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					                     God, Meaning and Morality
                            GHUM102
                   Section 1 9:30-10:45 T, Th, Moody,101
                   Section 2 11:00-12:15 T, Th, Moody,109
                                Spring, 2008

                                  Iain S. Maclean

                                  Vocabulary lists

          (Please note that there is not a vocabulary list for every lecture)

                (Entries may be deleted or added during the course)



Note the additional Vocabulary handout lists for the Tolkien LOR material.

NOTE Tokien Bassham LOR & Philosophy Vocabulary at the end of this list.


Vocabulary list # 1 Epistemology: Baergen, Plato, Aristotle
four modern theories of perception -direct realism, representative realism,
adverbial, phenomenalism
 Plato-two world theory
Allegory of the Cave
theory of forms
knowledge versus opinion
the real or perfect versus the illusory or imperfect
philosopher
Aristotle -one world
experience –habit (us)




Vocabulary list # 2 Epistemology: Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley,
Hume.
humanism
Descartes, Rene (1596-1650)
Meditations
cosmological argument
three substances only
Spinoza, Baruch [Benedictus] (1632-1677)
Ethics
monism (one substance only)
materialism
Leibniz, G.W.F. (1646-1716)
Monadology
monads (many substances) -how held together or related?
romanticism
Locke, John (1632-1704)
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
empiricists
tabula rasa
primary qualities vs secondary qualities
two forms of knowledge only -facts and relations between facts
Berkeley, George (1685-1753)
Principles of Human Knowledge
idealism
Hume, David (1711-1776)
An Inquiry (Essay) Concerning Human Understanding
"Hume's Fork"
relations of ideas and matters of fact
Hume on causation
skepticism
the role of habit
Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804)
Critique of Pure Reason
a priori truths
categories
phenomena




Vocabulary list # 3 Truth
epistemology
two kinds of truth (empirical and necessary)
rationalism vs empiricism
skepticism
Kant's solution to empiricism of Hume
three theories of truth (correspondence, coherence and pragmatics theories)
rationality/ use of reason
objective versus subjective truth?



Vocabulary list # 4 The Concept of the Self
dualistic view of self
soul
Aristotle's rejection of Plato
reasoning
eudaimonia ("happiness")
St. Augustine (354-430 AD)
Vision Dei
creatio ex nihilo
God as final good or end
Hume
Kierkegaard
Sigmund Freud
id, ego and super-ego
Jean-Paul Sartre
existentialism
"bad faith"




Vocabulary list # 5 The Self and the Question of Meaning
meaning of "meaning"
numerous answers
"Life is Absurd"
Views of life-listing of
a "View of Life"
The "Ethico-Religious View of Life"
"Living without Appeal"
Transcendentalism (three components of)




Vocabulary list # 6 The Self and Ultimate Reality:
Judaism
Monotheism
"Father of Israel" (Abraham)
Six branches of Judaism (Orthodox, Kabbalah, Hasidim, Reform, Conservative and
Reconstructionist)
JHWH or G-d
Moses
Torah / Law 613 Mitzvot
Maimonides on evil
Judaism on free will
Christianity
Monotheism
Christ
Differing branches of Christian Church (Roman, Orthodox, Protestant,
Coptic/Armenian/Mar Thomas, Pentecostal)
Jesus
Kingdom of God
Scriptures
St. Augustine
doctrine of original sin
Imago Dei
Christian theories of ethics (imitatio Christi, Love, Law)
Two Kingdom theory
Islam
Monotheism
Allah
Prophet Muhammad
Mecca
Qur'an
Hadith
Five Pillars of Islam
Sunnnah
Islam
Shari'ah
Groupings within Islam (Shi'ite, Sunni, Sufi)
Hijra
Hajj



Vocabulary list # 7: Self and Ultimate Reality:
Hinduism:
Dharma
Karma
Samsara
Brahma
Atman
Brahma is Atman
caste -four main castes
Brahmin
outcasts or pariahs
Hymn to Purusha in Rig-Veda (X.90)
being/reality as maya
Nirvana
Moksha
Indo-Europeans
Sanskrit
Vedas
 Bhagavad Gita
 polytheism
henotheism
Hindu pantheon (Brahma, Shiva, Vishnu)
Krishna, avatar of....
 reincarnation
 "all paths but lead to the one god"
Buddhism:
the Buddha
Siddartha Gautama
"The Four Passing Sights"
Rahula
The Deer Park Sermon
the Bo Tree
Enlightenment
The Four Noble Truths
dukka (suffering)
tanha (desire)
cessation of desire (nirodha) =nirvana
eight-fold path
doctrine of "no soul" (anatta)
 Mahayana
Therevada


Vocabulary list # 8: Self and Human Freedom: Existence


Vocabulary list # 9: Self and Mysticism:
Steven Katz's thesis -cultural conditioning
Sallie B. King's counter thesis
many or one?
Devekuth
Nirvana
yogacara
Katz's typology of three theses
role of culture as mediating factor
reduction of experience to doctrine
subject-object distinction
apophatic
via negativa




Vocabulary list # 10: Ethics: Self, Others, Beyond?
Neil Andrew
Madonna
individualism
repression
egoism
Ayn Rand
ethical egoism
psychological egoism
"Ring of Gyges" (told by Glaucon in Plato's dialogue "The Republic")
Justice as convention?
"consenting adult" thesis
distinction between selfishness and positive self-interest




Vocabulary list # 11: Ethics: Social -Golden Rule-Theories
Golden rule in world cultures (Christianity, Confucian, Judaism, Hellenism, OT,
NT)
Josiah Royce
the moral insight = potential future self
golden rule
positive (McIver) vs the negative (Nagel) formulation
Islam
St. Augustine
virtue
goodness
happiness




Vocabulary list # 12: Ethics: Social-Deontological Theories

(note differences between the deontological formulation and the Golden Rule
approach)
Deontological or non-consequentialist theory
Deontological based on rational principles (rationally will all to act, treat others as
ends, k of ends)
Deontological focuses of principles (not ends), logic, rational basis (i.e. not on
feelings or ends)
religious law
universal law
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
categorical imperative
hypothetical imperative
kingdom of ends
subject versus object
distinction between "what is" and "what ought"
good will is good alone
character
Stockdale
Epictetus
Epicurus
Stoicism
"Encheiridion" of Epictetus
"Meditations" of Marcus Aurelius
critique of by Taylor (dichotomy duty vs "real " positive law)




Vocabulary list # 13: Ethics: Social: Utilitarian Theories
utilitarianism or consequentialist theory
Jeremy Bentham
John Stuart Mill (coins term "utilitarianism")
Principle of utility
difference between utility and earlier theories based on "pleasure-pain principle"
greatest good for the greatest number
criteria for:
intensity /duration/ certainty-uncertainty/ propinquity-remoteness/ plus fecundity
/purity AND EXTENT
B. Williams- Critique of Utilitarianism
Ursula K. Le Guin's critique, "Those Who Walk Away from Omelas"
effects on integrity and character
doctrine of "negative responsibility"



Vocabulary list # 14: Ethics: Virtue Theories
"Weapons of the Spirit"
Le Chambon
Hugenots
tradition
Aristotle
virtue
habit
Alistair MacIntyre
narrative context
"story"
telos and the good
virtues sustain "practices"
Vocabulary list # 15: Ethics: Moral Development Theories.




Vocabulary list # 16: Nature of Beauty: Art and Ethics
Defining the "beautiful?"
Plato
Aristotle
mimesis
Classical view-due proportion/ numeric/mathematical/ objective/ends (purpose)
Plato's Symposium
eros
Plotinus
"Ascent of the Soul"
Christian Platonism
Origen on the "three stages of ascent of the soul (purgative, illuminative, unitive)
Augustine's understanding of beauty
Kant's views on beauty
Romanticism
Heidegger, Martin



ADDENDUM on LORD OF THE RINGS:



Chapter 1: Eric Katz’s “The Rings of Tolkien and Plato.”

The issue of “the moral life”

Plato The Republic

Glaucon “The Ring of Gyges”

The issue of power

The uses of the Ring

---Frodo and Sam

---Gollum (or Smeagol)

---Galadriel
---Tom Bombadil

---Boromir

the role of choices in forming good or virtuous (or vicious) character



Chapter 2: Th. Schick’s, “The Cracks of Doom…”

Sauron

Ring as symbol of emerging technologies

Use for human benefit or for destruction of humanity and of world?



Chapter 4: Bassham’s “Tolkien’s Six Keys to Happiness.”

-‘simple things’ theme from Epictetus –Thoreau (nature as model)

-make light of troubles

-importance of personal relationships

-thus role of character and character formation

-cultivation of the beautiful as meaningful

-rediscover wonder in life and world



Chapter 5: Gracia, “The Quests of Sam and Gollum for the Happy Life.”

Sam and Gollum-similarities and contrasts

Similar origins but now contrasted-individual vs social

Happiness? What does it comprise for Sam and for Gollum?

(task, duty, friendship, loyalty, vs possession, self, ring, unhappiness)
Chapter 7: Blount “Uberhobbits, Tolkien, Nietzsche and the Will to Power.”

Friedrich Nietzsche –“God is dead” –Will to Power

Meaninglessness

(Saurun)

Ubermensch or “Superman” –power to impose one’s individual will

(again contrast with Hobbits)



Chapter 8: Davison “Tolkien and the Nature of Evil.”

LOR provides us with Tolkien’s views on evil

Not a Manichean view-dichotomy

Follows St. Augustine-“privation boni” or privation of good –parasitic

Thus evil lacks independent reality

Evil is corruption of the good

Humans tempted by self / pride / Self love is superbia



Chapter 9: Aeon Skoble, “Vice and Virtue in LOR.”

Aristotle –virtue and today. Developmental ethics

Character

Virtues as powers to attain good life or “eudaimonia”

Virtues as means between two extremes

Discovery and emulation of good (virtuous) role models

See LOR characters of examples of…
Chapter 11: J. Kraus’s “Tolkien. Modernism and …..Tradition.”

Importance of Memory –leads to survival

Scholarship and tradition are power

Saruman represents modernism and despair

Modernism destroys traditions

Pippin, Sam

See Denethor, steward of Gondor



Chapter 15: White “Sam and Frodo’s Excellent Adventure.”

Journey motif at origins of Western culture

Homer-Illiad and Odyssey

Virgil-Aeneid

Bible-Abraham

St..Augustine –internal journey as well –Confessions Descartes, ‘Cogito ergo sum’

Plato, “allegory of the Cave”-epistemological journey




Chapter 16: Davison, “Happy Endings and Religious Hope…”

Myth-definition-tells through by means of a story

Beowulf, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (a fertility story)

Silmarillion -prologue to LOR

Faerie Stories

Eucatastrophe
Return to Course Index Page

				
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