I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinions by yurtgc548

VIEWS: 108 PAGES: 104

									         “I hereby declare that I have read this thesis and in my opinions this thesis is
  sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Master of
                             Science in Tourism Planning”




Tandatangan            :       _________________________________________

Nama Penulis           :       PROF.DR. AMRAN BIN HAMZAH

Tarikh                 :       Mei 2008
THE STUDY OF TOURIST FLOWS AND TRAVEL
       MOVEMENT IN GUA MUSANG




     IRHANIDA BINTI ABDUL KADIR




   UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
THE STUDY OF TOURIST FLOWS AND TRAVEL
       MOVEMENT IN GUA MUSANG




         IRHANIDA BINTI ABDUL KADIR




A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the
     requirements for the award of the degree of
        Master Science in Tourism Planning




            Faculty of Built Environment
            Universiti Teknologi Malaysia




                      May 2008
         “I declare that this thesis entitled “The Study of Tourist Flows and Travel
   Movement in Gua Musang” is the result of my own research except as cited in
 references. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently
                   submitted in candidature of any other degree.




Tandatangan           :      _________________________________________

Nama Penulis          :      IRHANIDA BINTI ABDUL KADIR

Tarikh                :      Mei 2008
                                                                                      i




                                    ABSTRACT



       Gua Musang is a remote area that located at Kelantan Southern Region.
Listed as a gateway in the Master Plan of East Coast Economic Region (ECER), this
town is now getting more attention from various sectors. The location of Gua
Musang which is between the major routes to East Coast Malaysia is having a
potential to be developed as a major gateway in the region. Besides, Gua Musang is
also blessed with natural attractions that can catch the attention of nature lovers. In
this study, Trip Index has been used to study the travel pattern of the tourist. It is
found from the study that Jalan Gua Musang-Merapoh is the main route used by the
tourist to enter Kelantan. Market Appeal Model has also been used to evaluate and to
determine the hierarchy of the attractions in the study area. On the other hand, data
that have been gathered from the questionnaire survey is analysed to obtain the
information regarding tourism demand dan tourist satisfaction of the study area.
Tourism resources that having a potential to be developed have been identified and
proposals to improve Gua Musang as a gateway have been done.
                                                                                  ii




                                    ABSTRAK



       Daerah Gua Musang adalah sebuah daerah terpencil yang terletak di Wilayah
Kelantan Selatan. Tersenarai sebagai sebuah gateway atau pintu masuk di dalam
Pelan Induk Wilayah Pembangunan Ekonomi Pantai Timur (ECER), bandar terpencil
ini kian mendapat perhatian dari pelbagai pihak, khasnya dari sektor pelancongan.
Kedudukannya yang terletak diantara laluan-laluan utama ke kawasan Pantai Timur
di Semenanjung Malaysia menjadikan ia berpotensi untuk dibangunkan sebagai
sebuah laluan pintu masuk yang penting. Selain daripada itu, daerah Gua Musang
juga kaya dengan tarikan-tarikan pelancongan yang berasaskan alam semulajadi yang
dapat dimajukan dan menarik kedatangan pelancong. Dalam kajian ini, Trip Index
atau Index Perjalanan telah digunakan untuk mengkaji corak perjalanan pelancong di
Daerah Gua Musang. Melalui kajian ini juga, didapati bahawa Jalan Gua Musang-
Merapoh adalah laluan pintu masuk yang paling kerap digunakan oleh pengunjung ke
negeri Kelantan.   Dalam menilai tarikan-tarikan pelancongan yang terdapat di
kawasan ini, Market Appeal Model telah digunakan untuk menentukan hirarki
tempat-tempat pelancongan. Sementara itu, data yang diperolehi daripada soal selidik
pula telah dianalisis untuk mendapatkan maklumat mengenai tahap permintaan dan
tahap kepuasan pengunjung terhadap kawasan yang dikunjungi. Kawasan utama
yang mempunyai sumberjaya yang berpotensi dibangunkan telah dikenal pasti dan
cadangan-cadangan yang bersesuaian untuk penambahbaikan Daerah Gua Musang
sebagai gateway telah diutarakan.
                                                                               iii




                            ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


       I wish to express my sincere appreciation to the following people and
organizations for their contribution to the completion of this thesis.

       Majlis Tindakan Pelancongan Negeri Kelantan (MTPN) especially Tuan
       Haji Sulaiman Bin Haji Ismail
       Lembaga Kemajuan Kelantan Selatan (KESEDAR) especially Encik
       Kamal Badrul Hisyam Bin Mohamed (Assistant Manager Economic
       Unit)
       Kementerian Kesenian dan Kebudayaan Negeri Kelantan
       Tourism Malaysia Kelantan
       Tourism Information Centre Kelantan
       Jabatan Perhutanan Negeri Kelantan especially Encik Mohd.Saman Bin
       Mohd.Sanget (Penolong Pegawai Perancang Hutan 1)
       Jabatan Perancang Bandar dan Desa(JPBD) Negeri Kelantan especially
       Puan Hajah Samsiah Bt Mohd Saman (Penolong Pegawai Perancang
       Bandar)
       Jabatan Perancang Ekonomi Negeri Kelantan
       Jabatan Pemetaan Negeri Kelantan
       Jabatan Perhilitan Negeri Kelantan
       Jabatan Hal Ehwal Orang Asli Negeri Kelantan
       Jabatan Pertanian Negeri Kelantan
       Jabatan Pertanian Daerah Gua Musang,Kuala Krai,Tanah Merah and
       Jeli
       Majlis Daerah Gua Musang, Kuala Krai,Tanah Merah and Jeli
       Pejabat Tanah dan Daerah Gua Musang, Kuala Krai ,Tanah Merah and
       Jeli
       Jabatan Hutan Daerah Gua Musang,Kuala Krai and Jeli
       KESEDAR Inn
       KESEDAR Travel and Tours especially Encik Muhammad Bin
       Derahman
       Malaysia Hotel Association Kelantan
       Prof.Dr.Amran Hamzah as facilitator for this thesis.


Your cooperation, constructive advice and support are truly appreciated.

Thank you.
                                                                         iv




                                 To

      Adam Yeoh who continues to provide enthusiastic support.
I would maintain that thanks are the highest form of thought, and that
              gratitude is happiness doubled by wonder
                                                                          v

                             TABLE OF CONTENT



Abstract                                                             i
Abstrak                                                              ii
Acknowledgement                                                      iii
Dedication                                                           iv
Table of Contents                                                    v
List of Tables/Map/Figures                                           viii


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


1.1    Study Background                                              1
1.2    Research Statement                                            2
1.3    Study Goal                                                    2
1.4    Study Objectives                                              3
1.5    Scope of Study                                                3
       1.5.1   Literature Review                                     3
       1.5.2   Analysis of Tourist Movement                          3
       1.5.3   Analysis of Tourist Behaviour                         4
       1.5.4   Tourism Infrastructure in Study Area                  4
1.6    Study Methodology                                             4
1.7    Significance of the Study                                     5
1.8    Study Area                                                    5


CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1    Introduction                                                  9
2.2    Theoretical Models of Tourist Flows                           9
2.3    Travel Itineraries, Travel Gateways and Transportation Hubs   12
2.4    Itinerary Patterns Within A Destination                       12
       2.4.1   Territorial Models                                    14
                                                                          vi

      2.4.2   Linear Path Model                                          17
2.5   Modelling Tourist Movement                                         20
      2.5.1   Model of Itineraries Destinations                          20
      2.5.2   Types of Itinerary Destinations                            22


CHAPTER III
SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS OF STUDY AREA


3.1   Introduction                                                       25
3.2   Analysis of Cultural and Natural Tourism Resources                 26
      3.2.1   Introduction                                               26
      3.2.2   Scope of Work                                              26
      3.2.3   Research Approach                                          26
      3.2.4   Inventory of Tourism Resources                             27
3.3   Tourism Resources in Study Area                                    29
3.4   Analysis of Tourism Resources                                      32
      3.4.1   Tourism Resources Evaluation                               32
3.5   Tourism Infrastructure in Study Area                               36
      3.5.1   Transportation Network                                     37
      3.5.2   Accommodation                                              40
      3.5.3   Travel Agency                                              40
      3.5.4   Shopping And Amenities                                     40
      3.5.5   Tourist Facilities                                         41


CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS OF TOURIST FLOWS AND TRAVEL MOVEMENTS IN STUDY


4.1   Introduction                                                       43
4.2   Main Entry Points to Gua Musang                                    43
4.3   Analysis of Tourist Arrival to Gua Musang                          44
4.4   Trip Index                                                         46
4.5   Future Prospect of Study Area to be Developed as Tourism Gateway   49
      4.5.1   Prospect of Growth: Master Plan of East Coast Economic
              Region Development (ECER)                                  49
                                                                          vii

CHAPTER V
ANALYSIS OF TOURISM DEMAND IN STUDY AREA


5.1    Introduction                                                      52
5.2    Tourist Visit to Malaysia                                         53
5.3    Tourist Visit to Kelantan                                         54
5.4    Tourist Visit to Tourism Attractions in Gua Musang                55
5.5    Tourism Demand in the Study Area                                  57
       5.5.1   Visitor’s Profile                                         57
       5.5.2   Visitor Trip Motivation & Characteristics                 58
       5.5.3   Visitor Experience                                        62
       5.5.4   Visitor Satisfaction and Opinion                          63


CHAPTER VI
RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION


6.1    Introduction                                                      65
6.2    Recommendations for Bandar Gua Musang To Be
       Developed As a Gateway                                            65
6.3    Conclusion                                                        67


REFERENCES                                                               68


APPENDIX
Appendix A (i)   : Questionnaire Survey on Tourist Flows in Gua Musang
                    ( English)                                           69
Appendix A (ii) : Questionnaire Survey on Tourist Flows in Gua Musang
                    ( Bahasa Melayu)                                     72
Appendix B       : Kelantan Calendar of Event 2008                       75
Appendix C       : Tourism Infrastructure                                77
Appendix D       : Travel Agencies in Kelantan                           80
Appendix E       : Tourist Attractions Analysis Using Market Appeal
                    Model Method                                         86
                                                                             viii


List of Figure


Figure 1.1: Study Flow Chart                                                 7
Figure 2.1: The Tourism System                                               11
Figure 3.1: Tangible and Intangible Tourism Resources in Gua Musang          28
Figure 4.1: Trip Index by Destination                                        46
Figure 4.2: Gua Musang as a Tourism Gateway                                  50
Figure 5.1: Tourist Length of Stay in Gua Musang                             59
Figure 5.2: Tourist Main Purpose of Visit to Gua Musang                      60
Figure 5.3: Tourist Modes of Transport to Gua Musang                         60
Figure 5.4: Tourist Type of Accommodation in Gua Musang                      61




List of Map/Plan


Map 1.1: Location of Study Area                                              8
Map 3.1: The Major Road Network in Kelantan                                  38
Map 3.2: Tourism Attractions and Facilities in Bandar Gua Musang             42
Map 4.1: Major Entry Point to Gua Musang                                     44
Map 4.2: Tourist Arrival to Gua Musang through Entry Point                   45
Map 4.3: ECER Growth Corridor                                                50




List of Table


Table 2.1: Destination and Variables Impacting Intra-Destination Movements   13
Table 2.2: Territorial Models of Tourist Behaviour in Local Destinations     15
Table 2.3: Linear Path Models of Tourist Behaviour in Local Destinations     17
Table 2.4: Five Forms of Relationship of Places to Route Itineraries         21
Table 2.5: Five Types of Itineraries-Destinations                            22
Table 3.1: Tourism Resource Evaluation Using Market Appeal Model             33
Table 3.2: Tourism Resources Grades                                          35
Table 3.3: Tourism Resources Evaluation in Gua Musang                        36
                                                                                      ix


Table 3.4: Travel Distance to Gua Musang from Major Towns in Malaysia               37
Table 3.5: Public Transport to Bandar Gua Musang                                    39
Table 3.6: Basic Facilities Provision at Tourism Sites in Gua Musang                41
Table 4.1: Tourist arrival According to Entry Points in Gua Musang                  45
Table 4.2: Typology of Tourist Destination                                          47
Table 4.3: Focus and Implications of Lumut – Gua Musang – Kuala
           Terengganu Corridor Development                                          51
Table 5.1: Number of Tourist Visit to Malaysia, 2002-2006                           53
Table 5.2: Origin Country of Tourist Visiting Malaysia, 2005-2006
           (Top Ten Ranking)                                                        53
Table 5.3: Main Purpose of Tourist Visiting Malaysia, 2005-2006                     54
Table 5.4: Number of Domestic and International Tourist Visiting Kelantan, 2003-2004 54
Table 5.5: Hotel Guest According to State, 2005-2006                                55
Table 5.6: Tourist Arrival According to Entry Point, (1995 &2000)                   56
Table 5.7: Number of Tourist Visit to Etnobotany Park,Gua Musang ,
           (2000-2004)                                                              56
Table 5.8: Number of Tourist Visit to Kuala Koh National Park,
           2003- June 2007.                                                         56
Table 5.9: Number of Homestay Participants in Gua Musang,
           2003-August 2007                                                         57
Table 5.10: Visitors/Respondents Profile                                            58
Table 5.11: Motivation & Characteristics of Visitors to Study Area.                 61
Table 5.12: Places Visited by the Respondents in the Study Area                     62
Table 5.13: Visitors Satisfaction Level in the Study Area                           64
Table 6.1 : Recommendations for Improvement of Bandar Gua Musang
            as Gateway                                                              66
               VOT 78004


CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
                                                                                1




                                 CHAPTER I




                              INTRODUCTION




1.1    Study Background


       Travel is essentially about people and places, the places that one
group people leave, visit and pass through, the other groups who make their
trip possible and those they are encounter along the way. According to Pearce
(1995), in a more technical sense, tourism may be thought of as the
relationship and phenomena arising out of the journeys and temporary stays
of people travelling primarily for leisure or recreational purposes.


       The spatial interaction arising out of the tourists’ movement from
origin to destination has not been examined explicitly in much of the
geographical literature on tourism. The majority of geographical, and other,
studies have been concerned with only one part of the system, usually with
the destination, as typified by many ideographic studies which have appeared
since 1960s (Pearce,1995).


       An understanding of tourist flow, the spatial pattern of tourist
movement between destination and within destination can help tourism policy
makers, geographers, and the tourism industry itself provide better services
and facilities to cater the needs of the tourist. Further, an understanding of the
factors that affect the tourist movement such as distance decay, market
access, time availability and socio-demographic characteristic can help the
                                                                              2

industry to determine the optimum location of tourism attractions. (Bob
McKercher, Alan Lew, 2005).


         This study will examine the temporal-spatial relationship that exists
between tourism generating areas and destinations. The second part of the
chapter will look into the theoretical perspective of tourist flow and its
movement pattern. The data and information gathered will be analyzed in the
third and fourth part of this chapter. Itineraries model will be developed using
the spatial movement of tourist that have been identified. Finally, conclusion
will be done in the final chapter.


         Bandar Gua Musang, which located at the southern part of Kelantan is
chosen as the case study of this research. The town is chosen as it is the main
entrance     from      major   towns   in   Malaysia    to   the   east   coast.
From the result of the findings in the study that have been done,
Gua Musang could benefit from being more aware of its role and its
relationship with other tourism destinations that travelers visit before and
after their arrival.




1.2      Research Statement


         The study of tourist movements is important for several reasons. For
those at a destination it is vital to know the origins of the visitors. By
knowing where the market comes from, marketing plan can be drawn up to
reach potential travellers. By studying the geographic characteristics of
existing tourists, it may be possible to identify additional untapped market
areas.




1.3      Study Goal


         The goal of this study is to identify the tourist movement patterns and
to summarise the major influences on such movements.
                                                                              3

1.4     Study Objectives


        The main objectives of the study are:-


   i.   To identify the travel patterns and tourist flows in Bandar Gua
        Musang.
 ii.    To identify the factors that influence tourist movements in the study
        area.
 iii.   To propose travel itineraries that will help to enhance the tourism
        industry in the study area.
 iv.    To identify the most critically needed infrastructure for the purposes
        of facilitating the tourist.




1.5     Scope of Study


        The scope the study is divided into four main areas. The following are
the areas covered in this study:-


1.5.1   Literature Review


        The literature focused on the theoretical perspectives of elements such
as tourist flow, what is meant by travel destination and its type and also the
concept of travel itineraries.


1.5.2   Analysis of Tourist Movement


        The analysis of tourist movement will involve the use of Trip Index
where in this model, they generally assume that the majority of people will
take the shortest or otherwise most-efficient route possible from their point of
origin to their destination (Meyer and Miller 1984).
                                                                              4

1.5.3 Analysis of Tourist Behaviour


        The analysis of tourist behaviour is aimed at identifying the type of
tourist, their expectations and trip motivation during their visit to Gua
Musang. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the different market
segment, present travel pattern and willingness to travel. The aspects that will
be analysed are as follows:


        Tourist Motivation
        Tourist Typology
        Tourist Expectation


1.5.4   Tourism Infrastructure in Study Area


        The tourism infrastructure in the study are will be evaluated through
observation.



1.6     Study Methodology


        The research will be carried out in four stages as follows (Please refer
Study Flow Chart):-


i.      Preliminary Stage
        The first stage (Phase I) of the study is the preliminary Stage which
        comprises the formulation of goal and objectives, literature review
        and questionnaires design.
ii.     Data Collection
        The second stage (Phase II) is the data collection stage involving the
        collection of primary and secondary data, Primary data were-collected
        by way of a tourist movement survey while secondary data were
        gathered from previous studies, reports and official publications.
                                                                             5

iii.   Analysis
       The third stage (Phase III) is the analysis that makes to identify the
       tourist movement pattern and factors that influence such movement.
       The tourist movement analysis will use the Trip Index while the
       tourist behaviour analysis will look into the type of tourist, their
       expectations and trip motivation during their visit to Gua Musang


iv.    Recommendation
       Finally, the recommendation stage (Phase IV) is the development of
       practical recommendations that can improve the tourist experience,
       level of service and facilities catering for Bandar Gua Musang. Trip
       itenararies will be proposed




1.7    Significance of the Study


       The study will be useful in several ways. It related to government
agencies such as MOTOUR, MTPN Kelantan, Tourism Malaysia and
KESEDAR, the findings and recommendations will be useful in guiding
tourism product development as well as strategic marketing.


       In addition, the study will also benefit small scale tourism enterprises
within the district by encouraging more visitations to surrounding/remote
areas. Finally, it will help consolidate the role of Gua Musang in Kelantan
Southern Region as the main gateway to major tourism destination in the east
coast corridor.
                                                                              6

1.8    Study Area


       Gua Musang is a town and territory (jajahan) in Kelantan, Malaysia. It
is the largest district in Kelantan. Gua Musang is administered by the Gua
Musang District Council. Gua Musang district is bordered by the state of
Pahang to the south, Terengganu to the east, Perak to the west and the
Kelantanese districts of Kuala Krai and Jeli to the north. It is a small railway
town about 160 kilometers south of Kuala Krai.


       Gua Musang literally means "Cave of the Fox". On the eastern side of
this town stands Bukit Gua Musang, a barren hill of rocks and deceptive
stone-steps running 105 meters high. It stands in a commanding position, with
a huge cave running into its interior and is about meters away from the other
green tree-covered hills. From a distance, this hill looks like a stone pillar
with a big crack which nearly splits it vertically into two equal halves.
Between the hill and the town, there runs a railway track.

       Gua Musang is the northern gateway to Taman Negara (National
Park), which is situated in the southeastern part of Gua Musang district. The
untouched tropical rainforest in Taman Negara is among the oldest in the
world. It is well known for its biodiversity and is home to many endangered
species of animals and plants.

       Gua Musang is surrounded by limestone hills and caves, which have
become popular with cavers and rock climbers. The small village of Merapoh
in Pahang which is just south of Gua Musang serves as a popular starting
point for those who want to scale Gunung Tahan. Another interesting place to
visit in Gua Musang is a Buddhist temple in Pulai, which is purportedly 400
years old. Nenggiri River is a favourite among those who enjoy river rafting.
There is also a rafting race, called Nenggiri Challenge. Archaeological sites
can be found in caves, such as Gua Cha, Chawan and Jaya, which are situated
along the river.
                                                                                          7



                                  Figure 1.1: Study Flow Chart



                                                GOAL
 Stage 1: Preliminary Stage

                                             OBJECTIVES


                                          LITERATURE REVIEW



- TRAVEL ITINERARIES
- TRAVEL GATEWAY                            - DESTINATION                    TRIP INDEX
- TRANSPORTATION HUB                       CHARACTERISTICS



                                            SCOPE OF STUDY


    TOURIST                                   TOURIST                                 TOURISM
   MOVEMENTS                                 BEHAVIOUR                            INFRASTRUCTURE




  Stage 2: Data Collection                 DATA COLLECTION



                        PRIMARY                                   SECONDARY

                       INVENTORY                                 REPORTS RELATED
                       INTERVIEW                                 ACADEMIC REFERENCES
                       OBSERVATION                               GUIDE BOOKS
                       QUESTIONNAIRE
                       VERIFYING




Stage 3: Analysis & Synthesis
                                              ANALYSIS



         Tourist Behaviour                                            Tourist Behaviour



                                              SYNTHESIS



  Stage 4: Recommendations                RECOMMENDATIONS




   TOURIST MOVEMENT                                                         TOURISM
         MODEL                                                          INFRASTRUCTURE
                                                                                                          8




                       Map 1.1: Location of Study Area



                                                   Tumpat


                                            TUMPAT
                         THAILAND

                                           Pasir                                Bachok      SOUTH
                                           Mas          KOTA BHARU                          CHINA
                                       PASIR MAS                                            SEA
                                                                      BACHOK



                                                                      PASIR PUTEH
                                                   Tanah
                                                   Merah
                                   TANAH                    Machang


                                   MERAH
                                                    MACHANG
                       Jeli



to Ipoh town                                                                                   to Kuala
                       JELI                                                                  Terengganu




                                            KUALA KRAI
               PERAK


                                                                                    TERENGGANU




                              GUA MUSANG




                                                                                         Not to scale
                                            to Pahang
                    VOT 78004


CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
                                                                              9




                                 CHAPTER II




                          LITERATURE REVIEW




2.1    Introduction


       This section discussing briefly the concept of travel flows, travel
gateways and what is meant by travel destination and its type. From a
theoretical viewpoint, the study of tourist flows is important to forecast
potential future tourist movements by applying a certain principles to a
destination. It is important to study and understand the concept at the
preliminary stage in order to achieve the goal and have a clearer picture of the
recommendations proposed.




2.2    Theoretical Models of Tourist Flows


       The study of traveler flows has been called by many geography of
travel/tourism or simply tourist geography. As Matley (1976) notes, there is
obviously an “uneven spatial distribution of international tourist activities.”
He attributed this to the following factors:


       The uneven distribution of tourism resources between destinations
       The wide variety of activities in which travellers participate
       Changes in season
                                                                                    10

           Weather
           International and domestic political situations
           Economic changes in countries of origin and destination
           Fluctuations in monetary exchanges rates
           Increases or decreases in the prices of tourist services
           The staging of special, short duration attractions and events.




           The hypothesis put forward by Williams and Zelinsky (1970) is that
   travel flows are not random but have distinctive patterns that can be explained
   by several identifiable factors. They suggest that these factors include:


   i.      Spatial Distance
  ii.      Presence or Absence of Past or Present International Connectivity
 iii.      Reciprocity of Travel Flows
 iv.       Attractiveness of One Country for Another
  v.       Known or Presumed Cost of a Visit within the Destination Country
 vi.       Influence of Intervening Opportunities
vii.       Impacts of Specific, Nonrecurring Events
viii.      The National Character of the Citizens of Originating Countries
 ix.       The Mental Image of the Destination Country in the minds of the
           Citizens of Originating Country.




           The basic system has been adapted by introducing the two factors of
   the resistance of the link (a function of distance and cost) and the propensity
   to participate at the origin. The basic equation (Chubb, 1969) is that the flow
   for a link is equal to P (propensity to participate) X resistance of the link.
   This gravity model is an adaptation of Newton‟s Law of Universal Gravity,
   which states that two bodies attract each other in proportion to the product of
   their masses and inversely by the square of their distance apart. The
   propensity to travel may, for example, be a measure of the population at the
   origin - the more people who live in the country of origin, the greater number
                                                                              11

of potential tourist to travel from that country of origin to a particular
destination. The number of travelers is tempered by the time and money it
takes to travel from origin to destination. The model assumes that tourist
flows decrease as distance from the origin increases. This tends to be true;
however, for many people, after a certain point, distance becomes an
attraction rather than a deterrent. The farther a destination is, the more status
might be given by traveling there. It is speculated that this might be the case
where the travel is for a generic reason. For example, take the case of people
traveling from Britain to Spain for beaches and sun. The fact that “everybody
goes to Spain” may induce people seeking the sun to travel farther. There is
more status in traveling to Greece or the Caribbean for suntan than to Spain.
(Cost factors also come into play in understanding the reasons behind such
movements.)


       The model also assumes a two way flow. We have seen, however, that
tourism flows tend to be one way from generating areas to destination areas.
A last proviso is that the model predicts relative flows rather than absolutes.
The model might, for example, predict that the flow of tourists between
countries A and B would be twice that between countries A and C. It would
not predict the actual number of tourists who would travel between these
countries. A model of tourist flows is shown in figure 6.1. To understand the
tourist flows, it is necessary to examine factors at the origin, the destination
and in-transit routes that influence these flows.




                           Figure 2.1: The Tourism System
                                                                               12

2.3    Travel Itineraries, Travel Gateways and Transportation Hubs


       Travel itineraries, travel gateways and transportation hubs are key
concepts in tourism and travel. On the surface they are easy to understand. A
travel itinerary consists of a route with one or more stops that a traveler takes.
A travel gateway is a place that provides access to (and often travel services
for) a destination place or region. A transportation hub is a place where more
than one route for a transport medium (usually air or rail) converges and
emanates. These concepts, however, have only rarely been critically
examined and are only marginally understood from theoretical and empirical
standpoints. The basic models that have been developed have primarily
focused on the general flow of travelers from one destination to another
(Matley, 1976; Pearce,1987; Leper, 1989) and variations in the overall form
or pattern of itineraries (Gunn, 1972, 1997; Mings &McHugh, 1992;
Oppermann, 1995).




2.4    Itinerary Patterns within a Destination


       The destination and tourist characteristics outlined in Table 2.1 shape
the path that tourists follow. The geometry of these movements can be
modeled in two dimensions: territoriality and linearity. Territorial models
(Figure 2.1) essentially reflect the impact and perception of distance and
intervening opportunities, while linear models (Figure 2.2) reflect the
geography of a place. With the exception of the no movement (T1), every trip
taken by a tourist has both territorial and linear path characteristics. The start
point for both dimensions is the accommodation locus, (hotel, motel, hostel,
resort, campground, friend‟s or relative‟s home or holiday home).
                                                                                        13

Table 2.1: Destination and Variables Impacting Intra-destination Movements
                  Themes                                          Impacts
 Destination Characteristics
 1. Trip Origins/Accommodation Locations
 A. Clustered or Dispersed                   Diversity and complexity of itineraries
 B. Type: Hotel, Resort, Home, Other         Identification of geographic
 C. Clientele / Market Segments              market segments
                                             Customization of services and products
 2. Trip Destinations/Attraction Locations
 A. Number, Diversity/                       Diversity and complexity of itineraries
 Types, Hierarchy                            (including organized vs independent travel)
 B. Clustering or Isolated                   Identification of thematic districts
 C. Intervening or                           Customization of services and products
 Substitutable Attractions                   Importance of relative location to
                                             accommodations
 3. Transportation Accessibility
 A. Traffic Network                          Degree of freedom or restriction of movement
 Dense / Concentrated or Linear              Number of preferred and alternative linear paths
 Topography / Site Characteristics           Perceived ease of travel and
 B. Transportation Modes                     willingness to wander or explore
 Public, Tour Company,                       Value of locations for development
 Self-drive vehicle, Walking                 Variable access to attractions
 C. Quality, Ease, Congestion                Transport mode options or restrictions
 Cost and Affordability
 Information and Signage
 D. Limitations/Barriers
 Distance Decay

 Tourist Characteristics
 1. Time Budgets                             Number of activities or attractions
 A. Trip Length, Visit Length                that can be visited
 B. Time Value                               Depth of participation in an activity
 C. Outcome or Process Oriented              Perception of acceptable itinerary distances
                                             Tolerance of transportation experience



 2. Motivations, Interests and Composition
 A. Allocentric or Psychocentric             Selection set of acceptable attractions,
 B. Special Interests or Generalists         including substitutable attractions
 C. Recreation or Education Oriented         Perception of acceptable linear paths,
 D. Age and Physical Disabilities            distances and content
 E. Travel Group Dynamics                    Freedom or restriction of movement
                                             Decision making process
                                                                                 14


 Destination Knowledge and                Emotional attachment to destination or attraction
 Emotional Value                          Relative appeal of attractions
 A. Information Sources, Gatekeepers      Perception of acceptable itinerary distances
 B. First Time or Repeat Visit            Selection set of acceptable attractions,
 C. Primary or Secondary Destination      including substitutable attractions

Source: Lew and McKercher, 2006




2.4.1   Territorial Models


        The group of territorial models (Table 2.2) shows variations in the
distances that tourists venture from their place of accommodation. The
relative distance of movement is represented by the rings surrounding the
point of accommodation. These range from extremely restricted movement
(T1) to completely unrestricted movement (T4). Destination characteristics,
such as the relative location of accommodations and attractions and the
availability and ease of modes of transportation, will affect the actual
territorial form and true distances in a given destination. Most of the variation
that occurs among the four types of territorial models is based on differences
in tourist characteristics (Table 2.1). In general, as transportation becomes
easier, time budgets, allocentric behavior, and destination knowledge
increase, a tourist‟s territorial behavior is more likely to reflect types T3 and
T4 in this dimension.
                                                                                  15

Table 2.2: Territorial Models of Tourist Behavior in Local Destinations
             Type                                    Description
Type T1: No Movement.        - Some tourists never venture outside the confines of the
                               accommodation property. This situation is most common
                               at all-inclusive destination-resorts offering a
                               comprehensive range of activities, services, and facilities
             ♦                 designed to retain the tourist in-house for the duration of
                               the stay.
                             - Typically, such movement patterns, or lack thereof, are
                               observed in large resort complexes.
                             - No movement may also be observed in two other
                               situations. It may occur in overnight transit stops, where
                               the tourist travels directly to the accommodation
                               property and, on departure, leaves the destination
                               without touring it.
                             - Alternatively, some may feel too intimidated to leave an
                               accommodation property, or may be advised against
                               leaving for safety reasons.
                             - Debbage (1991) suggested that tourists displaying
                               psychocentric characteristics may be more unwilling to
                               venture beyond the safety of a hotel.

Type T2: Convenience-based   - A convenience-based travel pattern is typified by
Movement.                      visitation to attractions or participation in activities in
                               the immediate area of the accommodation locus.
                             - This style reflects an extreme form of distance decay,
         ♦                     where the tourist‟s willingness or ability to venture more
                               deeply into the destination is considerably restricted.
                             - This type of behavior has been observed in the
                               discretionary pleasure activities of some business and
                               convention delegates, who use their small amounts of
                               spare time to shop or visit attractions in the immediate
                               proximity of their hotel.
                             - It may also be evident among those on transit, similarly
                               constrained by time.

Type T3: Concentric          - The concentric exploration behavior pattern reflects the
Exploration.                   movements of tourists who are initially uncertain and
                               possibly intimidated by the destination.
                             - Displaying overt culture shock or psychocentric
             ♦                 characteristics, their preliminary forays are tentative in
                               nature and either confined to the proximity of the hotel
                               or to the accompaniment of a tour guide.
                             - As they become more familiar with the destination, their
                               ability to negotiate their new space, they venture further
                               a field.
                                                                                  16


                             - The concentric pattern can be much more complex than
                               a simple circle. It can be multi-nodal, with „„safe‟‟ areas
                               being confined to the accommodation place and a small
                               number of established attraction nodes.
                             - Movement within the safe bubble is usually restricted to
                               walking, private vehicle, and specialized tourist
                               transportation modes, while explorations beyond the safe
                               zone add public transportation modes to the mix.

Type T4: Unrestricted        - For tourists who have a high level of information about a
Destination-wide Movement.     destination, much of which was gained from previous
                               visits, the entire space may be perceived as equally
                               available for visitation.
                             - But even here distance-decay can impact tourist
            ♦                  behavior, although this would be no different from the
                               distance perceptions of local residents.
                             - An especially allocentric type could also exhibit this
                               behavior through willingness to take risks and quickly
                               master local forms of transportation.
                             - Mostly, however, it is the existential tourist (Cohen
                               1979) who is fully „„at-home‟‟ in the destination who is
                               most likely to feel uninhibited throughout the
                               destination‟s territory.
                             - All forms of transportation mode are freely used by such
                               unrestricted tourists.


Keys:
♦ = Accommodation



Source: Lew and McKercher, 2006
                                                                                      17

2.4.2   Linear Path Model


        Linear itinerary patterns have been identified by several authors
examining interdestination patterns. Flogenfeldt (1999), Lue, Crompton and
Fesenamier (1993), Mings and McHugh (1992), and Opperman (1995) have
collectively identified 26 such itinerary styles, which can be grouped into four
broad types: a single destination and return trip, with or without side trips; a
circle tour with multiple stops, with or without side-trips from some
destinations; a transit to a destination area followed by a multiple stop circle
tour; and a complex combination of linear and circular trips from different
hubs along a larger, multiple destination itinerary route. Of these, the first
three patterns are logically evident in intra-destination movements. Because
one‟s accommodation place normally does not change during a single visit to
an area, the fourth pattern would be rare.


Table 2.3: Linear Path Models of Tourist Behavior in Local Destinations
              Type                                        Description

Type P1a: Single Point-to-Point.   - This movement pattern is probably one of the two
                                     most common types.
                                   - It involves one or more journeys directly to a desired
                                     stop and then returning to the accommodation by the
                                     same route. No significant intermediate stops are
                                     made and no deviation from the most direct route is
                                     considered.
                                   - This pattern maximizes the time spent at the stop by
                                     utilizing the most efficient transit path.
                                   - The number of discrete accommodation-to-attraction
                                     journeys taken during a holiday depends on the length
                                     of stay, the spatial organization of the destination, the
                                     presence or absence of nodes of clustered attractions,
                                     tourist mobility, and available modes of
                                     transportation.
                                   - Multiple single point-to-point trips could result in a
                                     hub and spoke pattern, centered on the
                                     accommodation.
                                   - This type of pattern will be more prevalent in
                                     destinations with discrete but compact attraction
                                     nodes or with isolated primary attractions, such as
                                     theme parks, golf courses, or sporting venues.
                                                                                   18


                                 - Tourists using public transport are more likely to
                                   engage in this type of behavior than are self-drive
                                   tourists because it is less complex than a circular
                                   route.



Type P1b: Repetitive Point-to-   - This model represents an extreme form of the
Point.                             accommodation-to-attraction transit where tourists
                                   travel to the same stop a number of times during the
                                   course of their stay.
                                 - This pattern can be seen, for example, among multiple
                                   visits to ski slopes, shopping/entertainment
                                   complexes, or large theme parks. It may also be
                                   common in smaller destinations that have one
                                   dominant attraction, such as a beach.



                                 - This pattern is unique to tourists traveling through a
Type P1c: Touring Point-to-
                                   destination.
Point.
                                 - In this, one or more attractions are visited while
                                   arriving in the destination and approaching the
                                   accommodation place. The next day, the tourist
                                   departs the destination by another route and stops at
                                   one or more additional attractions on the way out.
                                 - This pattern is most common for short, overnight
                                   stays at secondary or stopover destinations. „„Stops‟‟
                                   are convenience-based and limited to attractions
                                   located on or near major thoroughfares.



Type P2a: Circular Loop Type     - These types of movement start at the accommodation
P2b: Stem and Petal.               point and include visits to two or more attraction
                                   stops in a circular pattern.
                                 - Depending on the set of attractions visited and the
                                   established transportation network, this may be the
                                   most time- and distance-efficient movement pattern.
                                 - It is used by most local organized tours, and even
                                   independent tourists often use this pattern.
                                 - The primary difference between the circular loop
                                   pattern and the stem and petal pattern is the necessity
                                   of a transit leg to the area being visited.
                                 - The use of a stem and petal pattern is a response to
                                   the geographic distribution of the destination‟s
                                   transportation system, accommodations, and
                                   attractions.
                                 - One form of circular loop might be described as that
                                                                                  19


                                  of the „„icon collector‟‟—tourists whose primary
                                  objective is to see a destination‟s most important sites
                                  at the top of the attraction hierarchy.
                                - These are more interested in the tourist gaze (Urry
                                  1990) than in engaging the destination at a deeper
                                  level.As a consequence, this movement style it is
                                  likely to be packed in a tour and prevalent among
                                  short stay or first-time tourists with limited time
                                  budgets.


Type P3a: Random Exploratory.   - This model could be considered the antithesis of the
                                  point-to-point, circular loop, and stem and petal
                                  pattern of movement. Whereas the tourist exhibiting
                                  these other patterns undertakes a purposeful and
                                  systematic exploration of the destination, individuals
                                  demonstrating the random exploratory movement
                                  show no or only a modest pattern in their actions.
                                - Personality style may influence this type, as
                                  allocentric tourists who eschew large environmental
                                  bubbles might have a higher tendency to wander.
                                  They are flexible, opportunistic, and process oriented.
                                - While on the surface the pattern may seem chaotic,
                                  there may very well be an underlying logic to their
                                  movements, which are defined by the micro-
                                  geographies in the experience of place.



Type P3b: Radiating Hub.
                                - This pattern is probably the other most common
                                  movement pattern (along with the single point-to-
                                  point).
                                - Most tourists who have some reasonable amount of
                                  time in a destination will take several trips from their
                                  point of accommodation.
                                - Some of these may be point-to-point, but others will
                                  be circular loop and stem and petal patterns, and there
                                  may even be one or more random explorations.
                                - The accommodation serves as a „„hub‟‟ for these
                                  diverse trips of varying length and motivation.
                                - The result is more complex that the single point-to-
                                  point pattern, which can also have a hub
                                  characteristic.
                                - The number of discrete trips made will depend on are
                                  the length of the stay, the spatial organization of the
                                  destination, distance decay considerations, the
                                                                                         20


                                         valuation of time, and the tourist‟s special interests.
                                     - Radiating blooms will be more common among
                                         process oriented individuals
                                     and first-timers, and main destination tourists who wish
                                     to explore the destination thoroughly.


Keys:
♦ = Accommodation
 = Attraction sites/stop

Source: Lew and McKercher, 2006




2.5      Modelling Tourist Movement
2.5.1    Model of Itineraries Destinations


         Itineraries and the places that the visitors pass through can be modeled
as lines (routes) and points (destinations) (van der Knaap, 1999, cited by Alan
A.Lew and Bob McKercher, 2001). While the overall itinerary pattern can be
simple (origin—destination—origin), for any individual traveler the pattern
can quickly become very complex, possibly crossing back and forth over
itself,and sometimes with numerous returns to central hub locations. This
complexity however, may be3 largely irrelevant from the point the view of
any destination point within an itinerary (van de Knapp, 1999, cited by Alan
A.Lew and Bob McKercher, 2002).


To model how an itinerary appears from the perspective of a single
destination the following is referred:-


1.       A point representing the trip origin, along with any non-destination

         transit stopovers to and from the origin (              )

2.       A point representing the destination of interest to the analyst (              );
3.       A point representing one or more other destinations of interest to the

         traveler (         ); and
4.       The linkages in between these points (             ).
                                                                               21

        According to Alan Lew and McKercher (2002), there are five (5) five
basic geometric patterns for each destination place/point on an itinerary can
define its fundamental relationship to all other places/points in the itinerary
(Please refer Table 3.1). The relationship that the destination of interest has to
defines the type of destination it is, which is arguably the most important
factor that tourism development and marketing organizations are interested in.
The overall trip itinerary can be viewed as a totality of experience of
awayness from home. That all encompassing experience has different stages
of evolution and changes that progress as the trip progresses. Thus, the linear
location of a destination within the overall trip itinerary has a psychic
significance, which can be enhanced through the functional services provided
by a destination‟s travel, tourism and hospitality industry.


Table 2.4: Five Forms of Relationship of Places to Route Itineraries
          Type of Destination                          Relationship Pattern
Single Destination
1. Single Destination


Multiple Destinations
2. Gateway Destination
(Point of access/entry)
3. Egress Destination
( Point of Embarkation)

Mixed Multiple Destinations
4. Touring Destination
(Through point)
5. Hub Destination (Point of Return)

Keys:

    - Trip origin place, including transit stopovers


     - Destination of focus

     - Other destinations focus
     - Travel link

Source: A.A.Lew,B.McKercher (2002)
                                                                                    22

2.5.2    Types of Itinerary Destinations


         The five types of itinerary-destinations, and the significance of their
roles, include:-


Table 2.5: Five Types of Itineraries-Destinations
        Destination Pattern                              Description

The Single Destination Pattern     - Involves a traveler going from a home or origin point
                                     to a single main destination and then returning to the
                                     home or origin point.
                                   - From a marketing and development perspective,
                                     single destination places typically require a larger
                                     and more diversified mix of attractions and activities
                                     for visitors than other forms of destinations (Gunn,
                                     1997).
                                   - This is the only destination pattern that can safely be
                                     assumed to be the sole main destination because its
                                     primacy is unchallenged. For all of the other
                                     patterns, primacy can be shared by more than one
                                     place or challenged by secondary destinations.


Gateway Destination                - In the Gateway Destination pattern the place is the
                                     first destination encountered after the traveler begins
                                     a multiple destination itinerary.
                                   - The Gateway may or may not be the main
                                     destination, but what is most important is that it is
                                     the first place encountered and therefore is a liminal
                                     point of transition where the embodiment of the
                                     non-home experience becomes situated in place (as
                                     opposed to „in transit‟).
                                   - As such, it has the potential to exert at least some
                                     influence over the rest of the itinerary.
                                   - For example, some or the entire remaining trip could
                                     be shadowed by good or bad experiences in the
                                     Gateway Destination.
                                   - From a functional perspective, international
                                     Gateway places typically require exceptional
                                     transportation facilities and services.
                                   - Other places visited early in the itinerary can serve
                                     similar Gateway functions in conditioning tourists
                                     for the experience of subsequent destinations. They
                                     could be part of what Gunn (1997) has called the
                                                                        23


                        main destination‟s „zone of enclosure‟, imbued with
                        elements of both the profane (non-attraction) and the
                        sacred (attraction).
                      - As such, Gateway function can help to reduce the
                        „culture shock‟ of an exotic main attraction.



Egress Destination:
                      -     Egress Destinations typically have very good
                          transportation systems and services, and as such
                          may serve as Gateway and Hub Destinations, as
                          well.
                      -   Egress Destinations are the last places visited before
                          traveling home in a multiple destination tour
                          itinerary.
                      -   The Egress Destination has the opportunity to
                          provide a sense of closure and preparation to re-
                          enter the home place after a long tour itinerary.
                      -   It may also be the main destination of the trip, or it
                          may not be directly related to the main destination in
                          any way.
                      -   It provides a liminal space (if only on the airplane
                          gangway) where one prepares to shed one
                          embodiment for another.
                      -   It is the last experience of transitory being—a point
                          and space of preparation for the transit back to a
                          situated home.
                      -   The Egress function can reduce the „reverse culture
                          shock‟ that is experienced to some degree after a
                          lengthy journey

Touring Destination
                      - When a place of interest is located after the first
                        stopover place and before the last stopover point, it
                        is a Touring Destination
                      - This only occurs on multiple destination tours with
                        three or more overnight stopovers.
                      - A Touring place does not necessarily require major
                        Gateway or Egress transportation facilities and
                        services, though it can also take on these roles for a
                        main destination beyond itself.
                      - On the other hand, it may be the main destination on
                        the journey.
                      - However, because at least two other destinations are
                        included in the trip, the primacy of being a main
                        destination can be diminished. A diminished
                        primacy would be even more likely with additional
                                                                                     24


                                      trip destinations, which in turn could reduce the
                                      economic benefits that such primacy might
                                      otherwise offer. Either way, because they hold only
                                      a share of the entire itinerary, most Touring
                                      Destinations do not require as comprehensive a mix
                                      of attractions to hold visitor interests over a long of
                                      a period of time, as is typical of Single Destinations.

 Hub Destination
                                    - The hub concept is well defined in the transportation
                                      industry as a transit point that allows economic
                                      efficiencies through concentrations of service and
                                      economies of scale.
                                    - However, from an overnight destination perspective,
                                      for which the physical transportation route is largely
                                      irrelevant, any place that is visited more than once in
                                      a multiple destination itinerary can be considered a
                                      Hub Destination.
                                    - Gateway, Egress and Touring Destinations can also
                                      be Hub Destinations.
                                    - Because Gateway Destinations and Final
                                      Destinations often have superior transportation
                                      facilities, they are more likely to serve as Hub
                                      Destinations for travelers.
Source: A.A.Lew,B.McKercher (2002)




        If a destination is picked as an example, residents from some places
 some places will use it as a Single Destination, others will it as a Gateway,
 Egress, or Touring Destination, and some of them will also use it as a Hub
 Destination, based in large part on the absolute and relative geographic
 relationship between their home and the destination. Physical geography still
 does matter; though so do political and cultural relationships and the regulated
 international systems of air, land and sea transportation.


        Understanding how different people use a place in an itinerary, can
 have a significant influence on place marketing and positioning strategies, as
 well as on understanding the human experience of non-home places.
                  VOT 78004


CHAPTER III
SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS
OF STUDY AREA
                                CHAPTER III




             SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS OF STUDY AREA




3.1    Introduction


       The current situation in relation to tourism resources, tourism
infrastructure, marketing and promotional activities including tour packages,
and visitor demand was investigated during the field survey carried out in
August 2007. The current situation as described below gives an overview of
the tourism resources and support infrastructure in the study area. There have
been several studies conducted in the study area that has direct relevance to
the current study. These include:


a)     Kajian Rancangan Struktur Majlis Daerah Kuala Krai Utara, Kuala
       Krai Selatan and Local Authority of Kuala Krai 1995-2020.
b)     Kajian Rancangan Struktur Majlis Daerah Gua Musang and Local
       Authority of Gua Musang 1995-2020.
c)     Kajian Pelancongan Di Kawasan Kelantan Selatan, Potensi dan
       Harapan 2005.
                                                                              26

3.2     Analysis of Cultural and Natural Tourism Resources


3.2.1   Introduction


         Tourism resources are features in the study area that are valued (i.e.
having unique attributes) by the visitor or visitors at some particular points in
time. Even though a destination may have an abundance of resources that are
attractors, they are not functioning as true attractions until they are ready to
receive visitors. Resources that are managed, developed and gone through the
marketing process are known as tourism product.


3.2.2   Scope of Work


The scope of supply analysis will cover:-
-     The identifying of type, background and the current state of the tourism
      resources
-     The identifying of the primary, supporting and complementary tourism
      resources.


3.2.3   Research Approach


        In conducting the research, several approaches were utilized to
evaluate and analysed the supply of tourism resources in the study area. The
approaches are described as follows:-


a)      A method to evaluate the attractiveness or appeal of tourism resources
        was devised. The „Market Appeal Model‟, a model adapted from the
        Market Appeal-Robusticity Matrix Model, popularized by McKercher
        and Du Cross (2002) has been used. While elements from other
        models such as the Visitor Attractiveness Index ( Smith, 1995) and
        Analytic Hierarchy Process ( a method used by Deng et al. (2002) in
        evaluating national parks in Australia) were incorporated into the
        model. The primary aim of evaluating the attractiveness of tourism
                                                                                    27

              resources is to categorise and rank them based on their appeal visitors.


      b)      While participant observation was used to evaluate the following
              elements;
  i.          Visitors activities
ii.           Services level and visitors facilities
iii.          Transportation network
iv.           Accommodation




      3.2.4   Inventory of Tourism Resources


              Kelantan Darul Naim is blessed with tangible and intangible tourism
      resources of iconic value. In Kota Bharu for instance, there are lots of cultural
      and heritage tourism spots while Kelantan Southern Region was blessed with
      natural landscapes, and has plenty to offer tourists interested in nature-
      adventure tourism. Among its many waterfalls, mountains, caves, streams and
      tropical jungles, some are still untouched by man while others have been
      explored by nature enthusiasts time and time again.
                                                                                   28




                             Tourism Resources in Gua Musang,




            Tangible                                              Intangible




Taman Etnobotani                                         Local Culture
Kampung Pulai Historical Village                         Way of Life
Kuala Koh National Park                                  Religious and Cultural Rituals
Taman Tasik Ketitir                                      Food
Sungai Nenggiri                                          Handicrafts
Orang Asli Settlement                                    Legend and myths
(Pos Brooke & Hendrope)
Ber Hot Spring
Gua Cha
Gua Peralin
Gua Perias
Gua Sidang
Gua Musang
Gua Puteri
Gua Madu
Gua Musang Old Town
Gua Musang Train Station
Old Locomotive Engine
PERHILITAN




   Figure 3.1: Tangle and Intangible Tourism Resources in Kelantan.
                                                                                          29

3.3     Tourism Resources in the Study Area


        Below are the major tourism resources that can be found in the study area.
Most of the tourism resources in the study area can be categorized as nature and/or
adventure attractions.


                  Attractions                              Description


Etnobotany                              The Ethnobotany Park is a recreational and nature
Park                                    park administered by the Kelantan Selatan
                                        Development Authority (KESEDAR).
                                        Many outdoor activities are provided at the park.
                                        There are 30 rope and wooden obstacle courses
                                        and flying fox and abseiling activities at the
                                        training camp for those who have adventure on
                                        their minds.
                                        Visitors can also have the opportunity to make
                                        traps and learn jungle survival skills.
                                        Nature lovers who prefer to keep both their feet
                                        firm on the ground will enjoy visiting the deer and
                                        ostrich Farm and the Medicinal Herb Garden at
                                        the park.
                                        Visitors can also try to do the caving at the caves
                                        that can be found in this area.
                                        Hostels are provided.




Sungai Nenggiri                          An event to make adventure seekers keep coming
                                         back to Gua Musang could well be the annual
                                         Nenggiri River rafting expedition.
                                         It takes about 3 days to complete the whole
                                         journey through the class 2+ “big water” river on
                                         self-assembled rubber tube rafts.
                                         The expedition takes guests into a world
                                         dominated by nature. The first stop is at Gua Cha
                                         where guests can explore the beautiful limestone
                                         cave that was once a shelter for prehistoric
                                         dwellers.
                                         On the first night, guests camp in the jungle and
                                         are encouraged to set up their own tents and help
                                                                     30


                  in preparing dinner.
                  The second night is spent at the Orang Asli
                  village in Kampung Pulat where guests are
                  entertained by the Orang Asli traditional dance
                  called Sewang. The final leg of the river
                  expedition continues with a series of exciting
                  rapids and picture postcard scenery en route.
                 The Nenggiri journey ends at Kampung Setar.
                 Despite the aches and bruises, guests will have a
                 truly amazing experience to cherish forever.


Caves


i) Gua Musang     The caves at Gua Musang boast magnificent
                  limestone formations such as animals and other
                  features.
                  According to local history, some caves at Gua
                  Musang were a hotbed for communist activity in
                  the early 1950s.


ii) Gua Chawas    The caving activities available can keep tourists
                  busy as there are many routes, magnificent rock
                  formations and historic cave wall paintings.



iii) Gua Madu     Honeycomb and coral reef like formations create
                  mesmerising view.
                  The passages are both smooth and jagged
                  requiring tourists to be extra careful while doing
                  the exploring so are some of the tight squeezes.
iv) Gua Chawan
                  The rivers running through the caves completed
                  the surrealistic view and at the same time,
                  visitors    will   appreciate   the   cave‟s    cool
                  temperature. Without any source of light the
                  caves are as dark a place as one can be.
v) Gua Ikan
                  Visitors need an experience guide to do the
                  caving and they are encouraged to bring their
                  own torchlight or headgear.
                  Other archaelogical caves in south Kelantan are
                  Gua Cha and Gua Chawas in Ulu Kelantan and
                  Gua Jaya in Kuala Jenara.
                                                                                       31


                                   For bird watching enthusiasts, it is possible to see
vii) Kuala Koh                     quite a variety of birds in a couple of days, and
    National Park                  for anglers, the pristine rivers offer some
                                   excellent sport-fishing.
                                   The whole area offers superb opportunities for
                                   photographers. The diverse flora and fauna in the
                                   surrounding emerald rainforest provides perfect
                                   settings, colours and contrasts.
                                   There are many river-based activities around
                                   Kuala Koh. Kayaks, bamboo rafts and inflatables
                                   can be hired.
                                   There are many jungle trails of varying distances
                                   and degrees of difficulty in the vicinity. And for
                                   those who wish to view life at the top of the
                                   jungle,   a     canopy     walkway   was   recently
                                   completed adjacent to Kuala Koh.
                                   Chalets are available at Kuala Koh, if required.


Ancient Locomotive Engine          Located at a house compund in Kg.Pulai,Gua
                                   Musang,8km from the town.
                                   Is believed a wheeled steam engine, built by
                                   Marshall Sons & Co, Gainsborough, in 1940
                                   with registration no.25.
                                   Having an aesthetic value but been abandoned
                                   and no effort is taken by any museum
                                   department/authority.


Ching Tai Kong Temple, Kg. Pulai   Reputed to be 500-600 years old, holding the
                                   history of the arrival of first chinese community
                                   from China to Kelantan.
                                   The temple was rebuilt in 1970 and houses old
                                   Buddhist photograph (originally from China and
                                   was believed is 500 years old), ancient cannon
                                   part and ammunition.



Source: Field Survey, 2007
                                                                                     32

3.4     Analysis of Tourism Resources


        Analysis of tourism resources is necessary as it will help planners to identify
the potential touristic areas or sites for development or improving existing sites for
visitors consumption. A core tourism resource, for example has the ability to attract
huge number of visitors. Their iconic status plus other supporting tourism resources
in the vicinity can improve the destination‟s image thus making it favorable to visit.




3.4.1   Tourism Resources Evaluation


        The market appeal model was used to evaluate the tourism resources. The
model has 6 components, where each of the components is subdivided into sections
or subcomponents for evaluation. The evaluation process was based on a set of
criteria assigned to each sub-component, where each sub-component were rated
using a 5-point scoring scale (similar to Likert Scale). The assignment of a zero value
indicates the absence of some element. The maximum points are 80 and the points
for each tourism resources were converted to percentage scale (100%) for
convenience in interpreting the data. A three-grade system was used to categorize the
tourism resources. Please refer to Table 3.1 and 3.2.
                                                                                                                                                      33


Table 3.1: Tourism Resource Evaluation Using Market Appeal Model

COMPONENTS                 SUB-COMPONENTS            RANKING   INDICATOR                               EVALUATION CRITERIA
                                                     GRADES
               Ambience and Setting                    4-5        Good          Has historical/natural ambience and well-maintained original physical setting
                                                       2-3       Adequate       Historical/natural ambiences are fading and original physical settings are being
                                                       0-1                      modified.
                                                                   Poor         Historical/natural ambiences are lost and original physical settings are not
                                                                                preserved.
               Well-known                              4-5         Yes          Well known internationally ( Listed in Tourism Malaysia (Kelantan) brochure &
                                                       2-3                      international travel magazine)
                                                       0-1      Somewhat        Well known nationally (Listed in Tourism Malaysia (Kelantan) brochure.
                                                                   No           Well known locally (Not listed in Tourism Malaysia (Kelantan) brochure.
               Educational                             4-5        High          The product has high educational value
                                                       2-3       Medium         The product has medium educational value
                                                       0-1        Low           The product has low educational value
               Complementing other tourism             4-5        Yes           Complements other tourism product in the area
               product                                                          (i.e in terms of history and type of attractions)
                                                       2-3     Has potential    Somewhat complements other tourism product in the area
                                                                                (i.e in terms of history and type of attractions)
                                                       0-1          No          Does not complements other tourism product in the area
                                                                                (i.e in terms of history and type of attractions)
                              Historical value         4-5        High         High historical value. Associated /used by well-known people as place to hold
                              (monuments,              2-3                     significant events
Tourism                       buildings,shrines,       0-1       Medium        Moderate historical value. Associated/used well by known people
Resources                     etc)                                Low          Low historical value. Rarely associated/used by well known people
                              Social value             4-5        High         High social value. The social value are very significant to the society
                              (customs,beliefs,        2-3       Medium        Moderate social value. Associated/used by well known people.
                Cultural




                              etc)                     0-1        Low          Low historical value
                              Aesthetic Value          4-5        High         Rich in aesthetic and architecture value.
                              (including               2-3
                              architecture)            0-1       Medium        Moderate aesthetic and architecture aesthetic value
                                                                    Low        Low aesthetic and architecture value
                              Rarity of the assets     4-5        Unique       The asset‟s type is rare in Malaysia
                              type                     2-3     Less Common     The asset‟s type is less common in Malaysia
                                                       0-1       Common
                                                                                                                                                   34

                                                                            The asset‟s type is very common in Malaysia
                              Forest/parks              4-5     Good        Protected/gazetted as forest reserve/recreation forest and maintained/conserved
                                                        2-3    Adequate     Not protected/gazetted but maintained/conserved
                                                        0-1      Poor       Not protected/gazetted and maintained/conserved
                              Animal (any living        4-5     Good        More than 3 types/species of animals are present at the site
                              creature that is not a    2-3    Adequate     2-3 type/species of animals are present at the site
                              plant i.e                 0-1      Poor       At least one type/species of animal at the site
                  Natural     bird,insect,fish,etc)
                              Trails equipped with      4-5     Good        Trails equipped with more than 3 types of interpretation services
                              interpretation services   2-3    Adequate     Trails equipped with 2-3 types of interpretation services
                              (i.e                      0-1      Poor       Trails equipped with at least one type of interpretation services
                              signs,brochure,guide,i
                              nformation panels,
                              maps,etc)
                              Rarity of the asset‟s     4-5      Unique     The asset‟s type is rare in Malaysia
                              type                      2-3   Less Common   The asset‟s type is less common in Malaysia
                                                        0-1     Common      The asset‟s type is very common in Malaysia
  Accessibility                                         4-5       High      < 20 minutes drive from main visitors area e.g Taiping
                  Distance (traveling time)             2-3     Medium      20-1 hour drive from main visitors area e.g Taiping
                                                        0-1        Low      > 1 hour drive from main visitors area e.g Taiping
                  Convenience use of public             4-5       High      High accessibility via all public transport services
                  transport                             2-3     Medium      Reasonably accessible via public transport services
                                                        0-1        Low      Limited to taxi service only
                  Access to asset‟s feature             4-5       High      Access to all features
                                                        2-3     Medium      Not all asset‟s features are accessible
                                                        0-1        Low      Very limited access to features (upon written request approval)
Facilities        Infrastructure/amenities condition    4-5       Good      All facilities are in good condition
                  (e.g washroom,parking,pathways,       2-3     Adequate    Some facilities are in poor condition
                  refreshment,                          0-1        Poor     Most of the facilities are in poor condition
                  Interpretation,etc)

                                                        4-5     Good        More than two recreational activities provided
                  Recreational Activities               2-3    Adequate     At least one recreational activity provided
                                                        0-1      Poor       No recreational activity offered
                                                                                                                                               35

Peripheral      Importance of the attraction (s)     4-5          High          International icon (Listed in tourism Malaysia Kelantan
Attractions     close to the site                    2-3         Medium         Nationally (Listed in Tourism Malaysia (Kelantan) brochure.
                                                     0-1          Low           Locally (Not listed in Tourism Malaysia (Kelantan) brochure.
                Number of attractions close to the   4-5          High          More than 3 attractions close to the site
                site                                 2-3         Medium         2-3 attractions close to the site
                (walking distance)                   0-1          Low           One attractions close to the site
Customer                                             4-5          High          Personnel giving accurate and prompt information
Service         Service delivery in providing        2-3         Medium         Personnel are indecisive and slow in giving information
                information to visitors              0-1          Low           No personnel available for this service
Note: A „O‟ score will be given to the sub-components that is not present in a particular site.
Source: Gunn,1994; McKercher and DuCross ,2002; Deng et al. 2002; Li and Po,2004;Smith,1995.




Table 3.2: Tourism Resource Grades
     Grades (%)                         Rank
80-100                  Primary Tourism Resource
60-79                   Supporting Tourism Resource
< 59                    Complementary Tourism Resource
                                                                              36

Table 3.3: Tourism Resource Evaluation in Gua Musang

Attractions                     Percentage (%)                 Category
Ethonobotany Park,                   73.7                      Supporting
Gua Musang
Sungai Nenggiri                       83.8                      Primary
Gua Chawan                            80.0                     Supporting
Kuala Koh National                    81.3                      Primary
Park
Gua Ikan                              80.0                     Supporting
Gua Musang                            76.5                     Supporting
Gua Madu                              75.5                     Supporting
Gua Puteri                            75.5                     Supporting
Kampung Pulai                         76.5                     Supporting
Historical Village
Tasik Ketitir                         56.5                    Complementary
Ber Hot Spring                        56.5                    Complementary
Orang Asli Settlement
(Pos Brooke &                         50.0                    Complementary
Hendrope)
Ancient Locomotive                    57.5                    Complementary
Engine
ChingTai Kong Temple,                 75.0                     Supporting
Kg Pulai

Source: Field Survey, 2007




3.5    Tourism Infrastructure in Study Area

       The infrastructure discussed is including the transportation network
accommodation and others tourism support facilities. It is important to have a
good tourism infrastructure in an area to ensure the tourism development. The
analysis of the existing tourism infrastructure was carried out to determine the
supply and quality of necessary infrastructure such as accommodation, food
outlets, toilets, parking, signposting and travel agencies.
                                                                                           37

       3.5.1     Transportation Network

                 Overall, the study area has a good transportation network. It is
       accessible either by road or rail network from major tourism hubs such as
       Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Johor and Singapore. Kota Bharu the capital city of
       Kelantan is also acts as the termination point of the east coast highway and
       become the gateway to Thailand. It is roughly 170 kilometers from Kuala
       Terengganu, 370 kilometers from Kuantan and 480 kilometers from Kuala
       Lumpur. For those who want to travel into the outlying districts, there are
       express buses and taxis available.


        Table 3.4: Travel Distance to Gua Musang from Major Towns in Malaysia


     Town                                  Route                              Distance    Travel
                                                                                          Time
1.   Kuala          Kuala Lumpur - Lebuhraya Karak - Bentong - Raub -         324 km      5 hours
     Lumpur           Kuala Lipis - Merapoh – Gua Musang-Kota Bharu


2.   Singapura       Singapura – Johor Bahru (Lebuhraya Utara Selatan) –      1080 km     9 hours
                   MRR2 - Lebuhraya Karak – Bentong – Raub – Kuala Lipis
                                       – Gua Musang
3.   Johor             Johor Bahru (Lebuhraya Utara Selatan) – MRR2           760 km      8 hours
     Bahru          Lebuhraya Karak – Bentong – Raub – Kuala Lipis – Gua
                                    Musang-Kota Bharu
4.   Kota             Kota Bharu – Machang – Kuala Krai – Gua Musang          328 km      3 hours
     Bharu


5.   Kuantan         Kuantan – Temerloh - Jerantut – Benta – Gua Musang       430 km     4 ½ hours


6.   Pulau          Pulau Pinang – Sungai Petani - Lebuhraya Timur Barat      430 km      6 hours
     Pinang                      (Grik) – Jeli – Gua Musang




                                                                           Sources: JUPEM,2007.
                                                              38


                               Tumpat
                                           Kota Bharu
     Thailand
                                                 Bachok
                                        Pasir
                                        Mas
                                         Tanah
                                         Merah
           East West Highway   Jeli
                                           Kuala Krai



 Perak                                           Terengganu


                  Kelantan


                                 Gua Musang
                                        Taman
                                        Negara

                                        Pahang


Legend

         Major Road
         Railways


    Map 3.1: The Major Road Network in Kelantan
                                                                                       39



                 Table 3.5: Public Transport to Bandar Gua Musang

    Type of                            Destination                       Travelling
   Services                                                                Time
Bus Services        From Kuala Lumpur (Putra Station)                    4 1/2 hours
                    Depart KL-Gua Musang


                    From Penang (Butterworth Station)                     8 hours
                    Depart Butterworth-Sg.Petani-Baling-Grik-East
                    West Highway- Jeli-Kota Bharu-Gua Musang

                    From Kuantan
                    Depart Kemaman-Dungun-Marang-Kuala                   6-7 hours
                    Terengganu- Penarik- Pasir Putih- Kota Bharu-
                    Gua Musang
                    From Johor Bahru (Terminal Larkin)
                    Depart Johor Bahru- Segamat-Kuala Pilah-Karak-       8-9 hours
                    Gua Musang

Domestic            From Kuala Lumpur (Kuala Lumpur International
Airlines            Airport (KLIA)                                         1 hour
                    Depart KLIA- Sultan Ismail Petra Airport
                    (Malaysia Airlines operates 5 times a day)
                    (Air Asia operates 4 times a day)

                    From Penang (Penang International Airport)
                    Depart PIA-Connecting flight KLIA-Kota Bharu
                    Kuantan
                    Depart Kuantan-Connecting flight KLIA-Kota
                    Bharu
                    Johor Bahru (Sultan Ismail International Airport)
                    Depart Senai-Connecting flight KLIA-Kota Bharu
Train Services
                    Depart Kuala Lumpur-Seremban-Gemas-Jerantut-
                    Kuala Lipis-Gua Musang                                8 hours
                    (Please refer Appendix C for the train time table)



                                         Source: Tourism Malaysia Kelantan, 2007
                                                                          40

3.5.2    Accommodation


         The study area has variety type of accommodation. However, the
level and quality of accommodation is limited to 2 star accommodations and
below. The following are the accommodation categories found in the study
area:-
         Hotel/motel-users are visitors who seek comfortable and reasonably
         priced accommodation.
         Chalets- users are visitors who seek budget accommodation and
         prepared to receive modest services.
         Homestay- users are visitors who seek cultural experience and are
         often foreign tourist
         Camping- a popular form of accommodation for those who
         participate in the adventure tour in Gua Musang. (Please refer to
         Appendix C for the list of accommodation in Kelantan)



3.5.3    Travel Agency


         There are few travel agencies in the study area and most of them are
stationed in Kota Bharu while only few of them are in other districts. (Refer
Appendix D). These travel agencies offer variety of services ranging from
hotel accommodation to flight bookings and outbound packages to car
rental. Although most of them are inbound agencies, none of them are
actually offering tour package that let the tourist explore the nature and
culture tourism products in Gua Musang.



3.5.4    Shopping And Amenities


         Shopping amenities are however lacking in the study area. Only one
can be found in old Gua Musang town.
                                                                              41

3.5.5   Tourist Facilities


        Tourist facilities are an important element to the quality of the
tourist experience. The absence or inadequacy of simple and basic need at
the destinations will make tourism rarely succeeds because it will spoil the
enjoyment of visitors. In the study area, the provisions of basic facilities are
of different quality levels. Table 4.2 shows the basic facilities and quality
levels of tourism facilities in the study area.



   Table 3.6: Basic Facilities Provision at Tourism Sites in Gua Musang
                 Attractions                          Available Facilities
                                            Public   Car Park     Signboard        Food
                                            Toilet                             Outlet/
                                                                                   stall
    Kuala Koh National Park
    Kampung Pulai Historical Village
    Taman Tasik Ketitir
    Sungai Nenggiri
    Ethnobotani Park,Gua Musang
    Orang Asli Settlement
    (Pos Brooke & Hendrope)
    Ber Hot Spring
    Gua Cha
    Gua Peralin
    Gua Perias
    Gua Sidang
    Gua Musang
    Gua Madu
    Gua Puteri
    Gua Musang Old Town
    Old Locomotive Engine
    PERHILITAN


Source: Field Survey, 2007
                                                                                                                             42



                                                                            TOURISM ATTRACTIONS AND FACILITIES
                                                                                      IN GUA MUSANG


                                                      Kuala Krai



    PERAK
                                            To Jeli            To Kuala Krai/Kota
                                                               Bharu

                   Simphor Post

                                     Nenggiri River
                     Tohoi Post
                                                          Gua Musang Cave
                                                       Bandar Gua Musang
                                  Gua Cha
                                                                            Kuala Koh National Park
                      Tasik Ketitir Lake                   Homestay Renok Baru
                     Bandar Baru                       Etnobotany Park
                     G.Musang
                  Chinese Village Kg.Pulai                               Gunung Rabong
    Ber Hot Spring                                                                                    TERENGGANU
                                    PERHILITAN
  Brook Post     Hendrop Post
                                                                                Kuala Tahan National Park
                                              To Kuala Lipis
 Lojing Highland
To Simpang Pulai                                                                    MAP LEGEND
                                                                                         Tourism Attractions in Gua Musang
                                                       PAHANG
                                                                                         Federal Road
                                                                                         Railways
                                                                                         Food Outlet
                                                                                         Bus & Taxi Station
                                                                                         Camping Area
                                                                                         Train Station


                         Map 3.2: Tourism Attractions and Facilities in Bandar Gua Musang
                                                                            42

          In conclusion, the tourism infrastructure in study area is reasonably
good. However, improvements should be made namely on directional signs,
orientation and interpretation signage to ensure better self-navigation and
ease of travel in the proposed tourism corridor. It is generally accepted that
any future infrastructure developments should ensure that the needs of
visitor and the local people are met. For example, providing better
accessibility throughout the study area not only improves the access for
visitors but will also make differences to the day-to-day lives of the local
people.
                  VOT 78004


CHAPTER IV
ANALYSIS OF TOURIST FLOWS
AND TRAVEL MOVEMENTS IN
STUDY AREA
                                                                              43




                                 CHAPTER IV




      ANALYSIS OF TOURIST FLOWS AND TRAVEL MOVEMENT

                                IN STUDY AREA




4.1     Introduction


        Analysis of tourist flows has been done to derive the travel pattern in
the study area. Secondary informations have been gathered from various
sources to obtain the data regarding the tourist arrival into the study area from
four major points. Trip Index analysis has been used in this study to derive
tourist destination typology.




4.2     Main Entry Points to Gua Musang


There are four major entry points to the study area which are:


        Gua Musang Route
        Kuala Krai – Renok- Gua Musang Route
        Grik- Gua Musang Route
        Simpang Pulai – Gua Musang Route.
                                                                                                44




                                                  Kuala Krai
                                   3                            2
   PERAK
                              To/From East West            To/From Kuala
                              Route                        Krai/Kota Bharu




                                                   Gua Musang Old
                                                   Town


                    Gua Musang New
                    Town                                                                            TERENGGANU
                      4
      To/From Simpang Pulai
                                                                             Kuala Tahan National
Lojing Highland                                                              Park
                                                       1                                  MAP LEGEND
                                                                                               Federal Road
                                                   PAHANG
                                                                                               Railways
                                          To/From Kuala Lipis



                                Map 4.1: Major Entry Point to Gua Musang




            4.3     Analysis of Tourist Arrival to Gua Musang


                    The number of tourist arrival to the study area has also been examined
            in this study. It is important to have the statistic of tourist arrival for provision
            of tourist infrastructure in the future. A better planning and management
            could be prepared using the statistic. However, the data available of the study
            area is very limited. The statistic of tourist coming into Gua Musang is only
            calculated by Economic and Planning Division, KESEDAR in year the 1995
            and 2000. The tourist arrival from major entry point is presented in Table 4.1
            as been provided.
                                                          45




Map 4.2 : Tourist Arrival to Gua Musang Through Entry Point
                                                                              46

4.4    Trip Index



       To achieve the objective of this study which is to determine the travel
pattern in the study area, a trip index analysis has been used. Length of stay of
the tourist is compared to the total length of stay in Malaysia. Those data have
been obtained from the questionnaire that been carried out. Below are the
result of the trip index analysis that have been done.




                             Figure 4.1: Trip Index by Destination
                                                                              47



Table 4.2: Typology of Tourist Destination


   Aggregate trip           Destination type                      Destination
       index                                                  (trip index values)
        >51                Principal destination      Pulau Perhentian (71)
                           International gateway      Kuala Lumpur (30)
                                                      Penang (33)
                                                      Kota Kinabalu (28)
       21-50               Major tourist attraction   Pulau Tioman (53)
                                                      Cameron Highlands (40)
                                                      Kuching (29)
                                                      Melaka (26)
        1-20               Stop over destination      Kinabalu Park, Sabah (20)
                                                      Taman Negara Kuala Tahan (19)
                                                      Kota Bharu (17)
                                                      Gua Musang (15)
                                                      Cherating(15)
                                                      Marang (15)
                                                             Source: Field Study, 2007




        The trip index analysis reveals Gua Musang as the stopover
 destination for the tourists in the study area. While Kuala Lumpur, Penang,
 Kuching, Kota Bharu and Kota Kinabalu are identified as the international
 gateway and at the same time also as,a ‘stopover’ destination. Kuala Lumpur
 being the main international gateway also functions as transportation hub for
 Malaysian Airlines and Airasia. Besides Gua Musang, it is found that
 Kinabalu Park, Taman Negara Kuala Tahan, Kota Bharu, Cherating and
 Marang also become a stopover destination to the tourist.
                                                                                         48

       From the study that has been done, Gua Musang has been identified as
a ‘Stopover Destination’. There are few factors that contribute to the result
such as follows:
 Element                                    Analysis/ Description
Route Network            Gua Musang is located between major routes to East Coast of
                         Malaysia




Transport                There is express train services in Bandar Gua Musang that
Interchange              pass through major towns such as Tumpat, Segamat, Jerantut,
                         Gemas, Johor Bahru and Singapura.
                         Other than train, there are also other public transport services
                         to the study area such as taxi and town bus. However, the
                         services are very limited and the frequency are low.
                         ( Trips every 2-3 hours ).
Tourism Product/         Tourism product in the study area are not been widely
resources                promoted.
                         Tourism resources in Gua Musang are mostly nature-based
                         tourism product. Most of the tourist that spend time in this
                         area are nature lovers and enjoy adventure activities such as
                         rock climbing, hiking and etc.
Accommodation            Variation of accommodation in Gua Musang: 2 stars hotel,
                         budget hotel, homestay. Only suitable for FIT tourist,
                         students, and family.
                                                                                         49


Lack of Promotion        Study area is lacking of promotion and publicity.
                         Most of the tourism products in Gua Musang are not well-
                         known
Supporting Activities    There are limited activities for the tourist who visiting the
                         study area except a visit to ‘Pasar Malam’ during the night
                         time.
                         There is Kesedar Civic centre for sport facilities to the tourist.
Source : Field Survey, 2007




4.5     Future Prospect of Study Area to be Developed as Tourism
        Gateway
4.5.1   Prospect of Growth: Master Plan of East Coast Economic Region
        Development (ECER)


        Based on the master plan of East Coast Economic Region
Development, study area is located within the secondary corridor which is
Lumut-Gua Musang-Kuala Terengganu Corridor. (Please refer Map 4.3 and
Figure 4.2). The corridor has been developed to strengthen the economic and
physical condition of middle West Coast region (Ipoh) with middle East
Coast region (Kuala Terengganu). The development of this corridor will give
implications to Pulai-Gua Musang Kuala Berang new highway yang cross
over the study area and become the backbone of the study area. Table 4.2 will
explain the development of the said corridor.
                                                        50




                   Source: Kajian Pelan Induk Ekonomi Wilayah Timur, 2007

        Map 4.3: ECER Growth Corridor




Figure 4.2: Gua Musang as a Tourism Gateway
                                                                                      51




Table 4.3: Focus and Implications of Lumut – Gua Musang – Kuala
          Terengganu Corridor Development

     Focus of Lumut – Gua Musang – Kuala           Implications of Lumut – Gua Musang –
       Terengganu Corridor Development                Kuala       Terengganu Corridor
                                                                 Development
      Alternative gateway for eco-tourism          To increaee the tourism value along
       flows of industries to East Coast region.      the corridor, especially for Gua
      Will increase the job opportunities dan        Musang as adventure based tourism
       reduce the poverty rates among the             centre.
       residents along the corridor.                To increase the value of existing
      To increase the productivity of                agriculture activities that relates to the
       agriculture dan industrial growth along        development of technology and
       the corridor.                                  innovation.
                                                    Development of growth centres along
                                                      the corridor as a main occupation to
                                                      the locals in the region.
Source: ECER Master Plan, 2007
                 VOT 78004


CHAPTER V
ANALYSIS OF TOURISM DEMAND
IN STUDY AREA
                                                                                56




                                 CHAPTER V




                   ANALYSIS OF TOURISM DEMAND




5.1    Introduction


       The analysis of the tourism demand is aimed at identifying the types
of visitors, their expectations and trip behaviours during their visit to Bandar
Gua Musang. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the different market
segments, present travel pattern and willingness to travel at the study area.


       This part also presents the statistic informations of tourist arrival to
Malaysia and Kelantan. It is important to examine the trend of tourist flow
from the strategic level to identify the opportunity for the study area.


       A self-administered questionnaire (in Bahasa Melayu and English) for
the visitors was designed to get the primary information. (See Appendix A1-
A2). The questionnaire is divided into six parts. The first part of the
questionnaire includes socio-demographic information about the respondents.
The second part contains the information pertaining the respondent’s trips
characteristics. The following part consisted of statements about the tourism
resources in Gua Musang, where respondents were asked to rate their
satisfaction pertaining the tourism resources. The visitor’s questionnaires
were distributed in Bandar Gua Musang itself. Out of 200 questionnaires that
have been distributed, 173 of it were regarded as complete or useful for
analysis. The following sub-section presents the findings of the survey.
                                                                                     53


5.2    Tourist Visit to Malaysia

         Table 5.1: Number of Tourist Visit to Malaysia, 2002-2006
                      Year            Number of Tourist
                      2002               13,292,010
                      2003               10,576,915
                      2004               15,703,406
                      2005               16,431,055
                      2006               17,546,863

                             Source: Tourism Malaysia,2007.

       Table 5.1 shows the tourist arrival to Malaysia from 2002 to 2006.
Data shows the increasement of tourist arrival from years to years except on
2003. The decreasing number of the statistic is due to the SARS that spread
over the Asean countries at that time. However, the condition become normal
after that and number of tourist is found increasing.


       Table 5.2: Origin Country of Tourist Visiting Malaysia, 2005-2006
       (Top Ten Ranking)
        Origin Country            Tourist Visit           Income (RM Mil.)
                               2005           2006           2005            2006
        Singapura            9,634,506      9,656,251      17,715.0     18,599.9
        Thailand             1,900,838      1,891,921       2,005.6      2,129.8
        Indonesia             962,957       1,217,024       1,447.7      2,282.1
        Brunei                486,344        784,446        1,286.5      2,058.2
        China                 352,089        439,294         787.0       1,054.2
        Japan                 340,027        354,213         651.8           749.6
        India                 225,789        279,046         557.5           724.7
        Australia             265,346        277,125        1,032.8      1,013.1
        United Kingdom        240,030        252,035         914.6           886.5
        Philiphines           178,961        211,123         348.8           394.7
                                                  Source: Tourism Malaysia,2007.



       Based from Table 5.2, it is found that the main tourist market to
Malaysia is the tourist from Singapore and Thailand, floowed by Indonesia
and Brunei. This number is increasing from 2005 to 2006.
                                                                                       54



       Table 5.3: Main Purpose of Tourist Visiting Malaysia, 2005-2006
               Purpose                            2005 (%)        2006 (%)

               Vacation                            32.3             33.1
               Conference                           4.7              4.7
               Business                            10.0              9.2
               Transit                             12.2             12.4
               VFR                                  0.7              0.7
               Education                            1.2              1.2
               Official Matters                     3.9              5.2
               Others                              35.0             35.0
                                             Source: Tourism Malaysia,2007.



5.3     Tourist Visit to Kelantan

        Table 5.4: Number of Domestic and International Tourist Visiting Kelantan,
        2003-2004
        Year                            Tourist                             Total
                            Domestic              International
        2003                3,960,000               561,572                4,521,572
        2004                4,266,286               590,964                4,857,250
        2005                2,957,958               395,158                3,353,116
        2006
      (Jan-Ogos)            4,212,247               674,004                4,886,251
        2007
      (Jan-Mei)             1,742,567               816,405                2,568,972
                                  Source: Kelantan State Tourism Action Council ,2007.




        By referring to Table 5.4, it is found that total number of tourist to
Kelantan is increasing from 2003 to 2004. However, the total number of
tourist arrival on 2006 to 2007 could not be identified due to limited
resources.
                                                                               55

          Table 5.5: Hotel Guest According to State, 2005-2006

 State                          Rooms Supplied                %
                             2005            2006           Growth
 Perlis                     90,147          98,402            9.2
 Kedah                     4,057,994       4,066,062          0.2
 Pulau Pinang              4,351,909       4,688,504          7.7
 Perak                     1,968,514       2,160,088          9.7
 Selangor                  3,219,852        3,132,059         -2.7
 Negeri Sembilan           1,393,177        1,54,337          11.0
 Melaka                    2,712,414        2,843,637          4.8
 Johor                     2,828,881        2,999,674          6.0
 Pahang                     5,695,428       6,128,902          7.6
 Terengganu                 950,267         1,167,687         22.9
 Kelantan                   689,521          770,065          11.7
 Sabah                     4,812,318        5,389,876         12.0
 Sarawak                   3,131,485        3,985,275         27.3
 W.P Kuala Lumpur          15,134,889       15,012,021        -0.8
 W.P Labuan                 246,755          280,880          13.8
 W.P Putrajaya               81,326           88,352           8.6
 MALAYSIA                  51,364,878       54,357,822         5.8



                                              Source: Tourism Malaysia,2007.

          On the other hand, based on the number of hotel visitors according to
states, it is found that there is increasing number of tourist who occupied the
hotel in 2006. This condition become an opportunities to the study area to
attract more tourist to come and to be developed as a tourism centre.



5.4       Tourist Visit to Tourism Attractions in Gua Musang


          Based on the statistic information that has been obtained, there is
limited data on the tourist arrival to Gua Musang as been discussed in
previous chapter on tourist arrival to Gua Musang. However, in this chapter
the statistic of the tourist arrival to Gua Musang will be focused on the
tourism attraction in Gua Musang.
                                                                      56

  Table 5.6: Tourist Arrival According to Entry Point, (1995 &2000)
Entry Point              1995            2000              Growth %

Gua Musang-             112,510         203,887              44.80
Merapoh
Simpang Pulai-          27,753           36,587              24.15
Gua Musang
Grik- Gua Musang         48,864          65,683              25.60
Gua Musang-             102,386         183,618              44.23
Renok-Kuala Krai
                     Source: Economic and Planning Unit, KESEDAR,2007


 Table 5.7: Number of Tourist Visit to Etnobotany Park,Gua Musang
 ,2000-2004
              Year           Tourist Visit (People)
              2000                   2160
              2001                   3408
              2002                   3721
              2003                   6733
              2004                   3599
       Source: Economy and Planning Unit, KESEDAR,2007



 Table 5.8: Number of Tourist Visit to Kuala Koh National Park,
 2003- June 2007.
          Year                    Tourist Visit (People)
          2003                            3,190
          2004                            2,548
          2005                            3,045
          2006                            3,403
        June 2007                         4,329
       Source: Kuala Koh National Park Management, 2007
                                                                                                        57

Table 5.9: Number of Homestay Participants in Gua Musang, 2003-August 2007
 Year /                                                  Number of Visitor
 Village     Kg.Renok         Kg.Blok Ulu           Kg.Bukit           Kg.Batu        Kg.Sg.Sam              Total
                  Baru          Kursial               Jering            Papan                (40
                   (62               (44                  (60              (30        participants)
            participants)     participants)        participants)     participants)
             DT          IT    DT          IT       DT          IT    DT         IT    DT          IT    DT      IT
 2003        73          1     120         -        55          -     80         -      -          -     328         1
 2004         -          -      -          -        80          -      -         -      -          -      80         -
 2005        88          -     132         24        -          -      -         -      -          -     220     24
 2006        600         2     80          10       780         40     -         -     255         -     1715    52
 August      252         1     185         15        -          -      -         -     173         -     610     16
 2007
* (DT- Domestic Tourist ) (IT-International Tourist )
 Source: Economic and Planning Unit, KESEDAR,2007


 5.5       Tourism Demand in the Study Area

 5.5.1     Visitor’s Profile


           It is found that the male tourist is equal to the female tourist in the
 study area, whether for the domestic or foreign visitors. Most of the
 respondent, including the domestic and the foreigner, fall under the 20-29
 years old group (62.0%) and most of them have universities educational
 background with 62.1%. More than half of them, which brings out 65.3% are
 still single while the rest is married. Most of the domestic tourist came from
 Kelantan (63.2%) while for the foreign tourist; most of them are from Europe
 (79.0%) while the rest came from east and west Asia, America, Africa and
 Oceania.


                              Table 5.10: Visitors/Respondents Profile

   Respondents Profile                          Element               Percentage (%) (n = 173)
                                                                       Domestic     Foreign
                                                                        Tourist      Tourist
  Gender                               -        Male                     46.9         53.1
                                       -        Female                   53.1         46.9
  Age group                            -        < 20 years old           16.3          8.6
                                       -        20-29 years old          48.0         59.3
                                       -        30-39 years old          15.3         21.0
                                       -        40-49 years old          14.3          4.9
                                                                            58


                             -   >50 years old          6.1          6.1
 Education Background        -   No Formal              8.2          8.6
                                 Education
                             -   Primary school         3.1           1.2
                             -   Secondary              48.0         23.5
                                 school                 40.8         66.7
                             -   University
 Annual Income               -   RM/USD <9,999          28.6         22.2
                             -   RM/USD                 29.6         23.5
                                 10,000-29,999
                             -   RM/USD                 9.2          17.3
                                 30,000-49,999
                             -   RM/USD                 2.0          9.9
                                 50,000-89,999
                             -   RM/USD >                -            3.7
                                 90,000                 30.6         23.5
                             -   Others
 Marital Status              -   Married                52.0         36.0
                             -   Single                 48.0         65.0
 Origin                      -   Within Kelantan        63.0
                             -   Outside                37.0
                                 Kelantan
                             -   Europe                              79.0
                             -   East Asia                            4.9
                             -   West Asia                            4.9
                             -   America                              6.2
                             -   Africa                               1.2
                             -   Oceania                              3.7
                                                   Sources: Field Survey, 2007




5.5.2     Visitor Trip Motivation & Characteristics


          According to Table 5.2 that has been provided, it is shows that
majority of the domestic tourist (44.9%) stay 1 day in the study area as well
as the foreign tourist (43.2%). For the main purpose of the trip, 31.6 % of the
local tourist said that they come to the study area to visit their friend and
relatives while for the foreign tourist, many of them visit the study area for
vacation purposes. Most of the local tourist (72.4%) chose private transport to
come to the study area as well as the foreign tourist (65.4%). For the type of
accommodation, most of the local tourist (36.7%) stays at their
                                                                              59

friends/relatives house during the trip while 69.1 % of the foreign tourist stays
at budget hotel. Word of mouth referrals (46.9%) were the main source of
information of domestic tourist to know about the study area while the
internet/web site (44.4%) was the main reference to the foreign tourist.




              Figure 5.1: Tourist Length of Stay in Gua Musang
                                                          60




Figure 5.2: Tourist Main Purpose of Visit to Gua Musang




 Figure 5.3: Tourist Modes of Transport to Gua Musang
                                                                           61




         Figure 5.4: Tourist Type of Accommodation in Gua Musang




         Table 5.11: Motivation & Characteristics of Visitors to Study Area.

Description                    Elements                   Percentage (%)
                                                     Domestic Tourist  Foreign
                                                                       Tourist
Length of Stay in       -   1 day                         44.9           43.7
Study Area              -   2 days 1 night                23.8           17.1
                        -   3 days 2 nights               13.7           20.3
                        -   > 3 days                      17.4           18.7
Length of Stay in       -   1 day                         38.5            -
Kelantan                -   2 days 1 night                29.3           21.9
                        -   3 days 2 nights               16.5           31.2
                        -   > 3 days                      15.6           46.9
Main purpose of         -   Visit friend/relative         31.8           3.7
trip                    -   Educational/research           3.1           1.2
                                                                            62


                           -   Meeting/seminar                  5.1           1.2
                           -   Vacation                        12.2          11.1
                           -   Spiritual activities              -             -
                           -   Transit only                    26.3           3.7
                           -   Others                           1.3            -
Mode of                   -    Public Transport                19.3          22.2
transportation            -    Private Transport               72.4          65.4
                          -    Tourist Bus                      5.1           6.1
                          -    Other                            3.0           6.1
Type of                   -    Budget hotel                    10.2          69.1
Accommodation             -    Hotel                           13.2           6.1
                          -    Friends/relatives house         36.7           1.2
                          -    Chalet                           8.9           2.4
                          -    Camp                             4.7           1.0
                          -    Not Needed                      26.3          20.9
Source of                -     Internet/web site               13.2          44.4
Information              -     Tourism Agency                  6.1            9.8
                         -     Friends/relatives               46.9           9.8
                         -     Publication sources             4.0           39.5
                                eg;book,magazines              7.1            9.8
                         -     Tourism Malaysia                19.3           8.6
                         -     Others
                                                          Sources: Field Survey, 2007




5.5.3    Visitor Experience

         The survey of visitors experience has also been carried out to access
the level of tourist experience towards the study area. Tourists were asked
about the places that been visited by them during the visit.



         Table 5.12: Places Visited by the Respondents in the Study Area

                     Places Visited                          Percentage (%)
                                                         Domestic        Foreign
                                                          Tourist        Tourist
  -   Lata Rek,Kuala Krai                                  22.4            1.2
  -   Kuala Krai Mini Zoo & Bird Park                       3.1            1.2
  -   Taman Tasik,Kuala Krai                                5.1            1.2
  -   Kuala Krai Steps                                      1.0            0.0
                                                                             63


 -   Gua Musang                                             8.2            1.2
 -   Sungai Nenggiri                                        5.1            0.0
 -   Gua Madu                                               3.1            0.0
 -   Taman Negara Kuala Koh                                 0.0            0.0
 -   Gunung Rabong                                          2.0            0.0
 -   Tokong Zui Gek Keng                                    3.0            0.0
 -   Taman Etnobotani                                      11.2            8.4
 -   Gunung Stong                                          58.1            38.4
 -   Air Terjun Jelawang                                    1.0            8.4
 -   Gua Ikan                                               7.1            6.0
 -   Air Terjun Lata Beringin                              14.3            32.4
 -   Gunung Ayam                                            0.0            2.4
 -   Air Terjun Lata Rek                                    0.0            0.0
 -   Pusat Konservasi Hidupan Liar                         13.3            0.0
 -   Air Panas Batu 14                                     33.7            10.8
 -   Homestay Bukit Jering                                 22.4            1.2
 -   Homestay Blok Ulu Kursial                              3.1            1.2
 -   Homestay Kg.Renok Baru                                 5.1            1.2
 -   Others                                                 1.0            0.0
                                                            8.2            1.2
                                                       Sources: Field Survey, 2007



5.5.4   Visitor Satisfaction and Opinion


        The question regarding the visitor’s satisfaction and opinion is also
important in this study in order to propose improvement that should be taken
to upgrade the tourism area. Most visitors said that the transport network is
either neutral or good, and most of them agreed that the cleanliness is only
neutral. Both local and foreign visitors said that most of the public facilities
provided in the study area are in neutral condition. They should be upgraded,
maintained and improved continuously in order to satisfy the visitors and also
to succeed in tourism industry. As for the remote area such as in southern
region of Kelantan such as Gua Musang,Jeli or Kuala Krai,local residents
should be reminded about the importance of the cleanliness, not only for the
sake of healthy living but also for the good image in tourism industry.
                                                                             64

          Table 5.13: Visitors Satisfaction Level in the Study Area

Description                          Element            Percentage (%)
                                                      Domestic   Foreigner
                                                       Tourist     Tourist
Transportation Network        -   Very poor              1.0         2.4
                              -   Poor                   9.1        12.3
                              -   Neutral                5.0        32.4
                              -   Good                  28.5        14.4
                              -   Very good              4.0         3.6
Cleanliness                   -   Very poor              0.0           3.6
                              -   Poor                  12.2           9.6
                              -   Neutral               53.0          43.2
                              -   Good                  20.4          15.6
                              -   Very good             12.2           8.4
Landscape                     -   Very poor              1.0           1.2
                              -   Poor                  11.2           6.0
                              -   Neutral               32.6          28.8
                              -   Good                  31.6          27.6
                              -   Very good             13.3          20.4
Public Facilities             -   Very poor              3.1           1.2
                              -   Poor                  16.3          20.4
                              -   Neutral               47.0          61.2
                              -   Good                  16.3          10.8
                              -   Very good              5.1           3.6
Food                          -   Very poor              0.0           0.0
                              -   Poor                   9.2           9.6
                              -   Neutral               35.7          75.6
                              -   Good                  33.7           1.2
                              -   Very good              8.2          10.8
Tourist Guide                 -   Very poor              2.0           1.2
                              -   Poor                  11.2           1.2
                              -   Neutral               28.5          36.0
                              -   Good                  25.5           8.4
                              -   Very good              4.0          12.3
Attractions                   -   Very poor              1.0           3.6
                              -   Poor                  8.16           1.2
                              -   Neutral               36.7          38.4
                              -   Good                  30.6          21.6
                              -   Very good             12.2           7.2
Tourist Information Centre    -   Very poor              7.1          21.6
                              -   Poor                  13.3           8.4
                              -   Neutral               30.6          38.4
                              -   Good                  21.4           9.6
                              -   Very good              7.1          13.2
                                                 Sources: Field Survey, 2007
                VOT 78004


CHAPTER VI
RECOMMENDATIONS AND
CONCLUSION
                                                                             65




                               CHAPTER VI




              RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION




6.1    Introduction


       This chapter is divided into two parts. The first part will discuss about
the recommendation for improvement of the study area while the second part
will discuss on the conclusion of the study.




6.2    Recommendations for Bandar Gua Musang to Be Developed As a
       Gateway


       From the study that has been done, it is found that Gua Musang is a
stopover destination to most of tourist that visit the study area. However,
based on the future prospect of the study area, it has a potential to be
developed as a gateway destination in the future by the development of ECER
Corridor. The followings are the recommendation proposed to improve the
condition of Gua Musang.
                                                                                            66

  Table 6.1: Recommendations for Improvement of Bandar Gua Musang as Gateway

Bandar Gua Musang As A Gateway                       Bandar Gua Musang As A Tourim Product
Improvement needed :-                                Improvement needed :-


   For ecotourists: An efficient public                 Lack of attention of tourism product in
  transportaion facilities must be provided– e.g        Bandar Gua Musang . Effort should be made
  train, express buses,local buses,taxi.                to increase the attractiveness of the product
  More vehicle parking is needed at the budget          and to maintain the product,.
  hotel ares and eating places. Especially during       Creation of attractive travel iteneraries in the
  peak season. (school holiday and festival)            study area to increase the tourist visits.
  Public transportation to tourist attraction e.g       Potential tourism product s such handicraft of
  Ethnobotany park,Ketitir lake and homestay.           aborigines ( made from menhkuang leaves)
  Improvement on signage provision- Precise             can be promoted to the tourist.
  and in better condition.                              Kampung renok Baru nad Kampung Batu
  The needs of Tourist Information Centre at            Papan Homestays programs should add more
  Bandar Gua Musang which located near to               activities to increase the attractiveness of the
  transportation transit centre for tourist to get      itenerary.
  information about the place (especially to            Rock climbing activity, caving and nature
  bacpackers).                                          explore activites should be promoted widely
  Accommodation rates in budget hotel shows a           due o the potentiallity that study area had.
  good number, but improvement and                      To increase the eating places in study area.
  upgrading of hotel should be made.                    To maintain the cleanliness of the tourism
  To maintain cleanliness and well maintained           area.
  facilities.
                                                                            67

6.3    Conclusion


       Travel movement occurs because of the interaction between the
characteristics of the origin, the destination and the transit routes that join
them. By examining existing flows of tourist both within and between
countries, it is possible to develop principles and models to explain traveler
movements. These principles can then be used to explore the potential for
movements between tourists and new attractions.


Overall, the conclusions of the study are:


       Gua Musang is located at a strategic area to be developed as a
       gateway destination in the region.
       There has been constant movement from south to west of study area
       The tourism products in the study area are mostly eco-tourism tourism
       product.
        Lots a tourism product in the study area has not been recognised
       widely due to lack of promotion.
        The development of ECER development will benefit the study area
       by the increasing number of people using the new highway.
       The development of Gua Musang as a gateway destination will benefit
       the local community in terms of economic sources.
           VOT 78004


APPENDIX
                                                                                          75



APPENDIX B: Kelantan Calendar of Event 2008


       DATE                              EVENTS                                VENUE

1st Saturday / Each   Kelantan Cultural Performances               Foyer of Stadium
Month

Feb 7,8,9&10th        The Launching of Visit Kelantan Year 2008    Foyer of Stadium

Feb 12th - March      The Launching of Native’s Games Festival     Every District
24th                  (Sukan Rakyat)

March 8th             The Gathering of Kelantan Chinese            Pasir Mas
                      Peranakan

March 27th            Exhibition of Local Craft & Cooking          City Park Tengku Anis
                      Demonstration

March 27th            Kelantan International Batik Festival 2008   Foyer of Stadium

March 31st            Kelantan Floral Fiesta                       Taman Orkid

April 2nd             International Bird Singing & Bantam          Lubok Jong, Pasir Mas
                      Chicken Beauty Contest

April 5&6th           Royal Go-Kart Tournament                     Kart Circuit Gunong,
                                                                   Bachok

April 11&12th         Water & Songkran Festival of Thai New        Tumpat
                      Year

April 14,15,16        Dikir Barat Competition                      Foyer of Stadium
&18th (Final)

May 10th              Fishing Festival                             Pantai Sri Tujoh, Tumpat

May 24,25,26&         Wau Festival                                 Pantai Sri Tujoh, Tumpat
27th

May 31th & June 1st   Monkey-Plucking Coconut Competition          Pantai Cahaya Bulan

June                  Colours of Malaysia Month                    Kota Bharu

June 11&12th          Kelantan Futsal (Open)                       Kota Bharu
                                                                                        76



June 18,19&20th    Kelantan Traditional Song Contest (Bintang     Kelantan Cultural
                   Seni)                                          Centre



June 28&29th       Presentation of 1500 Pendikir Kelantan         Stadium

July 11&12th       Kelantan Traditional Cuisine & Fruits Fiesta   Tumpat

July 12,13&14th    100 Rice Dishes & ASEAN Food Festival          Foyer of Stadium

July 25&26th       Nenggiri International Rafting Challenge       Gua Musang

July 26&27th       Presentation by 1000 Silat Exponents           Stadium

August 16,17,18,   Kelantan Cultural Festival                     Foyer of Stadium /
19,20,21,22&23rd                                                  Hotels & Shopping
                                                                  Complexes

August 22,23&      The Kelantan Royal Equestrian Challenge        Gunong, Kelantan
24th

August 23&24th     The ASEAN Dikir Barat Competition              Foyer of Stadium

October 11th       National Fishing Competition                   Perdana Resort, PCB

October 18th       ASEAN Bantam Chicken Beauty Contest            Kelantan Cultural
                                                                  Centre

October 25th       ASEAN Bird Singing Contest (Ketitir &          Lubok Jong, Pasir Mas
                   Tekukur)

November 1st       Loy Krathong                                   Tumpat

December 8th       World War II Memorial Day                      Kota Bharu
                                                                                      77


APPENDIX C: Tourism Infrastructure




Table C (i) : Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) Services in Kelantan
                                   JOURNEY :
                       SINGAPORE – GUA MUSANG – TUMPAT

        Type               EKSPRES                                 EKSPRES
      Train No/            TIMURAN                                 TIMURAN
       Station
                             XT/14                                   XT/ 15

 Singapore                   1850                                     1058
 Johor Bahru                 1956                                     0914
 Kempas Baru                 2121                                     0859
 Kulai                       2040                                     0842
 Kluang                      2129                                     0751
 Labis                       2221                                     0704
 Segamat                     2249                                     0632
 Gemas                       2318                                     0603
 Bahau                       0002                                     0525
 Triang                      0100                                     0434
 Mentakab Kuala Krau         0144                                     0348
 Jerantut                    0226                                     0321
 Kuala Lipis                 0254                                     0224
 Gua Musang                  0353                                     0119
 Dabong                      0354                                     2344
 Krai                        0643                                     2241
 Tanah Merah                 0739                                     2144
 Pasir Mas                   0810                                     2111
 Wakaf Bharu                 0836                                     2046
 Tumpat                      0853                                     2031
                             0915                                     2015

                                               Sources: Keretapi Tanah Melayu,2007.
                                                                                           78


Table C (ii) : Daily Taxi Service in Kota Bharu

                                  Daily Taxi Service Rates
                   DESTINATION                                 RATE (Per Person)
Kota Bharu - Kuala Terengganu                                      RM12 - RM15
Kota Bharu - Gua Musang                                            RM12 - RM15
Kota Bharu - Kuantan, Kuala Lumpur, Butterworth,                  RM25 - RM40
Penang, Ipoh.                                           (According to the distance travelled)
Airport                                                                RM10




Table C (iii) : List of Accommodation in Kelantan

                                Accommodation in Kelantan
             District                                  Name of Hotel
                                          Aman Holiday Inn (Aman Hotel)
                                          Anda Hotel
                                          Ansar Garden Hotel- Kota Bharu
                                          Asrama Melati Timur
                                          Bahru Hotel
                                          Berling Hotel
                                          Crystal Lodge
                                          Dani Hotel
                                          Desa Jaya Hostel
                                          Diamond Puteri Hotel
                                          Dynasty Inn
Kota Bharu                                E 'n' E Inn
                                          Elfaaz Lodge
                                          H.B. Village
                                          Hoover Hotel
                                          Hostel Sri Cemerlang
                                          Hotel Ansar New Wing
                                          Hotel Perdana
                                          Indah Hotel
                                          Intan Hotel
                                          Irama Timur Rest House
                                          Juita Inn
                                          Kami Hotel
                                             79


              KB Inn Town Centre
              Kencana Inn
              Kencana Inn City Centre
              Kencana Lodge
              Mandarin Hostel
              Maryland Baru Hotel
              Mawar Hotel
              Meriah Hotel
              Merry Hotel
              Milton Hotel
              Mohani's Inn
              Nora Baru Hotel
              Pantai Cinta Berahi Resort
              Pantai Timur Inn
              Perdana Resort
              Prince Hotel
              Renaissance Kota Bharu Hotel
              Resort Pantai Cinta Berahi
              Sabrina Court Kota Bahru
              Safar Inn
              Selesa Hotel
              Sentosa Hotel
              Square Point Hotel & Leisure
              Suria Hotel
              Sutera Inn Prima
              Temenggong Hotel
              Tokyo Baru Hotel
              Town Guest House
              Yee Guest House
              Sri Chalet Motel
Tanah Merah
              Tanah Merah Hotel
Kuala Krai    Perdana Strong Hill Resort
              Fully Inn
Gua Musang
              Kesedar Inn
                                                                        80



APPENDIX D: Travel Agencies in Kelantan


Al-Quds Travel Sdn Bhd
3951, Jalan Temenggong,
15000 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :         09 - 747 5155 / 09 - 747 4145
Fax :         09 - 747 5105
Email :       alqudstravel@yahoo.com
Manager :     En. Wan Muhd Zamri Wan Salleh (019 - 939 1000)
Trade :       Inbound, Ticketing

Amalin Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd
No. 145-C, Jalan Kuala Krai, Wakaf Che Yeh,
15050 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :        09 - 741 8438, 09 - 741 8538 & 09 - 741 8439 (Ktm Agent)
Fax :        09 - 741 8238
Email :      amals83@streamyx.com / ktmbagen@streamyx.com

Anf Holidays Sdn Bhd
No. 5515-D, Tingkat 1, Wakaf Siku, Jalan Kuala Krai,
15050 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :        09 - 748 8600
Fax :        09 - 748 9600
Email :      anf@streamyx.com
Manager :    Tn. Hj. Azlisham Hj. Mustafa

Ash-Har Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd
No. 21 B, Tingkat 1, Bangunan Pkink, Jalan Dato' Pati,
15000 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :        09 - 743 7050
Fax :        09 - 744 8050
Email :      ash_har@tm.net.my
Manager :    Pn. Suzanna Shaharudin
Trade :      Inbound, Ticketing, Outbound

Batuta Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd
Lot 903 & 904, Bangunan Pkdk, Jalan Dato' Pati,
                                                        81



15000 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :       09 - 744 2652 / 09 - 744 3652
Fax :       09 - 744 7500
Email :     batutatravel@tm.net.my
Manager :   Tn. Hj. Abd. Ghani Hj. Mahmood
Trade :     Inbound, Ticketing, Outbound


Citra Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd
F-1, Jalan Bayam,
15200 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :             09 - 744 9179
Fax :             09 - 748 4707
Email :           citra_travel01@yahoo.com
Manager :         Tn. Hj. Mohd. Kamel B. Abdullah
Trade :           Inbound, Ticketing, Outbound

Coral Sky Divers Sdn Bhd
C/O Ideal Travellers House, 3954f Jalan Kebun Sultan,
15350 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :              03 - 2094 7795
Fax :              03 - 2094 0795
Email :            coralskydivers@yahoo.com
Manager :          Ms. Hendrika Annette
Trade :            Accomodation & Diving

Fb Travel Sdn Bhd
3614f, Jalan Sultan Ibrahim,
15050 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :              09 - 743 0777
Fax :              09 - 746 1495
Manager :          Mohd Noor Basirun

Glowways Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd
2835-D, Jalan Temenggong,
15000 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :             09 - 743 0822
Fax :             09 - 744 3266
                                                  82



Manager :         En. Oie Suat Hoon
Trade :           Inbound, Ticketing, Outbound
Pasir Belanda Resort & Travel Sdn Bhd
Kampung Banggol, Jalan Pcb,
15350 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :             09 - 747 7046
Fax :             09 - 747 7046
Email :           ha2002@myjaring.net
Web :             www.kampungstay.com
Manager :         En. Harry Mulder
Trade :           Homestay, Resort

Pelancongan Amardip Sdn Bhd
77, Bangunan Stadium, Jalan Mahmood,
15200 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :             09 - 748 1189
Fax :             09 - 747 3349
Email :           amardip_travel@hotmail.com
Manager :         En. Gurbak Singh Pannu
Trade :           Inbound, Ticketing, Outbound

Ping Anchorage Travel
No. 1121-B, Tingkat 1, Jalan Padang Garong,
15000 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :             09 - 744 2020 & 09 - 744 2021
Fax :             09 - 744 2022
Email :           kbr@pinganchorage.com.my
Web :             www.pinganchorage.com.my
Manager :         Mr. Alex Lee Yun Ping

Phk Travel & Tours (M) Sdn Bhd
384-F, Tingkat 1, Jalan Pintu Pong,
15000 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :              09 - 746 2431
Fax :              09 - 744 8510
Email :            phktravel@hotmail.com
Manager :          En. Mohd Iskandar Hassan
                                                               83




Punca Jitu Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd
Ground Floor, Kompleks Yakin,
15000 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :              09 - 741 8290 & 09 - 741 8292
Fax :              09 - 741 8291
Manager :          Tn. Hj. Wan Mokhtar Wan Ab. Rahman



Syarikat Pelancongan Yaskin Sdn Bhd
Lot 195-A, Tingkat 1, Jalan Bayam,
15200 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :           09 - 744 3136, 09 - 743 0863 & 09 - 743 1480
Fax :           09 - 748 6585
Email :         yaskin@tm.net.my
Web :           www.yaskin.com.my
Manager :       Tn. Hj. Wan Hassan Wan Othman
Trade :         Inbound, Ticketing, Outbound

Sa Sino American Travel Corp (Kelantan) Sdn Bhd
3285 Jalan Post Office Lama,
15000 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :            09 - 744 1198 & 09 - 748 5099
Fax :            09 - 744 9843
Email :          sa_tour@hotmail.com
Manager :        En. Tye Kim Beng
Trade :          Inbound, Ticketing, Outbound

Sampugita Holidays Sdn Bhd
Lot 1, Perdana Hotel, Jalan Mahmood,
15270 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :           09 - 743 2178 & 09 - 743 5000
Fax :           09 - 746 2178
Email :         enquiry@sampugitaholidays.com.my
Web :           www.sampugitaholidays.com.my
Manager :       En. Mohd Fakhrul Anuar B. Mustafa
                                                         84



Strata Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd
Lot 2635, Lundang, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra,
15200 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :            09 - 748 5777 & 09 - 748 6999
Fax :            09 - 744 5999
Manager :        En. Noor Nashriq B. Sakarno
Trade :          Inbound, Outbound

South China Sea Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd
No 2, Ground Floor, Wisma Mgu, Jalan Pintu Pong,
15000 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :           09 - 743 8549
Fax :           09 - 743 8749
Manager :       Tn. Hj. Safei @ Suhaimi B. Sulaiman
Trade :         Inbound, Ticketing, Outbound


Super Service Travel Agency (M) Sdn Bhd
Lot 2020, Bt 1 1/2, Jalan Pengkalan Chepa, P.O Box 56,
15700 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :             09 - 744 4999
Fax :             09 - 744 2999
Email :           jolenepetan@yahoo.com
Manager :         Pn. Jolene Tan Poh Ee
Trade :           Inbound, Ticketing, Outbound

Teenas Golden Leisure Tours & Travel Sdn Bhd
1350a, Batu 2, Jalan Pengkalan Chepa,
15000 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
Tel :              09 - 747 3032 / 09 - 747 7180
Fax :              09 - 747 7115
Email :            tglt@tm.net.my
Manager :          Faridahanan Yaacob
Trade :            Inbound, Ticketing, Outbound

Teraju Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd
Rf 42, Tingkat 1, Bangunan Medan Usahawan
15400 Kota Bharu, Kelantan.
                                                      85



Tel :       09 - 796 8813
Fax :       09 - 748 8813
Manager :   En. Shariman Shamsudin (013 - 964 8813)
Trade :     Inbound
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              86



Appendix E : Tourist Attractions Analysis Using Market Appeal Model Method

                Sub-criteria




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Importance of attractions close


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Number of attractions close to
                                                                                 Complementing other tourism




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Convenience use of public




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Score Point (Percentage)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Access to assets features
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Rarity of the assets type
                                                                                                                                                                   Rarity of the asset type




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Recreational activities
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      interpretation services
                               Ambience and setting




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Trail equipped with




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               amenities condition




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Service Delivery
                                                                                                                                                 Aesthetic Value
                                                                                                               Historical value




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Infrastructure/
                                                      Well-known




                                                                                                                                                                                              Forest/parks
                                                                                                                                  Social value
                                                                   Educational




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Score Point
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              transports




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        to the site
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Distance
                                                                                         product




                                                                                                                                                                                                             Animal




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the site
No.
      Attractions
1.    Pasar Siti Khadijah      5                      5            4             5                             3                  4              4                 5                                                                                                        5          5                           4                           3                     4                         4                                 5                                0                  65.0          81.25
2.    Bazaar Buluh Kubu        5                      5            3             5                             3                  4              3                 3                                                                                                        3          3                           4                           3                     4                         4                                 3                                0                  55.0          68.75
3.    Jalan Temenggong         4                      4            4             4                             3                  4              3                 3                                                                                                        5          5                           5                           3                     4                         4                                 5                                0                  60.0          75.00
4.    Arked Beli Belah         3                      2            4             4                             3                  4              3                 2                                                                                                        5          5                           5                           3                     4                         4                                 5                                0                  56.0          70.00
      MPKB
5.    Pengkalan Kubur Free     5                      5            3             5                             3                  4              3                 3                                                                                                        3          3                           4                           3                     4                         4                                 3                                0                  55.0          68.75
      Duty Zone
6.    Rantau Panjang           5                      5            4             5                             5                  5              3                 3                                                                                                        3          4                           5                           3                     4                         4                                 3                                0                  61.0          76.25
7.    Istana Batu (Royal       5                      5            5             5                             5                  5              5                 3                                                                                                        5          5                           3                           4                     3                         4                                 5                                4                  71.0          88.75
      Museum)
8.    Istana Balai Besar                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             68.0          85.0
9.    Islamic Museum           5                      3            5             5                             5                  5              5                 3                                                                                                        5          5                           3                           4                     3                         4                                 5                                4                  69.0          86.3
10.   Istana Jahar (Jahar      5                      5            5             5                             5                  5              5                 5                                                                                                        5          5                           3                           4                     3                         4                                 5                                4                  73.0          91.3
      Palace)
11.   State Museum             5                      3            5             5                             5                  5              5                 3                                                                                                        5          5                           3                           4                     3                         4                                 5                                4                  69.0          86.3
12.   Merdeka Square           5                      4            5             5                             5                  5              5                 4                                                                                                        5          5                           5                           5                     3                         4                                 5                                0                  70.0          87.5
13.   Handicraft Village and   4                      5            5             5                             3                  3              3                 3                                                                                                        5          5                           5                           4                     4                         4                                 5                                0                  63.0          78.75
      Craft Museum
14.   Gelanggang Seni          4                      4            5             5                             4                  4              4                 4                                                                                                        4          4                           5                           4                     4                         4                                 4                                4                  67.0          83.75
15    Batik Painting           5                      5            5             5                             5                  5              5                 4                                                                                                        3          3                           4                           3                     4                         4                                 4                                3                  67.0          83.75
      ( PCB area)
16.   Wood Carving             5                      5            5             5                             5                  5              5                 4                                                                                                        3          3                           4                           3                     4                         4                                 4                                3                  67.0          83.75
      (PCB area)
17.   Silver Craft             5                      5            5             5                             5                  5              5                 4                                                                                                        3          3                           4                           3                     4                         4                                 4                                3                  67.0          83.75
      ( Kg Marak, Kg Sireh)
                                                                                                                            87



18.   Songket Weaving        5   5   5   5   5   5   5   4                   3   3   4   3   4   4   4   3   67.0   83.75
      ( Kg Penambang)
19.   Penambang Fishing      5   3   5   5   5   5   4   3       4           3   3   4   3   4   4   3   2   65.0   76.47
      Village
20.   Masjid Negeri          5   4   5   5   5   5   5   3                   5   5   3   4   3   4   5   4   70.0   87.5
      ‘Masjid Muhammadi’
21.   Makam Raja Abdullah    5   3   4   3   4   4   3   3                   3   3   4   3   3   3   3   3   51.0   63.75
      ( Padang Halban)
22.   Buddha Wat             5   5   4   4   4   4   5   5                   3   4   5   4   4   4   3   3   66.0   82.50
23.   Jambatan Sultan        3   3   3   3   4   4   4   4                   3   3   5   3   2   3   3   0   50.0   62.50
      Yahya
24.   Pantai Cahaya Bulan,   3   5   3   4   4   4   3   2                   3   3   4   3   4   4   4   0   53.0   66.25
      Kota Bharu
25.   Pantai Sri Tujuh,      4   3   3   4   3   4   3   2                   3   3   4   3   4   3   3   0   49.0   61.25
      Tumpat
26.   Pantai Irama, Bachok   4   3   3   4   3   4   3   2                   3   3   4   3   4   3   3   0   49.0   61.25
27.   Pantai Sabak, Bachok   4   3   3   4   3   4   3   2                   3   3   4   3   4   3   3   0   49.0   61.25
28.   Lata Hujan, Tanah      4   3   4   3   3   4   3   2                   3   3   5   3   4   3   3   0   52.0   54.73
      Merah
29.   Pantai Bisikan Bayu,   4   4   4   4   4   4   3   2                   3   3   5   3   4   3   3   0   48.0   60.0
      Pasir Putih
30.   Tok Bali, Machang      3   3   3   3   3   3   3   3                   3   3   3   3   4   3   3   0   46.0   57.5
31.   Jeram Linang,          4   3   4   3   3   4   3   2   1   4   1       3   3   5   3   4   3   3   0   52.0   54.73
      Bachang
32.   Hutan Lipur Bukit      3   3   4   4   3   3   3   3   2   4   1       3   3   5   3   4   3   3   0   57.0   71.26
      Bakar, Machang
33.   Tasik Pergau, Jeli     4   3   4   4   3   3   3   3   3   4   2       2   2   5   3   5   2   2   0   55.0   57.89
34.   Lata Rek, Kuala Krai   4   3   4   3   3   4   3   2   1   4   1       3   3   5   3   4   3   3   0   60.0   54.73
35.   Kuala Krai Mini Zoo    4   3   4   4   3   4   3   2   4   4   4       4   4   5   3   4   4   4   0   67.0   70.52
      & Bird Park
36.   Taman Tasik Kuala      4   3   3   4   3   4   3   2   4   4   4       4   4   5   3   4   4   4   0   61.0   64.21
      Krai
37.   Kuala Krai Steps       4   3   3   4   4   4   4   3                   4   4   5   3   4   4   4   0   57.0   71.25
38.   Ethonobotany Park,     4   3   4   4   3   4   3   3   4   4   4       4   3   5   3   4   4   3   4   70.0   73.68
      Gua Musang
39.   Gunung Stong           5   5   5   5                   5   5   4   4   3   3   5   3   5   4   2   2   65.0   81.25
      State Park
40.   Sungai Nenggiri        5   5   5   5                   4   5   3   5   3   3   5   3   5   5   3   3   67.0   83.75
41.   Gua Chawan             5   3   5   5                   5   5   2   5   3   3   5   2   5   5   2   4   64.0   80.0
42.   Kuala Koh National     5   5   5   5                   5   5   3   4   3   2   5   3   5   5   1   4   65.0   81.25
      Park
                                                                                                                          88



43.   Gua Ikan             5   3   5   5                   5   5   2   5   3   3   5   2   5   5   2   4   64.0   80.0
44.   Gua Musang           3   4   5   5   5   5                   3   4   4   4   5   1   5   5   3   4   65.0   76.47
45.   Ancient Locomotive   3   1   4   3   4   4   4   5                   3   2   3   0   3   3   3   1   46.0   57.5
      Engine
46.   ChingTai Kong        5   3   5   5   5   5   4   3                   3   2   4   3   3   3   3   4   60.0   75.0
      Temple, Kg Pulai
         VOT 78004


REFERENCES
                                                                              68




                           REFERENCE LIST




1.    Bently & Page, 2001; Buckley, 2000; Hudson, 2002; Page, Bentley, &
      Walker, 2005; Swarbrooke et al., 2003.

2.    Bently & Page, 2001; Buckley, 2000; Hudson, 2002; Page, Bentley, &
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3.    Bently, Page, Meyer, & Chalmers, 2001b

4.    Buckley, 1998; Johnson & Edwards, 1994; Travel Industry
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5.    Carl I,Cater(2006) Playing With Risk? Participant Perceptions of Risk
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6.    Kajian Rancangan Struktur Majlis Daerah Gua Musang dan Pihak
      Berkuasa Perancang Tempatan Gua Musang 1995-2020.

7.    Kajian Rancangan Struktur Majlis Daerah Kuala Krai Utara dan
      Selatan dan Pihak Berkuasa Perancang Tempatan Kuala Krai 1995-
      2020.

8.    Laporan Pelancongan di Kawasan Kelantan Selatan: Potensi dan
      Harapan. KESEDAR, 2004.

9.    Ralf Buckley(2006) Adventure Tourism Product: Price, Duration,
      Size, Skill and Remoteness.

10.   Oppermann, M. (1992). Travel Dispersal Index. Journal of Tourism
      Studies, 3(1), 44-49.

11.   Pearce, D. G., & Elliott, J. M. C. (1983). The Trip Index. Journal of
      Travel Research, 22(1), 6-9.


12.   Tourism Malaysia Statistics in Brief, 2006

								
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