Bucks County...................................................................................... 26
    Station Installation Plan ........................................................................................................ 26
      Identification of Station Sites and Partners....................................................................... 26
      Installation of Initial Stations............................................................................................ 27
      Future CNG Needs............................................................................................................ 27
    Outreach and Education Program ......................................................................................... 28
      Target fleets ...................................................................................................................... 29
      Outreach Opportunities..................................................................................................... 30
    CNG Program Cost and Benefits.......................................................................................... 31
      Operating Costs................................................................................................................. 32
      Potential Funding Sources ................................................................................................ 33
      Economic Impacts............................................................................................................. 34
  Recommended Next Steps ........................................................................................................ 34
  Appendix................................................................................................................................... 36
    Available MY 2006 Vehicles................................................................................................ 37
    Performance and Safety ........................................................................................................ 39
  References................................................................................................................................. 44




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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                                                                 March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                                                                      Final Report

Table of Figures

Figure 1. Existing and Potential CNG Vehicle Fleets in Bucks County ........................................ 1
Figure 2. Optimal Locations for CNG Refueling Stations ............................................................. 2
Figure 3. Northeast Areas of Poor Air Quality ............................................................................... 6
Figure 4. Existing CNG Vehicle Fleets in Greater Philadelphia Area ........................................... 9
Figure 5. CNG Refueling Infrastructure Locations in Greater Philadelphia Area ....................... 11
Figure 6. CNG Vehicle Fleets and Refueling Station Locations in Greater Philadelphia............ 11
Figure 7. Existing and Potential CNG Vehicle Fleets in Bucks County ...................................... 13
Figure 8. Bucks County Roadways............................................................................................... 15
Figure 9. Bucks County Townships.............................................................................................. 16
Figure 10. Bucks County Population ............................................................................................ 16
Figure 11. Optimal Locations for CNG Refueling Stations ......................................................... 17
Figure 12. Diesel Refueling Infrastructure in Bucks County ....................................................... 18
Figure 13. Gasoline Refueling Infrastructure in Bucks County ................................................... 19
Figure 14. Potential Partner Sites in Bucks County for CNG Station .......................................... 19
Figure 15. Potential Host Sites within a 4-Mile Radius of Optimal Locations ............................ 20
Figure 16. Natural Gas Availability at Potential CNG Station Host Sites.................................... 21
Figure 17. Vehicle Refueling Schedule for Conventional Gasoline Refueling Station................ 23
Figure 18. Bucks County School District Map............................................................................. 29
Figure 19. Left to Right: LE Refuse Truck, All American RE School Bus and Orion VII CNG
    Bus ........................................................................................................................................ 39


List of Tables

Table 1. Potential Sites for Natural Gas Refueling Stations........................................................... 3
Table 2. Greater Philadelphia NGV Fleets ..................................................................................... 8
Table 3. Greater Philadelphia CNG Stations ................................................................................ 10
Table 4. Potential Bucks County CNG Vehicle Fleets ................................................................. 12
Table 5. Potential Sites for Natural Gas Refueling Stations......................................................... 22
Table 6. Funding Opportunities for Compressed Natural Gas Infrastructure............................... 24
Table 7. Operational Savings for Natural Gas Vehicles ............................................................... 32
Table 8. Funding Opportunities for Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles ...................................... 33
Table 9. Emission Reductions of NGVs vs. Conventional Vehicles............................................ 34
Table 10. Modified and Certified Model Availability from Baytech Corporation....................... 38
Table 11. Contact List................................................................................................................... 40
Table 12. Information on Greater Philadelphia CNG Vehicle Fleets........................................... 41
Table 13. Vehicle Fleet Characteristics of Bucks County Fleets Interested in NGVs ................. 42
Table 14. Greater Philadelphia CNG Refueling Stations Information ......................................... 43




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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                        March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                             Final Report


Executive Summary
Having established some initial success with the small pilot compressed natural gas (CNG)
vehicle demonstration projects in the County, the Transportation Management Association
(TMA) has begun the more ambitious task of convincing fleets to switch their medium-duty and
heavy-duty vehicles to natural gas on a larger scale. In support of this initiative, the Bucks
County Planning Commission contracted with New West Technologies, LLC (New West) to
develop a comprehensive strategic plan for locating public CNG refueling infrastructure in
Bucks County to serve existing and planned natural gas vehicles. Through the development of
this plan, the Commission hopes to coordinate CNG vehicle initiatives including those of the
TMA for the purpose of establishing a formal natural gas vehicle (NGV) Program for the
County. The report summarizes the analysis conducted for assessing CNG station locations as
well as a forward looking plan for instituting the NGV Program.

Analysis
This document presents the results of analysis conducted for instituting a CNG refueling station
network. Information was first gathered on NGVs and CNG refueling stations existing in the
county, as well as potential NGV fleets. Information was also collected on roadway systems and
populations. This information was then analyzed using Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
such as that presented in Figure 1.




                 Figure 1. Existing and Potential CNG Vehicle Fleets in Bucks County




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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                       March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                            Final Report
Based on a thorough analysis of existing natural gas vehicle and station locations, potential NGV
fleets, roadways, and population concentrations using GIS techniques, Bristol (location #1),
Doylestown (location #2), and Newtown (location #3) were selected as potential locations for
installation of CNG refueling infrastructure (see Figure 2). The analysis also identified
Quakertown as a future potential station site for servicing upper Bucks County, but this location
will require more interest in NGVs than currently determined through this study. The anchor
fleet for the Bristol station location is Bucks County Transport because it has indicated that it
plans to purchase 12 new dedicated natural gas shuttle buses. The initial station capacity will be
based primarily on fuel needs of these 12 vehicles and 10 light duty vehicles that are likely to be
purchased by the nearby fleets. PECO Energy has offered to provide refueling equipment for this
location. Bucks County DPW fleet will act as an anchor for the Doylestown station location with
several nearby townships likely to purchase a few CNG vehicles once the station is in place.
PECO will also consider supplying refueling equipment for this location. Newtown is the third
location since the Township has expressed interest in natural gas vehicles and decided to procure
a few Honda GX vehicles in the next year. Due to a limited number of other fleets in the
surrounding area that have expressed interest in NGVs, this location would be best served with a
smaller CNG refueling appliance, such as a FuelMaker.




                        Figure 2. Optimal Locations for CNG Refueling Stations


For each of the three optimal locations potential host sites for a CNG station were identified and
evaluated. Candidate sites included existing gasoline or diesel service stations and various other
potential properties. Adding CNG refueling to an existing gasoline or diesel service station is the
most direct path to the creation of a CNG refueling station. These stations were also investigated
due to their strategic location in highly populated areas and near major roadways. The top


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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                                          March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                                               Final Report
candidate sites and rankings for each of the three optimal locations are presented in Table 1.
Rankings were based on location, natural gas availability, and fleet proximity. Note that the
following sites were ranked highest: Wawa for Bristol, Neshaminy Manor for Doylestown, and
Newtown Township for Newtown.

                           Table 1. Potential Sites for Natural Gas Refueling Stations
              Name                    Candidate Site                        Address                Total Points
                                               Bristol Location
     Wawa                       Store & Gasoline Station         3620 Bath Road                          15
     Getty                      Diesel & Gasoline Station  3024 New Rodgers Road                         13
     Hess                       Diesel & Gasoline Station  2919 New Rodgers Road                         13
     Mobil                      Gasoline Station              4362 New Falls Road                        13
     Texaco                     Diesel & Gasoline Station     7011 New Falls Road                        13
                                             Doylestown Location
     Neshaminy Manor            Bucks County DPW            1265 Almshouse Road                          15
     Brinkers Fuels             Diesel & Gasoline Station    445 North West Street                       13
     Gulf                       Diesel & Gasoline Station    216 South Main Street                       13
     Shell                      Gasoline Station             425 South Main Street                       13
                                              Newtown Location
     Newtown Township           Gasoline Station                     100 Municipal Drive                 15
     Citgo                      Diesel & Gasoline Station           496 South State Street               13
     Gulf                       Diesel & Gasoline Station            695 Newton Yardley                  13
       Sites were assigned a score of 1 (worst) through 5 (best) for each of three different criteria, including
       location, natural gas availability, and fleet proximity.



NGV Program Plan
Having identified optimal locations and candidate sites
for CNG refueling stations, a detailed plan for
establishing a significant NGV Program for the County
was developed. The first step under this Plan is to more
fully assess the list of candidate sites for each optimal
location based on property layout, natural gas service
and property owner interest in hosting CNG refueling.
Property layout considers the available space for CNG
refueling equipment and the accessibility of the site
(ingress/egress) for passenger cars as well as heavy-duty
trucks or buses. PECO Energy can provide information
on natural gas service at the sites and the additional
infrastructure cost in case it is not currently available.
The site owner’s interest in hosting a CNG refueling
station is a key requirement since they will most likely
be responsible for managing the refueling operation and
equipment. The addition of CNG refueling to an existing


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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                        March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                             Final Report
station will bring in new customers, therefore adding to the fuel sale profits as well as increasing
the profits from the sale of convenience items.

There are many sources of funding available for establishment of CNG refueling infrastructure.
A database of the funding opportunities was developed as part of this study and is presented in
terms of eligibility requirements, proposal requirements and due dates, cost share requirements,
and any other key considerations related to these opportunities. Further, as part of the project, a
proposal was prepared and submitted to the Pennsylvania DEP AFIG Program on behalf of
Bucks County TMA for the establishment of two public access CNG refueling stations in the
County, one in Doylestown and one in Bristol. In addition, the DOE State Energy Projects (SEP)
grant program was identified as the next best funding opportunity for applying for station
funding. The request for proposals for the SEP program is expected sometime in April and
proposals will be due in May or June.

Due to serious mobile source air pollution problems, there is a potential for increased use of
CNG vehicles in Bucks County and Greater Philadelphia. Additional fleets are expected to
convert to CNG in the future due to more stringent regulations, increased infrastructure, financial
incentives and continued public education about natural gas as a fuel. To accommodate the
potential increased demand for CNG, the initial CNG stations in the County should be designed
with the potential for increased throughput and capacity. Depending on the success of initial
stations in Doylestown and Bristol area, additional stations might also be added to establish a
County-wide CNG refueling network.

A successful NGV Program requires education of the public, diligent marketing to fleets, and
promotion of the CNG stations. There are two primary areas connected with the educational
aspect of an NGV Program. The first is creating CNG awareness and emphasizing the benefits of
its use to the general population. This creates a higher level of comfort with potential users. A
long-term goal is to get alternative fuels into the daily language of the motoring public. The
second educational aspect connected with the CNG station is directly aimed at fleet managers
and fleet drivers. Again, fleet managers and drivers should be aware of the fact that CNG is
available and will soon become part of their everyday lives. This is accomplished through
dedicated, strategic marketing to fleets with high potential for CNG use in the future, i.e., target
fleets. Candidate fleets include:

       School Buses (Central Bucks, Bensalem Township and Bristol Township)
       Transit Buses (SEPTA)
       Refuse Haulers (Waste Management)
       Private Businesses and General Public

The development of a marketing plan should include identifying actual fleets in the immediate
area to contact. CNG as a transportation fuel can be marketed through educational materials,
fleet meetings, workshops, and coordination with local Clean Cities Programs.




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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                    March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                         Final Report
Based on the abovementioned necessary elements of establishing a NGV Program for the
County, the following next steps are recommended:

       Obtain funding for initial CNG stations in Bristol and Doylestown (AFIG and DOE
       SEP);
       Continue to investigate funding opportunities and organize “group buys”;
       Install Bristol and Doylestown stations after further evaluation of candidate sites;
       Secure key County and regional partners including PECO, BCT, Honda, FuelMaker,
       Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities Program, DOE Clean Cities, etc.
       Develop marketing/education plan for NGV Program;
       Establish fleet workshops, special events, and meetings;
       Continue to evaluate Newtown and Quakertown locations for possible CNG stations.




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Gas Station Location Study                                                                    Final Report

Background and Introduction
The United States Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) has established National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), as
designated by the Clean Air Act, for
pollutants which are considered harmful to
people and the environment. Based on these
standards, EPA has designated several areas
of the United States as “nonattainment,”
where air pollution levels persistently exceed
the national ambient air quality standards. As
of September 2005 there were 208 counties
(88 million population) in particular matter
(PM2.5) nonattainment and 255 counties
(115 million population) in Ozone
nonattainment1. Bucks County is among
those counties that are in both PM2.5 and                        __ A __ B __ C __ D __ F
Ozone nonattainment. The other four Greater       A = Best/Cleanest in the U.S. F = Worst/Dirtiest in the U.S.
Philadelphia counties, Chester, Delaware,
Montgomery and Philadelphia, are also on             Figure 3. Northeast Areas of Poor Air Quality
                                                     (Source: US Air Quality Gradebook)
that list.
Figure 3. Northeast Areas of Poor Air Quality
Recently, EPA conducted a study called “Philadelphia Particulate Matter Analysis” where health
impacts of diesel PM were investigated for the five Greater Philadelphia counties. The study
found that in 1999 diesel PM caused2:

        260 deaths at a cost of $1.4 billion.
        450 Non-fatal heart attacks at a cost of $37 million.
        32,000 missed days of work at a cost of $4.4 million in wages.
        3,700 Asthma attacks at a cost of $160,000.
        300 Respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions at a cost of $4.7 million

According to a different EPA study, vehicle emissions are responsible for 28 percent of the total
PM2.5 emissions and 54 percent of nitrogen oxides emissions that form ground-level ozone3.
Emissions from cars, trucks and buses are one of our most serious sources of pollution,
contributing to urban smog, visibility problems and greenhouse gas emissions. One solution to
vehicle pollution is the use of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs).

There are a number of alternative fuels available, including electricity, hydrogen, natural gas,
propane, ethanol, methanol and biodiesel. Vehicles running on electricity or hydrogen produce
no harmful emissions, but there are currently no commercial models available. Ethanol, natural
gas and biodiesel are most widely used alternative fuels. There are over five million flexible-fuel
vehicles (capable of operating on any mixture of ethanol and gasoline) on the road. Biodiesel can
be used in any diesel vehicle with minor or no modifications when blended with petroleum
diesel. Although hybrid electric vehicles are not considered AFVs according to the Energy and


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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                       March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                            Final Report
Policy Act, hybrids have significantly lower emissions compared to conventional vehicles
because they use less fuel.

In addition to fuel cell and electric vehicles, which emit no harmful emissions, natural gas
vehicles are among the “cleanest” AFVs. Using natural gas rather than gasoline can produce
major reductions in a number of vehicular emissions (i.e., up to 90 percent particulate matter and
60 percent nitrogen oxides emissions reductions)4. In addition to being cleaner than conventional
vehicles, NGVs reduce the nation's extreme dependence on imported oil, and the fuel cost is
generally less than the cost of gasoline or diesel fuel.

Due to air quality benefit of NGVs, TMA has orchestrated various demonstrations of CNG
vehicles in municipal fleets in the County through a program offered by Honda/FuelMaker. In
fact, Bensalem became the first township in Bucks County and in the entire state to participate in
this demonstration. As a result, Bensalem has purchased three Honda Civic GXs and a
FuelMaker refueling appliance as an initial step toward broader adoption of CNG for its fleet
vehicles. The Bensalem school district is also investigating the feasibility of converting its
existing bus fleet to CNG.

Having established some initial success with the small pilot CNG vehicle demonstration projects
in the County, the TMA has begun the more ambitious task of convincing fleets to switch their
medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles to natural gas on a larger scale. In concert with this
initiative, the Bucks County Planning Commission contracted with New West Technologies,
LLC (New West), an engineering consulting firm with extensive experience in alternative fuel
vehicle planning and assessment, to develop a comprehensive strategic plan for locating public
CNG refueling infrastructure in Bucks County to serve existing and planned natural gas vehicles.
In addition, the Commission has secured the support of PECO Energy, the local gas utility, to
provide CNG fueling equipment and installation assistance for the establishment of two or three
fast-fill public refueling sites in the County. Through the development of this plan, the
Commission hopes to coordinate all CNG initiatives in the County, including those of the TMA.

This document presents the detailed plan for instituting a CNG refueling station network and
developing a significant CNG fleet population in Bucks County. This report summarizes the
information gathered on the natural gas vehicles and refueling stations existing in the county, the
potential for additional NGVs and refueling stations, the most appropriate locations for such
additional stations, and the funding sources identified to implement the CNG projects. The
report includes the detailed Geographical Information System (GIS) maps developed under this
project, as well as any other supplemental information discovered during the project term. A
general plan for developing a natural gas vehicle program in Bucks County as a result of the
project findings is presented, including identification of the needs of local fleets (including
Bucks County Transport) and a cost-benefit analysis of a natural gas program in the County.




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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                         March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                              Final Report

CNG Station Location Project
Current Vehicle Fleets
Development of a successful alternative fuel vehicle program in an area hinges upon a good
understanding of the local vehicle and refueling situation. New West began the study with a
thorough collection of information on the alternative fuel vehicle market in the Bucks County
region. This included current alternative fuel vehicle populations, current refueling station
locations and capacities, and potential additional fleets interested in alternative fuels.

A variety of sources were used to gain an understanding of the current alternative fuel vehicle
population (determining vehicle locations geographically) and their fuel use. Key organizations
such as the Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities Program (GPCCP) were contacted to determine
alternative fuel vehicle users, and discuss fleet sizes and locations with these users to the extent
possible. This information was combined with data from other sources (such as the individual
fleets) to gain a clear understanding of NGV fleets in the Bucks County region.

Currently, the Greater Philadelphia area is home to more than 520 CNG vehicles (Table 2). This
fleet is comprised of both light- and heavy-duty vehicles serving primarily in administrative,
maintenance, and law enforcement applications. Figure 4 illustrates the CNG fleet locations.
There are about 20 light-duty CNG vehicles currently being operated in Bucks County by PECO
Energy and Bensalem Township. These vehicles refuel at their own private stations in
Warminster and Bensalem, respectively. Neighboring Montgomery County has close to 300
light- and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles. A large concentration of these vehicles is in the lower
half of the County where Lower Merion School District and Willow Grove Naval Air Station
operate over 100 medium- and heavy-duty NGVs. These vehicles could all potentially utilize the
CNG stations established in Bucks County.

                               Table 2. Greater Philadelphia NGV Fleets
                       Fleet                          County              Number of NGVs
        Philadelphia Gas Works                      Philadelphia               304
        Lower Merion School District            Chester, Montgomery            72
        United States Postal Service            Delaware, Philadelphia         71
        Willow Grove Naval Air Station         Montgomery, Philadelphia         23
        PECO Energy                                Bucks, Chester               22
        West Chester University                       Chester                  22
        General Services Administration             Philadelphia               10
        Philadelphia Department of
                                                      Philadelphia                9
        Environmental Protection
        Bensalem Township                                Bucks                    3
        Valley Forge National Park                    Montgomery                  2
        PA Turnpike Commission                        Philadelphia                2




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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                        March 2006
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                  Figure 4. Existing CNG Vehicle Fleets in Greater Philadelphia Area



Current Refueling Locations
Information was also collected on existing refueling station locations and capacities and location
of fuel supplies (including routes of major natural gas supply lines). Information about these
refueling stations was obtained from the GPCCP, county officials, and the DOE Alternative
Fuels Data Center. There are a total of 21 natural gas refueling stations in Greater Philadelphia
area out of which only 5 are accessible to general public (Table 3). Figure 5 shows geographic
location of CNG stations in Greater Philadelphia. In Bucks County there are two existing CNG
stations, one in Warminster, operated by PECO Energy, and one in Bensalem on the Township
facility grounds. Warminster station has been around since the late 1990s but does not have
public access due to its location in the center of a secured PECO property. This station has a
slow- and fast-fill option and a relatively large capacity with a compressor rated at 125 standard
cubic feet per minute (scfm). The Bensalem Township station consists of a FuelMaker fast-fill
unit that houses a compressor capable of delivering 76 scfm.




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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                   March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                        Final Report


                           Table 3. Greater Philadelphia CNG Stations
                      Station Name                       County          Type of Access
      PECO Energy - Warminster Station                    Bucks              Private
      Bensalem Township                                   Bucks              Private
      PECO Energy - Plymouth Station                   Montgomery            Public
      PECO Energy - West Conshohocken                  Montgomery            Private
      PECO Energy - Berwyn Station                       Chester             Public
      PECO Energy - Eddystone/Chester/Baldwin           Delaware             Public
      PECO Energy - Phoenixville Station                 Chester             Public
      PECO - Abington Art Center                       Montgomery            Private
      PECO - Bryn Mawr                             Montgomery/Delaware       Private
      Harriton High School                         Montgomery/Delaware       Private
      Lower Merion High School                     Montgomery/Delaware       Private
      Philadelphia Gas Works                           Philadelphia          Private
      Philadelphia Gas Works                           Philadelphia          Private
      Coatsville Station                                 Chester             Public
      Philadelphia Gas Works                             Chester             Private
      Philadelphia International Airport               Philadelphia          Private
      PSE&G Audubon Gas Shop                             Camden              Private
      PSE&G Burlington Gas Shop                         Burlington           Private
      PSE&G - Moorestown Electric Division              Burlington           Private
      NJDOT Fernwood Facility                            Mercer              Private
      Temple University                                Philadelphia          Private




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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                            March 2006
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           Figure 5. CNG Refueling Infrastructure Locations in Greater Philadelphia Area




         Figure 6. CNG Vehicle Fleets and Refueling Station Locations in Greater Philadelphia


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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                         March 2006
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Potential CNG Fleets
The Future alternative fuel vehicle needs were discussed with several key local vehicle fleets and
their potential interest in alternative fuel vehicle projects. Based on these discussions, the
potential market size and locations for alternative fuel vehicles in Bucks County were estimated
in order to guide decisions about where to locate new CNG refueling infrastructure. Table 4 lists
the potential CNG fleets, locations, interest timeframes and approximate size.

                          Table 4. Potential Bucks County CNG Vehicle Fleets
 Organization                             Location         Current Fleet Size     NGV Interest
 Bensalem Township                        Bensalem               ~20            Near term purchase
 Bensalem Township School District        Bensalem                144            Potential interest
 Bristol Township                           Bristol              ~20             Potential interest
 Bristol Township School District           Bristol              ~120            Potential interest
 Bucks County                            Doylestown              ~30            Near term purchase
                                      Bristol, Holicong,
 Bucks County Transport                                           120           Near term purchase
                                        Quakertown
 Centennial School District              Warminster               73             Potential interest
 Central Bucks School District           Doylestown              ~100            Potential interest
 Doylestown Township                     Doylestown             10 to 20            Interested
 East Rockhill Township                   Perkasie                ~10               Interested
 Lower BC Joint Municipal Authority       Levittown                19               Interested
 Lower Bucks County YMCA                Fairless Hills             14               Interested
 Lower Makefield Township                  Yardley                 45               Interested
 New Britain Township                      Chalfont                22            Potential interest
 Newtown Township                         Newtown               10 to 20        Near term purchase
 Warminster Township                     Warminster             10 to 20         Potential interest
 Waste Automation                           Bristol                40              Target fleet
 WM Delaware Valley North                   Bristol                30              Target fleet
 WM of South East Pennsylvania             Telford                 25              Target fleet

While Bucks County does not currently operate many alternative fuel vehicles, the County plans
to develop a natural gas program to convert a significant portion of large county and private
fleets to natural gas. One of these fleets is Bucks County Transport, Inc. (BCT), a private, non-
profit corporation organized to provide shared ride transportation services to County
residents. BCT operates about 120 shuttle buses and has expressed considerable interest in using
CNG vehicles in its future bus fleet. In fact, BCT will be petitioning the Federal Transit
Administration for annual funding to cover future CNG bus procurements. Specifically, Bucks
County TMA is assisting BCT to procure 12 natural gas buses for FY2007. These vehicles will
form part of the fleet base supporting the proposed new public CNG stations established under
this project.

An average BCT shuttle bus accumulates 18,000 miles and uses more than 2,500 gallons of fuel
annually. Replacing 12 conventional shuttle buses with CNG dedicated buses would result in
displacement of 30,000 gallons of petroleum fuel with 4.4 million cubic feet of domestic natural
gas each year. Based on this annual natural gas use, the BCT fleet of 12 CNG buses would be a
solid anchor for a county-wide natural gas refueling station network.




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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                          March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                               Final Report
Two school districts, Bensalem Township and Central Bucks, have expressed interest in natural
gas buses. Each of these two school districts operates more than 100 school buses and even a
small percentage of these fleets converted to CNG would result in significant petroleum
displacement and cleaner environment for the children riding these buses on a daily basis. Each
bus transports about 70 students daily and consumes around 1,700 gallons of diesel fuel
annually. While Bensalem Township School District could potentially utilize the same CNG
station as BCT in the Bensalem/Bristol area, Central Bucks School District could be a potential
anchor fleet for a second proposed natural gas station.

In addition to the aforementioned fleets, several townships in Bucks County are potential future
users of natural gas vehicles. These townships are all participating in a TMA project where they
receive free use of one Honda Civic GX, and one FuelMaker timed-fill fueling appliance for a
minimum of 30 days. Newtown, Bristol, Doylestown, and Warminster Townships, and Lower
Bucks County Municipal Authority are all participating in this pilot demonstration project and
might be procuring natural gas vehicles as a result of this demonstration. Bensalem Township
purchased three CNG vehicles after a positive experience during participation in this
demonstration project. Bensalem Township School District and Bucks County Transport are also
participating in the pilot demonstration. Each of these fleets offers significant potential for use of
the proposed CNG refueling stations in the future. Figure 7 summarizes the locations of current
and potential CNG fleets in the County as of the writing of this document.




                  Figure 7. Existing and Potential CNG Vehicle Fleets in Bucks County




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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                         March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                              Final Report
Determination of Optimal Refueling Locations
The collected information was examined and combined with in-house expertise to identify the
most appropriate locations for alternative fuel infrastructure within Bucks County. The main
goal was to determine the optimal placement for two or three natural gas refueling stations for
serving the initial CNG vehicle needs of the County. This analysis was undertaken to avoid
haphazard placement of CNG refueling stations which would likely result in minimal natural gas
utilization and therefore no economic or environmental benefits to the County. Insufficient
planning has proven detrimental to several CNG refueling station installations throughout
Pennsylvania and nationwide in general.

Information related to existing refueling, locations of existing and planned alternative fuel
vehicles and fleets, locations of fuel supplies, locations of promising potential alternative fuel
users, and locations available for use as refueling sites was plotted on a map of the county using
ArcView, a commercially-available GIS mapping software package. Based on the analysis of
this information, the most likely sites for alternative fuel refueling infrastructure were identified
to maximize accessibility for potential fleet users while still meeting real estate and fuel supply
constraints. Three main criteria were used to select several potential locations for CNG refueling
stations including potential NGV fleets, roadways and population.

Potential Fleets
The low density of potential customers throughout the Bucks County makes it critical to locate
the CNG refueling stations near the highest possible customer concentration, if the operation
were to be profitable. Therefore, current and potential CNG vehicle fleet information is the most
important criterion in determining the CNG refueling station locations. This information was
presented in Figure 7. Locating stations in a manner to provide refueling to as many existing and
potential fleets will provide best environmental and economic results for the stations in particular
and for the County’s CNG Program as a whole.

Roadways
As will be seen in a later section of this report in Figure 12, diesel truck stops are located along
interstate highways and major local roads, since these stations mainly serve over-the-road diesel
trucks moving interstate freight. Gasoline stations tend to have a slightly different layout than
diesel stations (Figure 13); they are not only located along major roadways but also along local
roads in residential areas since they serve a larger population of vehicles for the general public.
These two examples show the importance of placing CNG stations near interstate highways and
major local roads which provides optimal access for a variety of CNG vehicle types and users.
The Bucks County roadway map is presented in Figure 8.

As shown, a major interstate highway (limited access) network exists in the southeastern part of
the County, between Philadelphia and Trenton. This highway network is comprised of
Pennsylvania Turnpike (I-276), Interstate 95 and Route 1. In addition to the highways, there are
numerous local roads that form a tight knit mesh over this part of the County. The second
location that stands out in this map is Doylestown in the center of the County, where two major
state highways (611 and 202) intersect. Other locations worth noting are Newtown, northwest of
the interstate highways in the southeast and Quakertown in the northwest corner of the County.
Quakertown has two major highways passing through it (I-476 and Route 309), while Newtown


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has a mesh of local roads that ties into the larger road network of the southeastern part of the
County.




                                  Figure 8. Bucks County Roadways



Population
Bucks County is comprised of 31 townships, shown in Figure 9. Township population data was
used from Bureau of Census data for year 2000 to construct the County population map
presented in Figure 10. As one might expect, the majority of population resides in the lower part
of the County due to its proximity to Philadelphia, a large metropolitan city. Middletown,
Bensalem and Bristol Townships have the largest populations, followed by Falls, Lower
Makefield and Northampton Townships which are adjacent to the aforementioned three. In the
center of the County, Doylestown and Buckingham Townships are the next largest in population
size. Townships with lowest populations are in the northwest area of the County. Since this data
is from Census 2000, it does not take into account the recent population growth around
Quakertown in East and West Rockhill Townships. Thus, future consideration needs to be given
to this area in potentially hosting a CNG station.




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                             Figure 9. Bucks County Townships




                            Figure 10. Bucks County Population


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Also considered in the analysis were the locations of existing CNG refueling stations in the
County. The Warminster station is a private PECO station that can not be utilized by other CNG
users because it is located in a secure area. The Bensalem Township facility houses a smaller
CNG refueling station that could potentially be utilized by small nearby fleets.

Based on existing and potential NGV fleet data, roadways and population, three potential
locations were chosen for installation of CNG refueling infrastructure. The first location is in
Bristol/Bensalem area due to the large population, several interstate highways and NGV interest
of several local fleets. A second location is around Doylestown where the majority of County
owned vehicles are stationed. This heavily populated area is a crossing of two major regional
highways and home to a number of fleets that have expressed interest in NGVs. The third
potential location is around Newtown where the Township has expressed interest in NGVs.
Newtown also lies in a highly populated area with a network of local roads that connect to the
larger network of local roads and highways in the southeast part of the County. All three of these
locations are shown in Figure 11, as well as the criteria upon which they were selected. A fourth
potential location could be around Quakertown in the northeast corner of the County and would
tie the northern part of the County into the planned CNG refueling infrastructure. While this area
is growing in population, it has not shown a significant NGV interest at this time. In addition, the
area around Quakertown has much smaller population compared to Newtown, which was the
reason why it is not depicted in Figure 11. The rings around each of the three locations represent
four mile radii. A distance of five miles is generally considered the longest distance fleets are
willing to travel to refuel. Thus, stations located within these 4 mile rings could generally serve
the fleets located in these locations.




                       Figure 11. Optimal Locations for CNG Refueling Stations



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Candidate Station Site Selection
After the potential locations were established, a search for actual sites for hosting CNG refueling
stations within these locations was conducted. The most direct path to the creation of a CNG
refueling station is to add CNG refueling to an existing gasoline or diesel service station. In
addition to existing stations, various potential partners were considered. Gasoline and diesel
stations were investigated due to their strategic locations in highly populated areas (primarily
gasoline stations) and near major roadways (primarily diesel stations). The majority of these
stations provide convenient access for larger vehicles such as trucks and buses, which are likely
vehicle types that will comprise the future NGV fleet in the County. Figure 12 and Figure 13
show the locations of the County’s diesel and gasoline refueling stations, respectively, in relation
to the three optimal locations for CNG refueling stations.

A number of potential partner organizations that could also host a CNG refueling station were
identified throughout this project, including Wawa, Bucks County Department of Public Works,
Brinkers Fuels and Newtown Township. Wawa owns and operates convenience stores in the
lower part of the County and several of their stores also have gasoline refueling islands on site.
The Bucks County fleet, comprised of several hundred vehicles, is primarily located at The
Neshaminy Manor. This location has therefore been identified as a potential host for a CNG
station. Brinkers Fuels is a commercial gasoline and diesel refueling site where BCT refuels its
Doylestown fleet of 20 shuttle buses. Newtown Township has expressed some interest to
potentially host a CNG station on their site since they are considering a purchase of a few Honda
GX vehicles. The locations of these sites are shown in Figure 14. Figure 15 shows the locations
all of potential host sites.




                       Figure 12. Diesel Refueling Infrastructure in Bucks County


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                  Figure 13. Gasoline Refueling Infrastructure in Bucks County




                Figure 14. Potential Partner Sites in Bucks County for CNG Station


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               Figure 15. Potential Host Sites within a 4-Mile Radius of Optimal Locations


For an existing station, a very important component of selling transportation fuels is the on-site
convenience store. These retail outlets for food, beverages, convenience items, and quite often
car washes, provide the bulk of the gross profit for a typical station. Because gasoline is
purchased as a necessity, customers are frequently subjected to the more profitable impulse
purchases inside of the store.

Philadelphia is centrally located between New York City and Baltimore/Washington
metropolitan area. Interstates 95 and 276 pass through the lower part of Bucks County and many
out of state fleets operating natural gas vehicles frequently travel on them. Because these out of
town fleets may refuel in Bucks County, it is logical to establish CNG fueling stations near major
roadways.

All potential host sites were investigated to determine which ones lie within optimal locations for
CNG infrastructure. The result was a list of candidate sites for each of the three locations. This
list was further reduced based on natural gas availability, and proximity to potential CNG fleets
and major roadways.

The local gas utility (PECO Energy) assisted in determining natural gas supply line availability
to ensure that new natural gas refueling stations will be located close to the main supply lines to
minimize infrastructure construction costs. After examining the list of potential host sites, PECO
provided information regarding proximity to the main natural gas lines (Figure 16). Out of 80
potential host sites, only 5 were not located near natural gas supply lines. In addition, PECO



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identified several areas in the County that are capacity limited. Sites located in these areas are
less favorable for a CNG station.




                 Figure 16. Natural Gas Availability at Potential CNG Station Host Sites


Based on current natural gas availability and proximity to potential fleet user locations and major
roadways, all of the potential sites within 4 miles of the three previously identified optimal
locations were further evaluated. Each potential site was ranked on a scale of 1 through 5 for
each of the three criteria (1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest). Under the location type
criterion, the highest ranking was given to existing diesel truck stops or stations because they are
likely more accommodating for larger vehicles. Stations with gasoline only were ranked higher
than locations with no existing refueling. Candidates with natural gas pipelines on or near the site
and not in a capacity constrained region were given the highest score, followed by capacity
constrained sites, and finally sites without natural gas availability. The fleet proximity ranking
was based on the distance from current or potential CNG vehicle fleets. The top few site
candidates for each of the three optimal locations were ranked and are presented in Table 5.
Based on the aforementioned criteria and scale, the highest possible score for each site is 15.




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                       Table 5. Potential Sites for Natural Gas Refueling Stations

                                                      Location      Natural Gas        Fleet      Total
          Name               Candidate Site
                                                        Type        Availability     Proximity   Points
                                            Bristol Location
 Wawa                  Store & Gasoline Station        5                  5             5         15
 Getty                 Diesel & Gasoline Station       5                  3             5         13
 Hess                  Diesel & Gasoline Station       5                  3             5         13
 Mobil                 Gasoline Station                3                  5             5         13
 Texaco                Diesel & Gasoline Station       5                  5             3         13
                                        Doylestown Location
 Neshaminy Manor       Bucks County DPW              5                    5             5         15
 Brinkers Fuels        Diesel & Gasoline Station     5                    3             5         13
 Gulf                  Diesel & Gasoline Station     5                    3             5         13
 Shell                 Gasoline Station              3                    5             5         13
                                        Newtown Location
 Newtown Township      Gasoline Station                    5              5             5         15
 Citgo                 Diesel & Gasoline Station           5              5             3         13
 Gulf                  Diesel & Gasoline Station           5              5             3         13



Initial CNG Station Capacity and Fleet Service
Location #1 – Bristol
The anchor fleet for the Bristol station location would be Bucks County Transport. They operate
around 120 shuttle buses throughout Bucks County, 80 of which operate out of the Bristol Depot.
The current BCT fleet is comprised of vehicle model years 1996 through 2006. These shuttle
buses have a typical replacement cycle of 5 years. BCT has indicated it will purchase 12 new
dedicated natural gas shuttle buses to add to their Bristol fleet. BCT’s shuttle buses travel
between 15,000 and 20,000 miles per year with average fuel economies of 8 to10 mpg (diesel
fuel). Based on these operating characteristics, 12 natural gas shuttle buses would displace
approximately 30,000 gallons of petroleum fuel with 4.4 million cubic feet of domestic natural
gas annually.

The Bristol Township fleet is only 1.5 miles away from BCT and could also utilize the same
station. The Township has had a positive experience with NGVs through the Honda/FuelMaker
program and would consider purchasing a few NGVs if a refueling station was available nearby.
Other fleets that have expressed interest in natural gas vehicles and are within a 3 mile radius of
BCT include Bensalem Township, Lower Bucks County Municipal Authority, and Lower Bucks
YMCA. Bristol Township School District is also a candidate since it is within 2 miles from BCT.
Bensalem School District is somewhat further away (3.5 miles) but could potentially also use a
Bristol-located station.

A commercial refuse collection company, Waste Management of Delaware Valley, and a
residential refuse collection company, Waste Automation, both serve lower Bucks County and
are located close to BCT. Waste Automation operates 40 heavy-duty collection vehicles, while



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Waste Management of Delaware Valley has around 35. Both of these fleets are heavy fuel users
and could significantly increase CNG throughput if a Bristol-located station was accessible.

For this location, the initial station capacity will be based primarily on the fuel needs of 12
dedicated CNG shuttle buses of BCT and 10 light duty vehicles that are likely to be purchased by
the various aforementioned fleets. A conventional gasoline station provides refueling at a rate of
about 10 gallons per minute. For the CNG station to match this refueling rate, a fast-fill system
will be required. If the whole initial fleet were to refuel on the same day, the station would have
to provide about 440 GGE of CNG. Based on fleet operational characteristics, passenger cars
only need to refuel once per week and shuttle buses two to three times per week. Therefore, the
initial daily peak demand would be more likely between 100 and 200 GGE of CNG.

Figure 17 presents a typical refueling schedule for a conventional retail gasoline refueling
station5. This schedule shows that there are typically two demand peaks in a daily schedule. The
first one occurs between 7AM and 9AM during the morning commute to work and the other one
is between 5PM and 7 PM as people return from work. A successful public-access refueling
station design must accommodate peak fuel demands; i.e. fast fill equipment must be sized
according to potential peak demands.


                            98                                          98
                          Vehicles                                    Vehicles
           5               Peak                    5                   Peak                    5
        Vehicles                           Vehicles per hour                           Vehicles per hour

     6 AM          7 AM              9AM                        5PM              7PM                   10 PM

             Figure 17. Vehicle Refueling Schedule for Conventional Gasoline Refueling Station


Location #2 – Doylestown
The second location for a CNG station in the County was determined to be in Doylestown. The
anchor fleet for this location would be Bucks County Department of Public Works (DPW). The
DPW fleet consists of a significant portion of the County’s overall 300 vehicle fleet. Bucks
County government is looking to support the County’s natural gas vehicle initiative by procuring
several CNG vehicles over the next couple of years. New Britain Township is also interested in
natural gas vehicles and could potentially utilize this CNG refueling station. Doylestown
Township is on the list for participating in the Honda/FuelMaker program. Based on their
experience with this program, Doylestown Township might follow in the footsteps of Bensalem
Township in purchasing several Honda GX natural gas vehicles. Holicong, east of Doylestown,
is BCT’s Central Bucks location where 20 of their shuttle buses are stationed. Although BCT’s
initial CNG shuttle buses will operate in Bristol, initial success with these buses could result in
additional purchases for the Holicong location. Central Bucks School District operates a fleet of
more than 100 school buses around Doylestown. CNG school buses deployed by Central Bucks
School District could also utilize the CNG refueling station that is planned for Doylestown.
The Bucks County DPW fleet will act as an anchor for the Doylestown location along with
several nearby Townships likely to purchase a few CNG vehicles once the station is in place.
DPW’s detailed CNG vehicle purchase plans have not been revealed at the time of this writing.
Therefore, it is premature to make any throughput or peak demand estimates for the Doylestown


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CNG station. However, this station will also have to be a fast-fill station to provide adequate
access and reasonable refueling times for the aforementioned fleets.

Location #3- Newtown
The third optimal location for a CNG refueling station in the County is Newtown. Newtown
Township has expressed considerable interest in natural gas vehicles and has decided to procure
a few Honda GX vehicles in the next year after a successful trial of the Honda/FuelMaker
demonstration. There are a limited number of other fleets in the surrounding area that have
expressed interest in NGVs. Lower Makefield Township, located in Yardley over 4 miles from
Newtown, is the closest fleet with NGV interest. Therefore, due to the projected lower CNG fleet
needs, the Newtown location would be best served with a small FuelMaker CNG refueling
appliance that is sized according to the number of NGVs that Newtown Township places in their
fleet service. As additional CNG fleets come on line in the area, additional FuelMaker refueling
appliances can be added in parallel to the Newtown location. Eventually, if fleet demand
continues to increase, the FuelMaker appliances can be replaced with a larger compressor
system.


Funding Opportunities for CNG Refueling Stations
Funding will become a key element for implementing the CNG vehicle program and refueling
station network in Bucks County. As part of this project, several sources of funding were
examined, including Department of Energy (DOE) State Energy Program funds, Commonwealth
of Pennsylvania funds, and Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (DOT) Congestion
Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) funding. Table 6 presents funding opportunities in terms of
eligibility requirements, proposal requirements and due dates, cost share requirements, and other
key considerations.

                 Table 6. Funding Opportunities for Compressed Natural Gas Infrastructure

                                                                           Proposal
            Funding Group                Funding Category Name                           Technology Areas
                                                                           Due Date

     U.S. Department of
                                       Congestion Mitigation and Air         State         CNG refueling
     Transportation -Federal
                                            Quality (CMAQ)                 Dependent       infrastructure
     Highway Administration (FHwA)

                                        State Energy Program Clean
     U.S. Department of Energy                                                             CNG refueling
                                     Cities Special Projects - Refueling   May 2006
     (U.S. DOE)                                                                            infrastructure
                                         Infrastructure Development

                                       State Energy Program Clean                           CNG refueling
     U.S. Department of Energy
                                      Cities Special Projects - School     May 2006    infrastructure for school
     (U.S. DOE)
                                               Bus Program                                       buses

     Pennsylvania Department of
                                     Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant      October        CNG refueling
     Environmental Protection (PA
                                              (AFIG) Program                 2006          infrastructure
     DEP)




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As part of this project, a proposal was developed and submitted on behalf of TMA to the PA
DEP in October of 2005 through the Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant (AFIG) program for the
establishment of two public access CNG refueling stations in Bucks County. The stations
represent those identified for Doylestown and Bristol, as determined through the analysis
presented in this document. For purposes of the proposal submission, site preparation and
equipment installation costs were estimated.

The DOE State Energy Program was identified as the next best funding opportunity according to
application deadlines and funding potential. Request for proposals for the SEP program is
expected sometime in April and proposals will be due in May or June.




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NGV Program Plan for Bucks County
This section of the document presents a detailed business plan for establishing a natural gas
vehicle program in Bucks County. The program would consist of establishing the initial CNG
stations in Doylestown and Bristol, and expansion and/or addition of new stations as a result of
larger population of NGVs in the future, marketing and education of target fleets and general
public for opting to use CNG fuel.

Station Installation Plan
Identification of Station Sites and Partners
CNG station site location is a complex issue. There are numerous types of CNG vehicles, from
sedans to heavy-duty trucks and buses. Station designs must accommodate this mix of potential
CNG customers. To make the situation more complex, the appropriate station layout differs
depending on the types of vehicles used and type of drivers using it. Sedan drivers may want
convenience store amenities where they can purchase coffee, etc; however, fleet managers may
want their truck drivers to fuel at a location where there are fewer distractions, thus reducing
time spent fueling.

The list of candidate sites identified for each optimal location for CNG station should be more
fully assessed to select the best site. The criteria for doing this should include property layout,
natural gas service and property owner’s interest in CNG refueling. Property layout will
determine if there is adequate space available for CNG refueling equipment (compressors,
dryers, cascade storage tank system, fuel dispenser, etc) on-site. Also considered in this criterion
should be the accessibility of the site (ingress/egress) since the station might need to be easily
accessible to passenger cars as well as heavy-duty trucks or buses depending on vehicle types of
fleet users. PECO Energy has already provided information regarding proximity of candidate
sites to natural gas pipelines. A further assessment is necessary to determine whether natural gas
service is available on-site. If service is not available, PECO will need to determine the
additional infrastructure cost of providing natural gas on-site (i.e., pipeline access to the site).

A candidate property owner’s interest is a key requirement since they will most likely be
responsible for management of CNG refueling operation and equipment. For an existing public
station, the public's attraction is based on the fuel brand, the fuel price, and the store's location.
The necessity for fuel, a low margin item, brings in the customers for high margin convenience
items. The addition of CNG refueling to an existing station would bring in new customers,
therefore adding to the fuel sale profits as well as increasing the profits from the sale of
convenience items.

Contrary to the general public, the attraction of fleet managers to retail refueling stations is based
more upon fuel price, availability, and other working arrangements. In some cases, fleet
managers view the convenience store at a fueling facility as a negative. The fleet managers
generally prefer, if possible, that the fueling system be located at their own facilities to ensure
better control over fueling records and to relieve the drivers of the additional burden of fueling
their own vehicles. In these cases, a station layout on the fleet premise that serves both the fleet-
owned vehicles and other fleet or general public vehicles could be established. One side of the
station could be dedicated to host fleet use only, and the other side, separated by fencing or other


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barriers if security is a problem, could be set up for other fleets and general public use. Under
this layout, the refueling station would have to be located on the edge of the host property and all
of the CNG refueling equipment would be located inside of the fence with exception of the
public refueling dispenser. Many military bases across the country have adopted this “split
access” approach in order to maintain high levels of CNG throughput for the station and thereby
pay back invested capital sooner.

Based on the candidate CNG station sites identified above in this report, sites should be more
fully evaluated and talks should be initiated with the site owners to discuss station design options
and develop working arrangements.

Installation of Initial Stations
After an appropriate station site has been found and all business arrangements have been
completed with the owner, work can begin on the actual station design and modifications. For
additions of CNG refueling equipment to existing gasoline or diesel service stations, a common
design includes a separate refueling island with one or two CNG dispensers. The CNG
compressors and storage cascade system are isolated in a remote part of the site or otherwise
protected from traffic and plumbed underground to the dispenser island.

Construction of a new facility or the addition of CNG to an existing gasoline or diesel station
usually requires permits from the local authorities. A list of potential permitting authorities
includes:

       Planning department
       Building department
       Electrical department
       Fire department
       Water district
       Environmental agency
       Air pollution control
       Hazardous materials

In general, the best place to start the permitting process is the building or planning department.
Either of these departments may be responsible for zoning ordinances and for determining if the
proposed building and site meet the local building codes. By presenting a well-documented and
professional plan based on the close review of the applicable regulations, the chance of
producing mutually beneficial agreements with the regulatory authorities is greatly increased.

Future CNG Needs
As explained above in this report, there is significant potential for increased use of CNG vehicles
in Bucks County and Greater Philadelphia area. This region is faced with serious air pollution
problems and NGVs present a potential solution. Additional fleets are expected to convert to
CNG in the future due to regulations, increased infrastructure, financial incentives and continued
public education about the natural gas as a fuel. A major benefit of NGVs is that they can be
used to meet any of the local or national alternative fuel/reduced emission regulations including
Energy Policy Act (EPACT) and the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). To accommodate the


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potential increased demand for CNG in the future, the initial stations established in the County
should be designed to accommodate increased compressor capacity and/or storage cascade
cylinders to increase station throughput.

Depending on the success of the initial stations in Doylestown and Bristol area, additional
stations might also be added to establish a County-wide CNG refueling network. When
connected with the Greater Philadelphia CNG stations, the overall regional network would
resemble New York’s CNG refueling station network which is the largest and most successful in
the U.S. with exception of California. According to the analysis presented in this document, the
next two locations for CNG stations would be Newtown and Quakertown. Both of these
locations show promise based on their geographic location; however, additional CNG fleets need
to be solicited in these locations for supporting new CNG stations.

In addition to the use of public CNG stations, general public will have an
option of residential refueling in the near future. FuelMaker has developed
the world’s first home refueling appliance, Phill, which allows indoor or
outdoor refueling of NGVs from household natural gas line. Phill has the
potential to open up the CNG market to private consumers. Phill is
currently available in California, Arizona, Dallas (TX), Denver (CO),
Illinois (IL), Milwaukee (WI), New Jersey (NJ), New York (NY), and Utah
(UT)). FuelMaker is planning to expand Phill’s availability in 2006 to
cover more areas of the United States. California and several other states
offer tax incentives to help offset the cost of Phill which is currently about
$3,5006. The County is planning to first establish the public stations to gain
the foothold, and then Phill and other products will support broader use of
CNG and other fuels by the general public.


Outreach and Education Program
A successful NGV program requires education of the public, diligent marketing to fleets, and
promotion of the CNG stations. There are two primary areas connected with the educational
aspect of an NGV Program. The first is creating CNG awareness and emphasizing the benefits of
its use to the general population. This creates a higher level of comfort with potential users. A
long-term goal is to get alternative fuels into the daily language of the motoring public. The
second educational aspect connected with the CNG station is aimed at fleet managers and fleet
drivers. Again, fleet managers and drivers should be aware of the fact that CNG is available and
will soon become part of their everyday lives. This is accomplished through dedicated, strategic
marketing to fleets with high potential for CNG use in the future, i.e., target fleets.

Traditional refueling stations focus the majority of marketing efforts on their fuel brand and
price. To the average driver, the primary differentiation between one refueling station and the
next is the fuel price, brand name and location (most sales to the public are on the commuter's
way home). This type of marketing approach is not sufficient for CNG. NGV users are not
attracted to stations based primarily on price, convenience or brand, but on the knowledge that a
station provides their required fuel. Therefore, marketing efforts should focus on raising NGV
drivers' awareness that the station is in the area and can supply the required fuel type.



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Target fleets
To maximize CNG fuel sales, the marketing effort should target fleets that are heavy fuel users
and operate primarily in urban areas. All of the fleets with more than 10 or 20 vehicles located
within a 5 mile radius of planned locations should be made aware of CNG availability as a
transportation fuel. Bucks County is home to several target fleet candidates including:

       School Bus Fleets – The initial two station locations in Bristol and Doylestown could
       serve the following school districts: Central Bucks, Bensalem Township and Bristol
       Township. Figure 18 shows a map of all school districts in Bucks County. Each of these
       three school districts has over 100 school buses that transport local area children to
       school on a daily basis. Children are most susceptible to asthma and other respiratory
       diseases caused by particulate matter from diesels. There is funding being provided on a
       national as well as a Pennsylvania state level for reducing particulate matter emission
       from school buses (see Table 4 of this report). In some cases funding is also available for
       installation of CNG refueling to support school bus fleets. The initial stations in Bristol
       and Doylestown could provide stepping stones for the aforementioned school districts to
       gain some experience with CNG as a transportation fuel before installing their own
       refueling on-site once a larger fleet of CNG school buses is established. In Montgomery
       County, Merion School District started using CNG in their fleet in 1995 and has since
       used more than 6 million GGE of CNG in their seventy-plus NGVs. They have installed
       two CNG refueling stations on their site.




                            Figure 18. Bucks County School District Map



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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                       March 2006
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       Transit Bus Fleets – SEPTA operates several routes in the lower part of Bucks County.
       Buses are heavy fuel users and their routes are strategically placed in heavily populated
       urban areas. Natural gas has been used as a fuel in the transit sector for over a decade,
       with a number of fleets converting a significant portion of their fleet to natural gas
       primarily due to emission benefits. Several Pennsylvania transit authorities have installed
       CNG refueling stations and purchased CNG buses including Centre Area Transportation
       Authority (50 buses and public station), Port Authority of Allegheny County (5 buses and
       2 stations), Erie Metropolitan Transportation Authority (12 buses and station), Area
       Transportation Authority of North Central Pennsylvania (16 buses and station), and
       Indiana County Transit Authority (5 buses and station). Some of the funding for refueling
       stations and CNG bus purchases was obtained from PA DEP. Additional discussions
       should be held with these entities to learn more about their experience with CNG and
       how their funding was obtained. These organizations should also be tapped for educating
       prospective transit fleets in Bucks County on the benefits of CNG.

       Refuse Hauler Fleets - Waste Management operates a fleet out of Telford for residential
       refuse collection in upper Bucks County. It also has residential and commercial refuse
       collection fleets in Bristol. According to a recent report, refuse collection trucks in the
       U.S. on average consume 8,600 gallons of diesel fuel annually7. According to this same
       report, natural gas trucks have 67 to 94 percent lower emissions of particulate matter and
       32 to 73 percent lower NOx. Refuse fleets such as Waste Management could be
       significant contributors to an overall NGV Program for the County because of their
       annual fuel use. Additional research should be conducted to determine other private and
       commercial refuse fleets operating in the County.

       Private Business Fleets and General Public – Package and mail delivery fleets as well as
       taxi fleets are usually concentrated in metropolitan areas such as Greater Philadelphia.
       These fleets are also a heavy fuel user and operate in residential as well as in business
       districts. Raising awareness for CNG as a transportation fuel among these fleets and the
       general public is key to assuring significant growth of the Bucks County NGV Program
       in the future.

Outreach Opportunities
Outreach to fleets and the general public is a key element to development of a successful NGV
Program. The outreach effort should have a long-term timeframe, with intermediate goals for
identifying and securing as many new NGV users and stakeholders as possible. A variety of
promotional, marketing, and educational activities can be utilized to further public knowledge
and acceptance of NGVs in the County. This campaign must be undertaken by a team that has a
good understanding of the technical issues associated with NGVs and ability to translate this
knowledge into informational materials for a wide range of audiences.

General marketing services for support of the Bucks County NGV Program include the
development of promotional materials such as marketing brochures and mailers. Marketing and
educational materials related to the incentives and benefits of NGVs should also be developed.
These materials must be market focused, that is, tailored to the audience whether it be
commercial light duty fleets, school bus operators, over-the-road haulers, or private vehicles.



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This market approach will produce the best results in that the materials will answer the questions
these vehicle owners have about NGV technology. The materials will highlight available
funding programs and discuss the environmental and energy security benefits of natural gas as a
transportation fuel. However, bottom-line costs are most important to fleet operators, so
example economic analyses are necessary to illustrate capital payback periods, lifecycle costs,
and other key financial indicators for fleets.

Effective communications with fleets in working meetings, workshops, and through promotional
and marketing materials should be conducted to improve NGV information in relation to what is
important to fleets. Additional CNG marketing activities may include:

        Coordination with Greater Philadelphia and New Jersey Clean Cities Programs,
        American Lung Association, and National Association of Fleet Administrators and other
        stakeholder organizations.
        Coordination with Pennsylvania state government and other county governments
        Local and regional media advertisement

With a plan for establishing public CNG stations and a comprehensive NGV Program, a clear
and concise message should be brought to potential fleets. These discussions can be facilitated
with educational and marketing materials. These materials will describe the benefits, issues, and
costs in non-technical and easily understood terms for a wide range of audiences. Presentation
materials and meetings with targeted fleet representatives should be used to solicit interest and
recruit potential CNG vehicle users.


CNG Program Cost and Benefits
According to the Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition (NGVC), there are 130,000 light- and heavy-
duty compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicles in the United
States and 5 million worldwide as of the end of year 2005. Dedicated natural gas vehicles are
designed to run only on natural gas; bi-fuel NGVs have two separate fueling systems that enable
the vehicle to use either natural gas or a conventional fuel (gasoline or diesel). In general,
dedicated NGVs demonstrate better performance and have lower emissions than bi-fuel vehicles
because their engines are optimized to run on natural gas. In addition, the vehicle does not have
to carry two types of fuel, thereby increasing cargo capacity and reducing weight.

This model year, auto manufacturers are producing fewer models than in years past. There are a
few light-duty NGVs still available, but if a specific vehicle type is desired, retrofitting a vehicle
to natural gas by using an aftermarket conversion system may be considered. Vehicle
conversions offer NGV options to fleet managers and consumers alike, beyond the supply of
original equipment manufacturer (OEM) alternative fuel vehicles. All vehicle conversions must
be certified according to Mobile Source Enforcement Memorandum 1A issued by EPA. Heavy-
duty NGVs are also available as trucks, buses, and shuttles. Approximately one of every five
new transit buses in the United States is powered by natural gas.




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Operating Costs
The operating costs of natural gas vehicles are generally lower that those of gasoline or diesel
vehicles and the fuel costs are more stable. Natural gas prices are not only consistently lower
than gasoline prices, but CNG prices have been relatively stable over the past 10 years, while
gasoline prices have fluctuated significantly. Fleet managers wishing to forecast fuel
expenditures prefer the consistency of the natural gas prices.

The cost of CNG can be favorable compared to that of gasoline on a GGE basis, but varies
depending on local natural gas prices. According to PECO energy projections, natural gas prices
should remain around $1.66 per GGE for the next few years based on natural gas futures8.
Current gasoline fuel prices in Philadelphia for December of 2005 were around $2.30 per gallon,
while diesel sold for $2.75 per gallon9. In addition to favorable retail prices, natural gas is mostly
domestically produced. In 2004, net imports of natural gas to the U.S. were approximately 15%
of the total used, with almost all the imports coming from Canada10.

In addition to fuel price differential, economic benefits also result from extended oil change
intervals of natural gas vehicles. Some natural gas vehicle owners have experienced service lives
2 to 3 years longer than gasoline or diesel vehicles and extended maintenance intervals. Several
natural gas vehicle manufacturers recommend oil changes at intervals twice as long as similar
gasoline or diesel models (10,000-12,000 miles).

For illustrative purposes only, the economic benefits of natural gas vehicles were assessed and
the results are presented in Table 7. The following assumptions were made in the assessment:

       Doubled oil change intervals;
       Fuel prices: gasoline $2.30, diesel $2.75, and natural gas $1.66 per GGE;
       Typical annual mileage for various vehicle types as presented in the Table;
       Combined (city and highway) fuel economy for various vehicle types as presented in the
       Table 7. Car and truck fuel economy numbers are based on Honda Civic and Chevrolet
       Silverado. For heavy-duty vehicles CNG fuel economy is typically 25 percent lower than
       for comparable diesel engines;
       Oil changes every 3,000 miles for conventional vehicles;
       Maintenance staff hourly rate of $60 per hour and oil costs of $12 per gallon.

                         Table 7. Operational Savings for Natural Gas Vehicles
                                Conventional vs.                   Annual          Annual       Total
                                                       Annual
         Vehicle Type          NGV Fuel Economy                     Fuel         Maintenance   Annual
                                                       Mileage
                                  (MPGGE)                          Savings        Savings      Savings
 Passenger Car (gasoline)           34/32              12,000       $189             $92        $281
 Pickup Truck/Van (gasoline)        12/10              12,000       $308            $124        $432
 Shuttle Bus (diesel)               9/6.8              18,000      $1,106           $276       $1,382
 School Bus (diesel)                7/5.3               8,500       $677            $142        $819
 Transit Bus (diesel)               5/3.8              25,000      $2,829           $417       $3,246
 Refuse Truck (diesel)              3/2.3              15,000      $2,924           $250       $3,174




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      Potential Funding Sources
      Just as there are a number of funding opportunities available for covering the cost for natural gas
      refueling infrastructure, there are also several Federal, State and local programs that offer
      financial incentives to help offset the incremental cost of natural gas vehicles. Table 8 lists
      potential funding opportunities along with their due dates and application requirements.
      Proposals involving multi-agency or multi-fleet vehicle purchases are more likely to receive
      funding. The same is true for proposals involving refueling natural gas vehicles and stations. In
      addition to the aforementioned funding opportunities, regional group purchases can be utilized to
      get better manufacturer pricing. For these reasons, organizations and entities wishing to install
      CNG stations or purchase CNG vehicles should coordinate their efforts when bidding on funding
      opportunities or negotiating with manufacturers.

                           Table 8. Funding Opportunities for Compressed Natural Gas Vehicles

                                                                            Proposal
         Funding Group                    Funding Category Name                                     Technology Areas
                                                                            Due Date
U.S. Department of Transportation -                                                       Replacement or repowerment of heavy-
                                      Congestion Mitigation and Air           State
Federal Highway Administration                                                            duty diesels with CNG (school buses
                                      Quality (CMAQ)                        Dependent
(FHWA)                                                                                    also eligible)
                                      State Energy Program Clean Cities
U.S. Department of Energy (U.S.
                                      Special Projects - School Bus         May 2006      CNG school buses
DOE)
                                      Program
                                      State Energy Program Clean Cities
U.S. Department of Energy (U.S.
                                      Special Projects - AFV Incremental    May 2006      CNG vehicles and conversions
DOE)
                                      Cost
United States Environmental           National Clean Diesel Campaign -
                                                                            June 2006     CNG school buses
Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)          Clean School Bus USA Program
                                                                                          Replacement or repowerment of heavy-
United States Environmental
                                      Voluntary Diesel Retrofit Program     June 2006     duty diesels with CNG vehicles or
Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)
                                                                                          engines
                                      State Technologies Advancement
U.S. Department of Energy (U.S.
                                      Collaborative (STAC) - Energy                       Heavy-duty diesel replacement or
DOE) - National Association of                                              July 2006
                                      Efficiency Research, Development,                   repowerment with CNG
State Energy Offices (NASEO)
                                      Demonstration, and Deployment
                                      National Clean Diesel
United States Environmental                                                               Replacement or repowerment of off-road
                                      Demonstration Assistance - Off-       July 2006
Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)                                                              diesels with CNG vehicles or engines
                                      road
Pennsylvania Department of            Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant                   CNG vehicles and conversions, CNG
                                                                           October 2006
Environmental Protection (PA DEP)     (AFIG) Program                                      vehicle RD&D



      Intangible Benefits
         Compared with vehicles fueled by petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), NGVs can produce significantly
       lower amounts of exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC),
       carbon monoxide (CO) and toxic and carcinogenic pollutants compared to gasoline vehicles. NGVs can also
                        reduce emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary greenhouse gas.
      Table 9 shows representative emission reductions for various pollutants resulting from
      replacement of conventional (gasoline or diesel) with natural gas vehicles. As the table shows,
      NGVs substantially reduce all emissions across all vehicle types and are therefore a viable means
      for reducing air pollution.


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                        Table 9. Emission Reductions of NGVs vs. Conventional Vehicles

                                                         Emission Reductions for CNG Vehicles
    Vehicle/Engine Type                       CO           NMHC          NOx         PM                        CO2
    Passenger Cars (gasoline)                 75%           97%          90%         N/A                        25
    Trucks/Vans (gasoline)                    60%           86%          13%         N/A                        25
    Heavy-Duty Engines (diesel)               49%            N/A         39%         81%                        25
    Emission reductions are based on EPA MY 2005 Certification Data with exception of carbon dioxide (CO2) which is an
    EPA estimate based on CNG fuel properties.




Economic Impacts
Using natural gas as a transportation fuel has positive and negative economic impacts. First, as
explained above there is a price premium for natural gas vehicles ranging from $1,500 to $6,000
for light-duty and $30,000 to $50,000 for heavy-duty vehicles. Second, refueling infrastructure
costs can be quite significant, over a million dollars, if establishing a refueling station for a large
fleet (several hundred vehicles) of transit buses. In the case of a passenger car fleet of only a few
vehicles, the refueling facility costs range between $5,000 and $30,000 depending on required
refueling time (fast fill vs. slow fill). The incremental vehicle cost and refueling station costs can
be covered to some extent by funding from several federal and state programs, as noted above in
Table 8 . The third cost element, facility modification costs for improving fire-safety readiness
with natural gas, must often be absorbed directly by the vehicle owner.

Economic benefits of NGVs are realized through lower maintenance costs (less frequent
maintenance intervals), and lower and more stable fuel prices than gasoline or diesel. These
benefits can generally “payback” the incremental vehicle costs for higher mileage vehicles. An
indirect economic benefit of natural gas vehicles is their contribution to regional air quality
improvement. That is, when applying the use of natural gas to a regional fleet such as likely to
be operating in Bucks County in the future, significant improvements in regional air quality can
be achieved. Improvements in air quality lead to lower incidence of asthma and other respiratory
illnesses annually, thereby improving business employee attendance and increasing business
productivity.


Recommended Next Steps
Based on the abovementioned necessary elements of establishing a NGV Program for the
County, the following next steps are recommended:

   Obtain the necessary funding for initial CNG stations in Bristol and Doylestown (AFIG and
   DOE SEP).
   Continually investigate other sources of funding for stations and vehicles. Organize “group
   buys” among organizations to strengthen proposal bids to funding programs and obtain lower
   purchase prices.
   Install stations at both Bristol and Doylestown locations after further evaluation of candidate
   sites in these jurisdictions.


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   Secure key County and regional partners including PECO, BCT, Honda, General Motors,
   FuelMaker, Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities Program, DOE Clean Cities, etc.
   Develop overall marketing/education plan for spreading word about NGV Program and
   enlisting additional fleets. Identify and solicit target fleets for school districts, refuse fleets,
   delivery fleets and taxis, and general public vehicles.
   Establish fleet workshops, special events, and meetings for directly promoting CNG vehicles.
   Continue to evaluate Newtown and Quakertown locations for possible CNG stations.




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                                  Appendix




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Available MY 2006 Vehicles
Honda GX is a 4-door dedicated compact
sedan for fleets with a 1.7-liter, 4-cylinder
natural gas engine. Under the California
emissions standards it is certified as Super Ultra
Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) and under
U.S. EPA standards as a Tier-II Bin-2, second
only to zero-emission vehicles in Bin-1 (all-
electric or hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles).
Fuel capacity for this vehicle is 8 gasoline
gallon equivalents (gge) when compressed to 3,600 psi. The GX EPA fuel economy rating is 30
miles per gallon (mpg) in city and 34 mpg in highway driving and it provides an average driving
range of about 250 miles. A comparable gasoline model has a rating of 29/38 mpg11. The
Manufacturer Suggested Retail Price (MSRP) is $21,760, $4,500 higher than a comparable
gasoline version. However, due to its extremely low emissions, this vehicle qualifies for a $3,600
Federal tax credit. Honda GX also qualifies for a PA DEP AFIG grant equivalent to 20 percent
of the incremental vehicle price ($900). Together federal and Pennsylvania state credits can
cover the incremental cost of a CNG model for private consumers.

Chevrolet offers its popular light-duty pickup,
Silverado, as a dedicated CNG vehicle and as a
bi-fuel vehicle. GMC offers the same product
under a different name, Sierra. Both bi-fuel and
dedicated versions of pickups come in 2WD
with regular or extended cab long box and 4WD
with regular cab, extended cab or crew cab long
box. They are all powered by a 6.0 liter V8
engine. The fueling capacities of the bi-fuel
truck are 20 gge of CNG and 34 gallons of
gasoline, respectively12. The Silverado and Sierra dedicated pickups have fuel economy ratings
of 9 mpg in city and 12 mpg in highway driving. A comparable gasoline version has fuel
economy ratings of 11/13. Dedicated Silverado and Sierra pickups are certified as ultra low
emission vehicles (ULEV) according to the California emission standards. Bi-fuel versions are
certified as low emission vehicles (LEV). The incremental costs are $8,000 to $10,000 when
compared to a gasoline version and $2,500 to $4,000 when compared to a diesel.

Although General Motors does not produce natural gas vans
anymore, it continues to provide a gaseous fuel-ready 6.0L
Vortec engine on its Chevy Express and GMC Savana
vans for aftermarket conversions. Baytech Corporation,
headquartered in California, is on the EPA and California
Air Resources Board (CARB) list of certified companies
that offer CNG retrofit packages on new OEM vehicles with
CNG-ready engines.




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Both the Savana and Express are available from
General Motors as bi-fuel and dedicated cutaway vans
as well as 2500 and 3500 series vans. The cutaway vans
have a gross vehicle weight (GVW) of 12,000 lb and
are certified as ULEVs. Baytech equips bi-fuel vans
with a 21 gge CNG capacity and 35 gallon gasoline
tank, while dedicated vans come with a 30 gge CNG
capacity tank for a driving range of 320 to 410 miles.

The 2500/3500 series Chevrolet Express and GMC Savana
vans are available from General Motors as passenger or cargo
vans. They are also powered by a Vortec 6.0-liter engine and
are available with 135- and 155-inch wheelbases. Their GVW
range is 8,600-9,500 lb. Baytech makes bi-fuel versions with a
fuel capacity of 11.2 gge CNG and 31gallons gasoline which
are certified to ULEV standard. Dedicated vans have a 20-gge
fuel capacity for a driving range of 220-280 miles and have
SULEV certification.

              Table 10. Modified and Certified Model Availability from Baytech Corporation
  Vehicle Type     Engine Size     Fuel Type        Available Models          Emission Certification
                                                    Sierra, Silverado,
    Light Duty                    Dual-fuel or                                Dedicated - ULEV Dual-
                       6.0L                      1500/2500/3500 Express
    Truck/Van                     Dedicated                                         fuel - LEV
                                                        & Savana
  Medium Duty                     Dual-fuel or                                Dedicated - ULEV Dual-
                       5.7L                       Cut-a-Way Shuttle Bus
     Van                          Dedicated                                         fuel - LEV

                                                  C2500/3500HD, Utility
  Medium Duty
                                  Dual-fuel or   Body, Isuzu NPR Flatbed,     Dedicated - ULEV Dual-
   Specialty           6.0L
                                  Dedicated      Van cutaway Flatbed and            fuel - LEV
    Vehicle
                                                  Workhorse Walk-in van



Mack Trucks Inc. makes a low entry (LE) Refuse truck. Powered by a Mack Eco-Tech E7G
engine with 325 horsepower, this low cab-over-engine (COE) dual steer refuse chassis is
available for front-, side- and rear-load refuse bodies. This refuse truck chassis is certified to the
LEV standard.

Blue Bird Corporation manufactures the All American RE School Bus available in 66 or 85
passenger configurations. It is powered by the John Deere 8.1 liter, 250hp CNG engine.

Orion Bus Industries makes the Orion VII CNG-powered transit bus. This is a low-floor bus
with Detroit Diesel Series 50G or Cummins Westport C8.3G engine. It comes in lengths of 30,
35 and 40 feet.




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Figure 19. Left to Right: LE Refuse Truck, All American RE School Bus and Orion VII CNG Bus
In general, a CNG vehicle can be less expensive to operate than a comparable conventionally
fueled vehicle depending on natural gas prices. Natural gas can cost less than gasoline and diesel
(per energy equivalent gallon); however, local utility gas rates can vary. Purchase prices for
natural gas vehicles are somewhat higher than for similar conventional vehicles. The auto
manufacturers' typical price premium for a light-duty CNG vehicle is in the range of $1,500 to
$6,000, and for heavy-duty trucks and buses, $30,000 to $50,000. Federal and other incentives
can help defray some of this increase in vehicle acquisition costs. In addition, fleets may need to
modify maintenance facilities to account for the fire-safety difference with natural gas compared
with gasoline or diesel fuel and purchase service and diagnostic equipment if access to
commercial CNG vehicle maintenance facilities is not available.

Performance and Safety
CNG vehicles generally have shorter driving ranges than comparable gasoline- and diesel-fueled
vehicles because of the lower energy content of natural gas compared with an equivalent volume
of gasoline. Additional storage tanks can increase the driving range, but their additional weight
may displace some payload capacity. Depending on the number of fuel storage cylinders and
their locations, some payload capacity may be compromised with NGVs. Bi-fuel NGVs offer
similar driving ranges to gasoline vehicles.

Natural gas vehicles are just as safe as today's conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles. They
use pressurized tanks, which have been designed to withstand severe impact, high external
temperatures, and environmental exposure. However, personnel should receive training to
operate and maintain natural gas vehicles because of the differences in fuel properties and engine
operation compared with gasoline or diesel vehicles. Training and certification of service
technicians is also required, although most manufacturers offer certified technicians for
maintaining these vehicles.

Natural gas is, in many respects, safer than gasoline. In the event of a spill, natural gas will
disperse into the air rather than remain on the ground and create the possibility of soaking into
the ground. However, a natural gas spill in an enclosed area may represent a potential fire hazard
because it is lighter than air and it will rise to the ceiling near electric devices and remain there if
not ventilated properly. This is potentially problematic since most maintenance garages are
designed for conventional fuels like gasoline and diesel whose vapors are heavier than air and
therefore, the ventilation is near the ground. Natural gas also has a higher flash point and a wider
range of flammability than gasoline or diesel, thus fleets that maintain their own vehicles may
have to consider safety-related changes to maintenance facilities. The leading source of safety
information about natural gas can be found in the National Fire Protection Association
codebooks.


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Table 11. Contact List

         Entity              City          Contact               Position              Phone #
                                     Vincent Volpe       Executive Director          215-794-5554
BCT                      Bristol
                                     Ed Hackett          Maintenance Supervisor      215-946-9357
Bensalem Township        Bensalem    Jim Ryan            Dept. of Public Works       215-633-0668
Bensalem Township
                         Bensalem    N/A                 Transportation Dept.        215-750-2800
School District
Bristol Township         Bristol     Glen Kutcher        Dept. of Public Works       215-785-0500
Bristol Township
                         Bristol     N/A                 Transportation Dept.        215-788-7841
School District
                                    Maureen McIlvaine Purchasing Director            215-348-6372
Bucks County             Doylestown Larry Churilla    Contract Coordinator           215-340-8843
                                    Joe Bush          Dept. of Public Works          215-345-3950
Centennial School                                                                    215-441-6000
                         Warminster Wayne Robinson       Transportation Director
District                                                                                x1806
Central Bucks School
                         Doylestown N/A                  Transportation Dept.        267-893-4000
District
Delaware Valley North                                                                215-788-3358
                         Bristol     Ken Anderson        Maintenance Dept.
Commercial Collection                                                                   x3019
Doylestown Township      Doylestown Stephanie Mason      Township Manager            215-348-9915

East Rockhill Township Perkasie      John Cornell        Manager                     215-257-9156
Lower BC Joint                       Edmund
                         Levittown                       Board Director              215-945-7400
Municipal Authority                  Armstrong
Lower Bucks County       Fairless
                                     Eric Stark          CEO                       215-949-3400 x13
YMCA                     Hills
Lower Makefield
                         Yardley     Paul Leva           Dept. of Public Works       215-493-4142
Township
New Britain Township     Chalfont    John Cornelious     Township Manager            215-882-1391
                                     Robert Pellegrino                             215-968-2800 x250
Newtown Township         Newtown                         Dept. of Public Works
                                     Garry Crossland                                     x248
Warminster Township      Warminster Judy Smith           Township Manager            215-443-5414
Waste Automation
                         Bristol     Bill Boradhurst     Maintenance Supervisor 800-328-1717 x10
Residential Collection
Waste Management of
South East PA            Telford            N/A          Maintenance Dept.           215-257-1142
Residential Collection
Wawa                     Bristol     Gregory Rees        Real Estate Manager         610-630-2181




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Table 12. Information on Greater Philadelphia CNG Vehicle Fleets

                Entity              Zip Code         Address             Vehicles          County               City                          Comment
 Bensalem Township                   19020     2400 Byberry Road             3               Bucks            Bensalem        Honda GX
 PECO                                18974     N/A                          12               Bucks           Warminster       4 HDV, 7 LDV
 PECO                                19312     1050 W. Swedesford Rd        10              Chester            Berwyn         5 HDV, 7 LDV
 USPS                                19013     N/A                          21             Delaware            Chester        LD Pickup 4x2
 USPS                                19070     N/A                           5             Delaware            Morton         LD Pickup 4x2
 USPS                                19104     2955 Market Street           46            Philadelphia       Philadelphia     LD Pickup 4x2
                                               301 East Montgomery
 Lower Merion School                 19003     Ave                          90        Montgomery/Delaware      Ardmore        84 buses, 6 vans
                                               100 W Rosedale
 West Chester University             19383     Avenue                       22              Chester         West Chester      6 HDV, 16 LDV (F250, F350, 4- E350)
                                               101 North Merion
 Bryn Mawr College                   19010     Avenue                       1         Montgomery/Delaware     Bryn Mawr       Bus
                                                                                                                              9 buses, 9 trucks, 5 CNG vans, 1 CNG
 Temple University                   19122     1801 North Broad Street      4             Philadelphia       Philadelphia     pickup
 Philly Suburban Water Co.           19010     762 West Lancaster Ave       4         Montgomery/Delaware     Bryn Mawr
 GSA                                 19106     600 Arch Street              10            Philadelphia       Philadelphia     LDV
 PA DEP                              19401     2 East Main Street            9            Montgomery          Norristown      HDV
                                               1400 North Outerline
 DOI - Valley Forge National Park    19406     Drive                        2             Montgomery        King of Prussia   HD 4x4 pickups
 PHL International Airport           19153     8000 Essington Ave          10             Philadelphia       Philadelphia     small fleet of LDVs
 Navy -Willow Grove NAS              19090     1174 Tinker Street           13            Montgomery         Willow Grove     1 bus, 1 HDV, 1 MDV, 10 4x2 pickups
 Navy -                              19111     700 Robbins Ave             10             Philadelphia       Philadelphia     LDVs - sedans
 Army - Recruiting                   18960     94 N Main St                 1                Bucks            Sellersville    MD passenger van
 PECO - Abington Art Center          19046     515 Meetinghouse Road        1             Montgomery          Jenkintown      MD bi-fuel van
 Defense Agencies                    19111     N/A                          1             Philadelphia       Philadelphia     MD passenger van
 PGW                                 19102     N/A                         100            Philadelphia       Philadelphia     173 dedicated, 93 bi-fuel vans, 41 LDVs
 PGW                                 19122     1800 North 9th Street       100            Philadelphia       Philadelphia
 PGW                                 19139     5230 Chestnut Street        107            Philadelphia       Philadelphia
 Pensylvania Turnpike
 Commission                           N/A      N/A                          2                 N/A                N/A

 LDV…light duty vehicle
 MDV…medium duty vehicle
 HDV…heavy duty vehicle




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Table 13. Vehicle Fleet Characteristics of Bucks County Fleets Interested in NGVs

                Entity                ZIP Code           Address             Fleet Size    County       City                         Comments                           NGV Interest
 Bensalem Township                     19020     2400 Byberry Road               20        Bucks    Bensalem         Already have 3 Honda GX vehicles                  Near term purchase
 Bensalem Township School District     19020     3000 Donallen Drive            144        Bucks    Bensalem         Have not had discussions about NGVs yet            Potential interest
                                                                                                                     Have tried NGVs, staying with gasoline due
 Bristol Township                      19007     2501 Bath Road                  20        Bucks    Bristol                                                             Potential interest
                                                                                                                     to new on site gasoline station
 Bristol Township School District      19007     1200 New Rodgers Road         >100        Bucks    Bristol          Have not had discussions about NGVs yet            Potential interest
 Bucks County                          18901     1265 Almshouse Road            300        Bucks    Doylestown       300 vehicles throughout the county                Near term purchase
 Bucks County Transport                18928     4920 York Rd                   20         Bucks    Holicong         20 E450 and E350 super duty shuttles               Potential interest
 Bucks County Transport                18951     515 South West End             20         Bucks    Quakertown       21 E450 and E350 super duty shuttles               Potential interest
                                                                                                                     12 CNG bus purchase
 Bucks County Transport                19007     2444 Durham Rd                 80         Bucks    Bristol          80 E450 & 350 cutaway shuttles                    Near term purchase
                                                                                                                     diesel fuel tank on site, leasing property
                                                                                                                     73 school buses. Introduced NGV to the
 Centennial School District            18974     433 Centennial Road             73        Bucks    Warminster                                                          Potential interest
                                                                                                                     board but no action for near future
 Central Bucks School District         18901     320 West Swamp Road           >100        Bucks    Doylestown       Have not had discussions about NGVs yet            Potential interest
                                                                                                                     May purchase a few after the
 Doylestown Township                   18901     425 Wells Road                 15         Bucks    Doylestown       Honda/FuelMaker trial. No experience with             Interested
                                                                                                                     NGVs yet.
 East Rockhill Township                18944     1622 Ridge Road                10         Bucks    Perkasie         10 vehicles total                                  Potential interest
                                                                                                                     3 cars, 2 SUVs, 5 pickups, 3 utility body
 Lower BC Joint Municipal Authority    19058     7811 New Falls Road             19         Bucks   Levittown        pickups, 3 dump trucks, 3 F450 trucks                 Interested
                                                                                                                     Would give serious consideration to NGVs
                                                                                                                     12 passenger vans, 2 buses
 Lower Bucks County YMCA               19030                                     14        Bucks    Fairless Hills                                                         Interested
                                                 601 S. Oxford Valley Road                                           Expressed interest in NGVs
 Lower Makefield Township              19067     1100 Edgewood Road             45         Bucks    Yardley          21 cars, 24 trucks (pickups to dump trucks         Potential interest
 New Britain Township                  18914     207 Park Avenue                 22         Bucks   Chalfont         22 vehicles (10 police, 12 DPW)                    Potential interest
                                                                                                                     considering 3-4 NGV purchase Sedans +
 Newtown Township                      18940     100 Municipal Drive            15         Bucks    Newtown          potential for a refueling station (installing a   Near term purchase
                                                                                                                     new gasoline station next year)
 Warminster Township                   18974     401 Gibson Avenue              10         Bucks    Warminster       No plans for NGVs at this time.                    Potential interest
 Waste Automation - Residential                                                                                      21 rear, 8 side loaders, 11 recyclers
                                       19007     2505 Old Rodgers Road           40        Bucks    Bristol                                                                Target fleet
 Collection                                                                                                          serving Lower Bucks County
 Waste Management of South East
                                       18969     400 Progress Drive              25        Bucks    Telford          25 refuse haulers serving Upper Bucks                 Target fleet
 PA - Residential Collection
 Waste Management Delavare Valley
                                       19007     1224 Hayes Boulevard            25        Bucks    Bristol          Serving Lower Bucks County                            Target fleet
 North - Commercial Collection




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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                                                                                                   March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                                                                                                        Final Report


Table 14. Greater Philadelphia CNG Refueling Stations Information

                                                                                                                                                                  Compressor
                Name                    Phone                Address                    City       State   Zip     Access            County        Station Type
                                                                                                                                                                    SCFM
 Bensalem Township                    215-633-3600   2400 Byberry Road         Bensalem             PA     19020   Private   Bucks                    Fast-fill       76
 Coatsville Station                       N/A        175 North Caln Road       Coatesville          PA     19320    Public   Chester                    N/A          N/A
 Harriton High School                 610-645-1940   600 N Ithan Avenue        Rosemont             PA     19010   Private   Montgomery/Delaware     Quick fill      110
 Lower Merion High School             610-645-1940   301 E Montgomery Avenue   Ardmore              PA     19003   Private   Montgomery/Delaware     Quick fill      110
 NJDOT Fernwood Facility              609-530-2200   1035 Parkway Avenue       Ewing Township       NJ     8618    Private   Mercer                  Quick Fill      100
 PECO - Abington Art Center           215-887-4882   515 Meetinghouse Road     Jenkintown           PA     19046   Private   Montgomery              Quick fill      N/A
 PECO - Bryn Mawr                         N/A        101 North Merion Avenue   Bryn Mawr            PA     19010   Private   Montgomery/Delaware        N/A          N/A
 PECO Energy - Berwyn Station         215-841-5220   1050 Swedesford Road      Berwyn               PA     19312    Public   Chester                 Quick fill       78
 PECO Energy - Eddystone                  N/A        1510 Chester Pike         Eddystone            PA     19022    Public   Delaware                   N/A           78
 PECO Energy - Phoenixville Station       N/A        1101 Westbridge Street    Phoenixville         PA     19460    Public   Chester                    N/A           39
 PECO Energy - Plymouth Station       215-841-5220   680 Ridge Pike            Plymouth Meeting     PA     19462    Public   Montgomery                Both           78
 PECO Energy - Warminster Station     215-841-5220   388 Park Avenue           Warminster           PA     18974   Private   Bucks                     Both          125
 PECO Energy - West Conshohocken      215-841-5220   300 Front Street          West Conshohocken    PA     19428   Private   Montgomery              Timed fill       2
 Philadelphia Gas Works               215-684-6260   900 W Norris Street       Philadelphia         PA     19122   Private   Philadelphia            Quick fill      150
 Philadelphia Gas Works               215-684-6260   3100 E Venango Street     Philadelphia         PA     19134   Private   Philadelphia            Quick fill      280
 Philadelphia Gas Works               215-684-6260   3100 W Passyunk Avenue    Philadelphia         PA     19145   Private   Chester                 Quick fill      280
 Philadelphia International Airport   215-937-6803   8000 Essington Ave        Philadelphia         PA     19153   Private   Philadelphia            Quick Fill      120
 PSE&G - Moorestown Electric
                                          N/A        300 New Albany Road       Moorestown           NJ     8057    Private   Burlington              Quick Fill       84
 Division
 PSE&G Audubon Gas Shop                   N/A        353 W. Nicholson Road     Audubon              NJ     8106    Private   Camden                    Both          100
 PSE&G Burlington Gas Shop            973-430-7664   300 Connecticut Drive     Burlington           NJ     8016    Private   Burlington                Both          233
 Temple University                                   1801 North Broad Street   Philadelphia         PA     19122   Private   Philadelphia               N/A          N/A




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Bucks County Compressed Natural                                                                  March 2006
Gas Station Location Study                                                                       Final Report


References
1
  Green Book, U.S. EPA (http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/greenbk/).
2
  Philadelphia Particulate Matter Analysis, U.S. EPA Region III.
        (http://www.cleanair.org/dieseldifference/healthinfo/pmphillyreport.htm).
3
  National Emission by Source Study, U.S. EPA, 1999.
4
  Compressed Natural Gas Alternative Fuel Fact Sheet, U.S. EPA, March 2002.
5
  Assessment of Natural Gas Infrastructure for Transportation Use, EA Mueller Consulting Engineers, March 1991.
6
  Honda/FuelMaker presentation by Barry Carr, Bucks County TMA CNG Conference, Bensalem, PA, November
        2005.
7
  Greening Garbage Trucks Fact Sheet, Inform (http://www.informinc.org/fact_ggt.php), 2005
8
  PECO Energy Presentation by Paul Miles, BCTMA CNG Conference, Bensalem, PA, October 2005
9
  AAA Daily Fuel Gage Report (http://www.fuelgaugereport.com/PAmetro.asp)
10
   Energy Information Association (http://www.eia.doe.gov)
11
   Honda GX website (www.civicgx.com)
12
   General Motors Alternative Fuel website (http://www.gm.com/automotive/innovations/atfuel/)




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