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					I.C. Engine

The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidiser (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high temperature and pressure gases, that are produced by the combustion, directly apply force to a movable component of the engine, such as the pistons or turbine blades and by moving it over a distance, generate useful mechanical energy. The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the Wankel rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. The internal combustion engine (or ICE) is quite different from external combustion engines, such as steam or Stirling engines, in which the energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of, mixed with or contaminated by combustion products. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurised water or even liquid sodium, heated in some kind of boiler by fossil fuel, wood-burning, nuclear, solar etc. A large number of different designs for ICEs have been developed and built, with a variety of different strengths and weaknesses. While there have been and still are many stationary applications, the real strength of internal combustion engines is in mobile applications and they completely dominate as a power supply for cars, aircraft, and boats, from the smallest to the biggest. Only for hand-held power tools do they share part of the market with battery powered devices. Powered by an energy-dense fuel (nearly always liquid, derived from fossil fuels) the ICE delivers an excellent power-to-weight ratio with few safety or other disadvantages.

Applications

A 1906 gasoline engine
Internal combustion engines are most commonly used for mobile propulsion in vehicles and portable machinery. In mobile equipment, internal combustion is advantageous since it can provide high power-to-weight ratios together with excellent fuel energy density. Generally using fossil fuel (mainly petroleum), these engines have appeared in transport in almost all vehicles (automobiles, trucks, motorcycles, boats, and in a wide variety of aircraft and locomotives). Internal as well aircraft, used for combustion engines appear in the form of gas turbines where a very high power is required, such as in jet helicopters, and large ships. They are also frequently electric generators and by industry.

Classification
This section introduction does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2008) At one time the word, "Engine" (from Latin, via Old French, ingenium, "ability") meant any piece of machinery—a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A "motor" (from Latin motor, "mover") is any machine that produces mechanical power. Traditionally, electric motors are not referred to as, "Engines"; however, combustion engines are often referred to as, "motors." (An electric engine refers to a locomotive operated by electricity.) Engines can be classified in many different ways: By the engine cycle used, the layout of the engine, source of energy, the use of the engine, or by the cooling system employed.

Principles of operation Reciprocating:
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Two-stroke cycle Four-stroke cycle Six stroke engine Diesel engine Atkinson cycle

Rotary:


Wankel engine

Continuous combustion: Brayton cycle:
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Gas turbine

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Jet engine (including turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, Rocket etc.)

History of the internal combustion engine Engine configurations Internal combustion engines can be classified by their configuration. Four stroke engine Operation

Four-stroke 1. 2. 3. 4.

cycle

(or

Otto

cycle) Intake compression power Exhaust

Basic process

As their name implies, operation of a four stroke internal combustion engines have 4 basic steps that repeat with every two revolutions of the engine: 1. Intake o Combustible mixtures are emplaced in the combustion chamber 2. Compression o The mixtures are placed under pressure 3. Combustion/Expansion o The mixture is burnt, almost invariably a deflagration, although a few systems involve detonation. The hot mixture is expanded, pressing on and moving parts of the engine and performing useful work. 4. Exhaust o The cooled combustion products are exhausted into the atmosphere Many engines overlap these steps in time; jet engines do all steps simultaneously at different parts of the engines.

Combustion
All internal combustion engines depend on the exothermic chemical process of combustion: the reaction of a fuel, typically with oxygen from the air (though it is possible to inject nitrous oxide in order to do more of the same thing and gain a power boost). The combustion process typically results in the production of a great quantity of heat, as well as the production of steam and carbon dioxide and other chemicals at very high temperature; the temperature reached is determined by the chemical make up of the fuel and oxidisers (see stoichiometry). The most common modern fuels are made up of hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from fossil fuels (petroleum). Fossil fuels include dieselfuel, gasoline and petroleum gas, and the rarer use of propane. Except for the fuel delivery components, most internal combustion engines that are designed for gasoline use can run on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases without

major modifications. Large diesels can run with air mixed with gases and a pilot diesel fuel ignition injection. Liquid and gaseous biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form of diesel fuel that is produced from crops that yield triglycerides such as soybean oil), can also be used. Some engines with appropriate modifications can also run on hydrogen gas. Internal combustion engines require ignition of the mixture, either by spark ignition (SI) or compression ignition (CI). Before the invention of reliable electrical methods hot tube and flame methods were used.

Gasoline Ignition Process
Gasoline engine ignition systems generally rely on a combination of a lead-acid battery and an induction coil to provide a highvoltage electrical spark to ignite the air-fuel mix in the engine's cylinders. This battery is recharged during operation using an electricity-generating device such as an alternator or generator driven by the engine. Gasoline engines take in a mixture of air and gasoline and compress it to not more than 12.8 bar (1.28 MPa), then use a spark plug to ignite the mixture when it is compressed by the piston head in each cylinder.

Diesel Ignition Process
Diesel engines and HCCI(Homogeneous charge compression ignition) engines, rely solely on heat and pressure created by the engine in its compression process for ignition. The compression level that occurs is usually twice or more than a gasoline engine. Diesel engines will take in air only, and shortly before peak compression, a small quantity of diesel fuel is sprayed into the cylinder via a fuel injector that allows the fuel to instantly ignite. HCCI type engines will take in both air and fuel but continue to rely on an unaided auto-combustion process, due to higher pressures and heat. This is also why diesel and HCCI engines are more susceptible to cold-starting issues, although they will run just as well in cold weather once started. Light duty diesel

engines with indirect injection in automobiles and light trucks employ glowplugs that pre-heat the combustion chamber just before starting to reduce no-start conditions in cold weather. Most diesels also have a battery and charging system; nevertheless, this system is secondary and is added by manufacturers as a luxury for the ease of starting, turning fuel on and off (which can also be done via a switch or mechanical apparatus), and for running auxiliary electrical components and accessories. Most new engines rely on electrical and electronic control system that also control the combustion process to increase efficiency and reduce emissions.

Two-stroke engine

Engines based on the two-stroke cycle use two strokes (one up, one down) for every power stroke. Since there are no dedicated intake or exhaust strokes, alternative methods must be used to scavenge the cylinders. The most common method in sparkignition two-strokes is to use the downward motion of the piston to pressurize fresh charge in the crankcase, which is then blown through the cylinder through ports in the cylinder walls. Spark-ignition two-strokes are small and light for their power output and mechanically very simple; however, they are also generally less efficient and more polluting than their four-stroke counterparts. In terms of power per cubic centimetre, a singlecylinder small motor application like a two-stroke engine produces much more power than an equivalent four-stroke engine due to the enormous advantage of having one power stroke for every 360 degrees of crankshaft rotation (compared to 720 degrees in a 4 stroke motor).

Small displacement, crankcase-scavenged two-stroke engines have been less fuel-efficient than other types of engines when the fuel is mixed with the air prior to scavenging allowing some of it to escape out of the exhaust port. Modern designs (Sarich and Paggio) use air-assisted fuel injection which avoids this loss, and are more efficient than comparably sized four-stroke engines. Fuel injection is essential for a modern two-stroke engine in order to meet ever more stringent emission standards. Research continues into improving many aspects of two-stroke motors including direct fuel injection, amongst other things. The initial results have produced motors that are much cleaner burning than their traditional counterparts. Two-stroke engines are widely used in snowmobiles, lawnmowers, string trimmers, chain saws, jet skis, mopeds, outboard motors, and many motorcycles. Two-stroke engines have the advantage of an increased specific power ratio (i.e. power to volume ratio), typically around 1.5 times that of a typical four-stroke engine. The largest compression-ignition engines are two-strokes and are used in some locomotives and large ships. These particular engines use forced induction to scavenge the cylinders; an example of this type of motor is the Wartsila-Sulzer turbocharged two-stroke diesel as used in large container ships. It is the most efficient and powerful engine in the world with over 50% thermal efficiency.For comparison, the most efficient small four-stroke motors are around 43% thermal efficiency (SAE 900648); size is an advantage for efficiency due to the increase in the ratio of volume to surface area. Common cylinder configurations include the straight or inline configuration, the more compact V configuration, and the wider but smoother flat or boxer configuration. Aircraft engines can also adopt a radial configuration which allows more effective cooling. More unusual configurations such as the H, U, X, and W have also been used.

Multiple crankshaft configurations do not necessarily need a cylinder head at all because they can instead have a piston at each end of the cylinder called an opposed piston design. Because here gas in- and outlets are positioned at opposed ends of the cylinder, one can achieve uniflow scavenging, which is, like in the four stroke engine, efficient over a wide range of revolution numbers. Also the thermal efficiency is improved because of lack of cylinder heads. This design was used in the Junkers Jumo 205 diesel aircraft engine, using at either end of a single bank of cylinders with two crankshafts, and most remarkably in the Napier Deltic diesel engines. These used three crankshafts to serve three banks of double-ended cylinders arranged in an equilateral triangle with the crankshafts at the corners. It was also used in single-bank locomotive engines, and continues to be used for marine engines, both for propulsion and for auxiliary generators. The Gnome Rotary engine, used in several early aircraft, had a stationary crankshaft and a bank of radially arranged cylinders rotating around it.

Wankel engine

The Wankel cycle. The shaft turns three times for each rotation of the rotor around the lobe and once for each orbital revolution around the eccentric shaft. The Wankel engine (rotary engine) does not have piston strokes. It operates with the same separation of phases as the four-stroke

engine with the phases taking place in separate locations in the engine. In thermodynamic terms it follows the Otto engine cycle, so may be thought of as a "four-phase" engine. While it is true that three power strokes typically occur per rotor revolution due to the 3/1 revolution ratio of the rotor to the eccentric shaft, only one power stroke per shaft revolution actually occurs; this engine provides three power 'strokes' per revolution per rotor giving it a greater power-to-weight ratio than piston engines. This type of engine is most notably used in the current Mazda RX-8, the earlier RX-7, and other models.

gas turbine
A gas turbine is a rotary machine similar in principle to a steam turbine and it consists of three main components: a compressor, a combustion chamber, and a turbine. The air after being compressed in the compressor is heated by burning fuel in it. About two-thirds of the heated air combined with the products of combustion is expanded in a turbine resulting in work output which is used to drive the compressor. The rest (about one-third) is available as useful work output.

Jet engine
Jet engines take a large volume of hot gas from a combustion process (typically a gas turbine, but rocket forms of jet propulsion often use solid or liquid propellants, and ramjet forms also lack the gas turbine) and feed it through a nozzle which accelerates the jet to high speed. As the jet accelerates through the nozzle, this creates thrust and in turn does useful work.

Engine cycle

Idealised P/V diagram for two stroke Otto cycle

Two-stroke cycle
This system manages to pack one power stroke into every two strokes of the piston (up-down). This is achieved by exhausting and re-charging the cylinder simultaneously. The steps involved here are: 1. Intake and exhaust occur at bottom dead center. Some form of pressure is needed, either crankcase compression or super-charging. 2. Compression stroke: Fuel-air mix compressed and ignited. In case of Diesel: Air compressed, fuel injected and self ignited 3. Power stroke: piston is pushed downwards by the hot exhaust gases.

Four-stroke cycle

Idealised Pressure/volume diagram of the Otto cycle showing combustion heat input Qp and waste exhaust output Qo, the power stroke is the top curved line, the bottom is the compression stroke

Engines based on the four-stroke ("Otto cycle") have one power stroke for every four strokes (up-down-up-down) and employ spark plug ignition. Combustion occurs rapidly, and during combustion the volume varies little ("constant volume").[5] They are used in cars, larger boats, some motorcycles, and many light aircraft. They are generally quieter, more efficient, and larger than their two-stroke counterparts. The steps involved here are: 1. Intake stroke: Air and vaporized fuel are drawn in. 2. Compression stroke: Fuel vapor and air are compressed and ignited. 3. Combustion stroke: Fuel combusts and piston is pushed downwards. 4. Exhaust stroke: Exhaust is driven out. During the 1st, 2nd, and 4th stroke the piston is relying on power and the momentum generated by the other pistons. In that case, a four cylinder engine would be less powerful than a six or eight cylinder engine. There are a number of variations of these cycles, most notably the Atkinson and Miller cycles. The diesel cycle is somewhat different.

Diesel cycle

P-v Diagram for the Ideal Diesel cycle. The cycle follows the numbers 1-4 in clockwise direction.

Most truck and automotive diesel engines use a cycle reminiscent of a four-stroke cycle, but with a compression heating ignition system, rather than needing a separate ignition system. This variation is called the diesel cycle. In the diesel cycle, diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder so that combustion occurs at constant pressure, as the piston moves, rather than with the four stroke with the piston essentially stationary.

Six stroke engine
The six stroke engine captures the wasted heat from the fourstroke Otto cycle and creates steam, which simultaneously cools the engine while providing a free power stroke. This removes the need for a cooling system making the engine lighter while giving 40% increased efficiency over the Otto Cycle.

Brayton cycle

Brayton cycle
A gas turbine is a rotary machine somewhat similar in principle to a steam turbine and it consists of three main components: a compressor, a combustion chamber, and a turbine. The air after being compressed in the compressor is heated by burning fuel in it, this heats and expands the air, and this extra energy is tapped by the turbine which in turn powers the compressor closing the cycle and powering the shaft. Gas turbine cycle engines employ a continuous combustion system where compression, combustion, and expansion occur simultaneously at different places in the engine—giving continuous power. Notably the combustion takes place at constant pressure, rather than with the Otto cycle, constant volume.

Disused methods
In some old noncompressing internal combustion engines: in the first part of the piston downstroke, a fuel-air mixture was sucked or blown in, and in the rest of the piston downstroke, the inlet valve closed and the fuel-air mixture fired. In the piston upstroke, the exhaust valve was open. This was an attempt at imitating the way a piston steam engine works, and since the explosive mixture was not compressed, the heat and pressure generated by combustion was much less causing lower overall efficiency.

Fuels and oxidizers
Further information: ICE fuel conversion Engines are often classified by the fuel (or propellant) used.

Fuels
Nowadays, fuels used include:
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



Petroleum: o Petroleum spirit (North American term: gasoline, British term: petrol) o Petroleum diesel. o Autogas (liquified petroleum gas). o Compressed natural gas. o Jet fuel (aviation fuel) o Residual fuel Coal: o Most methanol is made from coal. o Gasoline can be made from carbon (coal) using the Fischer-Tropsch process o Diesel fuel can be made from carbon using the Fischer-Tropsch process Biofuels and vegoils: o Peanut oil and other vegoils. o Biofuels:  Biobutanol (replaces gasoline).



Biodiesel (replaces petrodiesel).  Bioethanol and Biomethanol (wood alcohol) and other biofuels (see Flexible-fuel vehicle).  Biogas Hydrogen (mainly spacecraft rocket engines)


Even fluidized metal powders and explosives have seen some use. Engines that use gases for fuel are called gas engines and those that use liquid hydrocarbons are called oil engines, however gasoline engines are also often colloquially referred to as, "gas engines" ("petrol engines" in the UK). The main limitations on fuels are that it must be easily transportable through the fuel system to the combustion chamber, and that the fuel releases sufficient energy in the form of heat upon combustion to make practical use of the engine. Diesel engines are generally heavier, noisier, and more powerful at lower speeds than gasoline engines. They are also more fuelefficient in most circumstances and are used in heavy road vehicles, some automobiles (increasingly so for their increased fuel efficiency over gasoline engines), ships, railway locomotives, and light aircraft. Gasoline engines are used in most other road vehicles including most cars, motorcycles, and mopeds. Note that in Europe, sophisticated diesel-engined cars have taken over about 40% of the market since the 1990s. There are also engines that run on hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and biodiesel. Paraffin and tractor vaporizing oil (TVO) engines are no longer seen.

Hydrogen
At present, hydrogen is mostly used as fuel for rocket engines. In the future, hydrogen might replace more conventional fuels in traditional internal combustion engines. If hydrogen fuel cell technology becomes widespread, then the use of internal combustion engines may be phased out.

Although there are multiple ways of producing free hydrogen, those methods require converting combustible molecules into hydrogen or consuming electric energy. Unless that electricity is produced from a renewable source—and is not required for other purposes— hydrogen does not solve any energy crisis. In many situations the disadvantage of hydrogen, relative to carbon fuels, is its storage. Liquid hydrogen has extremely low density (14 times lower than water) and requires extensive insulation— whilst gaseous hydrogen requires heavy tankage. Even when liquefied, hydrogen has a higher specific energy but the volumetric energetic storage is still roughly five times lower than petrol. However the energy density of hydrogen is considerably higher than that of electric batteries, making it a serious contender as an energy carrier to replace fossil fuels. The 'Hydrogen on Demand' process (see direct borohydride fuel cell) creates hydrogen as it is needed, but has other issues such as the high price of the sodium borohydride which is the raw material.

Oxidizers
Since air is plentiful at the surface of the earth, the oxidizer is typically atmospheric oxygen which has the advantage of not being stored within the vehicle, increasing the power-to-weight and power to volume ratios. There are other materials that are used for special purposes, often to increase power output or to allow operation under water or in space.
 

Compressed air has been commonly used in torpedoes. Compressed oxygen, as well as some compressed air, was used in the Japanese Type 93 torpedo. Some submarines are designed to carry pure oxygen. Rockets very often use liquid oxygen. Nitromethane is added to some racing and model fuels to increase power and control combustion. Nitrous oxide has been used—with extra gasoline—in tactical aircraft and in specially equipped cars to allow

 





short bursts of added power from engines that otherwise run on gasoline and air. It is also used in the Burt Rutan rocket spacecraft. Hydrogen peroxide power was under development for German World War II submarines and may have been used in some non-nuclear submarines and some rocket engines. Other chemicals such as chlorine or fluorine have been used experimentally, but have not been found to be practical.

One-cylinder gasoline engine (ca. 1910). Engine capacity
For piston engines, an engine's capacity is the engine displacement, in other words the volume swept by all the pistons of an engine in a single movement. It is generally measured in litres (L) or cubic inches (c.i.d. or cu in or in³) for larger engines, and cubic centimetres (abbreviated cc) for smaller engines. Engines with greater capacities are usually more powerful and provide greater torque at lower rpm, but also consume more fuel. Apart from designing an engine with more cylinders, there are two ways to increase an engines' capacity. The first is to lengthen the stroke: the second is to increase the pistons' diameter (See also: Stroke ratio). In either case, it may be necessary to make further adjustments to the fuel intake of the engine to ensure optimum performance.

Common components Combustion chamber
Internal combustion engines can contain any number of combustion chambers (cylinders), with numbers between one and twelve being common, though as many as 36 (Lycoming R7755) have been used. Having more cylinders in an engine yields two potential benefits: first, the engine can have a larger displacement with smaller individual reciprocating masses, that is, the mass of each piston can be less thus making a smootherrunning engine since the engine tends to vibrate as a result of the pistons moving up and down. Doubling the number of the same size cylinders will double the torque and power. The downside to having more pistons is that the engine will tend to weigh more and generate more internal friction as the greater number of pistons rub against the inside of their cylinders. This tends to decrease fuel efficiency and robs the engine of some of its power. For high-performance gasoline engines using current materials and technology—such as the engines found in modern automobiles, there seems to be a break-point around 10 or 12 cylinders after which the addition of cylinders becomes an overall detriment to performance and efficiency. Although, exceptions such as the W16 engine from Volkswagen exist.
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

Most car engines have four to eight cylinders with some high performance cars having ten, twelve—or even sixteen, and some very small cars and trucks having two or three. In previous years, some quite large cars such as the DKW and Saab 92, had two-cylinder or two-stroke engines. Radial aircraft engines (now obsolete) had from three to 28 cylinders; an example is the Pratt & Whitney R-4360. A row contains an odd number of cylinders so an even number indicates a two- or four-row engine. The largest of these was the Lycoming R-7755 with 36 cylinders (four rows of nine cylinders), but it did not enter production.

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Motorcycles commonly have from one to four cylinders, with a few high performance models having six; although, some 'novelties' exist with 8, 10, or 12. Snowmobiles Usually have one to four cylinders and can be both 2 stroke or 4 stroke, normally in the in-line configuration however there are again some novelties that exist with V-4 Engines Small portable appliances such as chainsaws, generators, and domestic lawn mowers most commonly have one cylinder, but two-cylinder chainsaws exist. Large reversible two cycle marine diesels have a minimum of three to over ten cylinders. Freight diesel locomotives usually have around 12 to 20 cylinders due to space limitations as larger cylinders take more space (volume ) per kwh, due to the limit on average piston speed of less than 30 ft/sec on engines lasting more than 40000 hours under full power.

Ignition system
The ignition system of an internal combustion engines depends on the type of engine and the fuel used. Petrol engines are typically ignited by a precisely timed spark, and diesel engines by compression heating. Historically, outside flame and hot-tube systems were used, see hot bulb engine. The mixture is ignited by an electrical spark from a spark plug— the timing of which is very precisely controlled. Almost all gasoline engines are of this type. Diesel engines timing is precisely controlled by the pressure pump and injector.

Compression
Ignition occurs as the temperature of the fuel/air mixture is taken over its autoignition temperature, due to heat generated by the compression of the air during the compression stroke. The vast majority of compression ignition engines are diesels in which the fuel is mixed with the air after the air has reached ignition

temperature. In this case, the timing comes from the fuel injection system. Very small model engines for which simplicity and light weight is more important than fuel costs use easily ignited fuels (a mixture of kerosene, ether, and lubricant) and adjustable compression to control ignition timing for starting and running.

Ignition timing
For reciprocating engines, the point in the cycle at which the fuel-oxidizer mixture is ignited has a direct effect on the efficiency and output of the ICE. The thermodynamics of the idealized Carnot heat engine tells us that an ICE is most efficient if most of the burning takes place at a high temperature, resulting from compression—near top dead center. The speed of the flame front is directly affected by the compression ratio, fuel mixture temperature, and octane or cetane rating of the fuel. Leaner mixtures and lower mixture pressures burn more slowly requiring more advanced ignition timing. It is important to have combustion spread by a thermal flame front (deflagration), not by a shock wave. Combustion propagation by a shock wave is called detonation and, in engines, is also known as pinging or Engine knocking. So at least in gasoline-burning engines, ignition timing is largely a compromise between an earlier "advanced" spark—which gives greater efficiency with high octane fuel—and a later "retarded" spark that avoids detonation with the fuel used. For this reason, high-performance diesel automobile proponents such as, Gale Banks, believe that There’s only so far you can go with an air-throttled engine on 91-octane gasoline. In other words, it is the fuel, gasoline, that has become the limiting factor. ... While turbocharging has been applied to both gasoline and diesel engines, only limited boost can be added to a gasoline engine before the fuel octane level again becomes a problem. With a diesel, boost pressure is essentially

unlimited. It is literally possible to run as much boost as the engine will physically stand before breaking apart. Consequently, engine designers have come to realize that diesels are capable of substantially more power and torque than any comparably sized gasoline engine.[6]

Fuel systems

Animated cut through diagram of a typical fuel injector, a device used to deliver fuel to the internal combustion engine. Fuels burn faster and more efficiently when they present a large surface area to the oxygen in air. Liquid fuels must be atomized to create a fuel-air mixture, traditionally this was done with a carburetor in petrol engines and with fuel injection in diesel engines. Most modern petrol engines now use fuel injection too though the technology is quite different. While diesel must be injected at an exact point in that engine cycle, no such precision is needed in a petrol engine. However, the lack of lubricity in petrol means that the injectors themselves must be more sophisticated.

carburetor
Simpler reciprocating engines continue to use a carburetor to supply fuel into the cylinder. Although carburetor technology in automobiles reached a very high degree of sophistication and precision, from the mid-1980s it lost out on cost and flexibility to fuel injection. Simple forms of carburetor remain in widespread

use in small engines such as lawn mowers and sophisticated forms are still used in small motorcycles.

more

Fuel injection
Larger gasoline engines used in automobiles have mostly moved to fuel injection systems (see Gasoline Direct Injection). Diesel engines have always used fuel injection because the timing of the injection initiates and controls the combustion. Autogas (LPG) engines use either fuel injection systems or openor closed-loop carburetors.

Fuel pump
Most internal combustion engines now require a fuel pump. Diesel engines use an all-mechanical precision pump system that delivers a timed injection direct into the combustion chamber, hence requiring a high delivery pressure to overcome the pressure of the combustion chamber. Petrol fuel injection delivers into the inlet tract at atmospheric pressure (or below) and timing is not involved, these pumps are normally driven electrically. Gas turbine and rocket engines use electrical systems.

Other
Other internal combustion engines like jet engines and rocket engines employ various methods of fuel delivery including impinging jets, gas/liquid shear, preburners and others.

Oxidiser-Air inlet system
Some engines such as solid rockets have oxidisers already within the combustion chamber but in most cases for combustion to occur, a continuous supply of oxidiser must be supplied to the combustion chamber.

Natural aspirated engines

When air is used with piston engines it can simply suck it in as the piston increases the volume of the chamber. However, this gives a maximum of 1 atmosphere of pressure difference across the inlet valves, and at high engine speeds the resulting airflow can limit potential power output.

Superchargers
A supercharger is a "forced induction" system which uses a compressor powered by the shaft of the engine which forces air through the valves of the engine to achieve higher flow. When these systems are employed the maximum absolute pressure at the inlet valve is typically around 2 times atmospheric pressure or more.

Turbochargers/gas turbine powered compressors

A cutaway of a turbocharger Turbochargers are another type of forced induction system which has its compressor powered by a gas turbine running off the exhaust gases from the engine. Duct jet engines use the same basic system, but eschew the piston engine, and replace it with a burner instead.

Liquids
In liquid rocket engines, the oxidiser comes in the form of a liquid and needs to be delivered at high pressure (typically 10230 bar or 1–23 MPa) to the combustion chamber. This is normally achieved by the use of a centrifugal pump powered by a gas turbine - a configuration known as a turbopump, but it can also be pressure fed.

Parts

An illustration of several key components in a typical four-stroke engine. For a four-stroke engine, key parts of the engine include the crankshaft (purple), connecting rod (orange), one or more camshafts (red and blue), and valves. For a two-stroke engine, there may simply be an exhaust outlet and fuel inlet instead of a valve system. In both types of engines there are one or more cylinders (grey and green), and for each cylinder there is a spark plug (darker-grey, gasoline engines only), a piston (yellow), and a crankpin (purple). A single sweep of the cylinder by the piston in an upward or downward motion is known as a stroke. The downward stroke that occurs directly after the air-fuel mix passes from the carburetor or fuel injector to the cylinder, where it is ignited. This is also known as a power stroke.

A Wankel engine has a triangular rotor that orbits in an epitrochoidal (figure 8 shape) chamber around an eccentric shaft. The four phases of operation (intake, compression, power, and exhaust) take place in what is effectively a moving, variablevolume chamber.

valve
All four-stroke internal combustion engines employ valves to control the admittance of fuel and air into the combustion chamber. Two-stroke engines use ports in the cylinder bore, covered and uncovered by the piston, though there have been variations such as exhaust valves.

Piston engine valve
In piston engines, the valves are grouped into 'inlet valves' which admit the entrance of fuel and air and 'outlet valves' which allow the exhaust gases to escape. Each valve opens once per cycle and the ones that are subject to extreme accelerations are held closed by springs that are typically opened by rods running on a camshaft rotating with the engines' crankshaft.

Control valves
Continuous combustion engines—as well as piston engines— usually have valves that open and close to admit the fuel and/or air at the startup and shutdown. Some valves feather to adjust the flow to control power or engine speed as well.

exhaust system
Internal combustion engines have to manage the exhaust of the cooled combustion gas from the engine. The exhaust system frequently contains devices to control pollution, both chemical and noise pollution. In addition, for cyclic combustion engines the exhaust system is frequently tuned to improve emptying of the combustion chamber.

For jet propulsion internal combustion engines, the 'exhaust system' takes the form of a high velocity nozzle, which generates thrust for the engine and forms a colimated jet of gas that gives the engine its name.

Engine cooling
Combustion generates a great deal of heat, and some of this transfers to the walls of the engine. Failure will occur if the body of the engine is allowed to reach too high a temperature; either the engine will physically fail, or any lubricants used will degrade to the point that they no longer protect the engine. Cooling systems usually employ air (air cooled) or liquid (usually water) cooling while some very hot engines using radiative cooling (especially some Rocket engines). Some high altitude rocket engines use ablative cooling where the walls gradually erode in a controlled fashion. Rockets in particular can use regenerative cooling which uses the fuel to cool the solid parts of the engine.

piston
A piston is a component of reciprocating engines. It is located in a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings. Its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or connecting rod. In two-stroke engines the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall.

Propelling nozzle
For jet engine forms of internal combustion engines a propelling nozzle is present. This takes the high temperature, high pressure exhaust and expands and cools it. The exhaust leaves the nozzle going at much higher speed and provides thrust, as well as constricting the flow from the engine and raising the pressure in the rest of the engine, giving greater thrust for the exhaust mass that exits.

A crankshaft for a 4 cylinder engine Crankshaft
Most reciprocating internal combustion engines end up turning a shaft. This means that the linear motion of a piston must be converted into rotation. This is typically achieved by a crankshaft.

flywheel
The flywheel is a disk or wheel attached to the crank, forming an inertial mass that stores rotational energy. In engines with only a single cylinder the flywheel is essential to carry energy over from the power stroke into a subsequent compression stroke. Flywheels are present in most reciprocating engines to smooth out the power delivery over each rotation of the crank and in most automotive engines also mount a gear ring for a starter. The rotational inertia of the flywheel also allows a much slower minimum unloaded speed and also improves the smoothness at idle. The flywheel may also perform a part of the balancing of the system and so by itself be out of balance, although most engines will use a neutral balance for the flywheel, enabling it to be balanced in a separate operation. The flywheel is also used as a mounting for the clutch or a torque converter in most automotive applications.

Starter systems
All internal combustion engines require some form of system to get them into operation. Most piston engines use a starter motor powered by the same battery as runs the rest of the electric

systems. Large jet engines and gas turbines are started with a compressed air motor that is geared to one of the engine's driveshafts. Compressed air can be supplied from another engine, a unit on the ground or by the aircraft's APU. Small internal combustion engines are often started by pull cords. Motorcycles of all sizes were traditionally kick-started, though all but the smallest are now electric-start. Large stationary and marine engines may be started by the timed injection of compressed air into the cylinders - or occasionally with cartridges. Jump starting refers to assistance from another battery (typically when the fitted battery is discharged), while bump starting refers to an alternative method of starting by the application of some external force, e.g. rolling down a hill.

Lubrication Systems
Internal combustions engines require lubrication in operation that moving parts slide smoothly over each other. Insufficient lubrication subjects the parts of the engine to metal-to-metal contact, friction, heat build-up, rapid wear often culminating in parts becoming friction welded together eg pistons in their cylinders. Big end bearings seizing up will sometimes lead to a connecting rod breaking and poking out through the crankcase. Several different types of lubrication systems are used. Simple two-stroke engines are lubricated by oil mixed into the fuel or injected into the induction stream as a spray. Early slow-speed stationary and marine engines were lubricated by gravity from small chambers similar to those used on steam engines at the time—with an engine tender refilling these as needed. As engines were adapted for automotive and aircraft use, the need for a high power-to-weight ratio led to increased speeds, higher temperatures, and greater pressure on bearings which in turn required pressure-lubrication for crank bearings and connectingrod journals. This was provided either by a direct lubrication from a pump, or indirectly by a jet of oil directed at pickup cups on the connecting rod ends which had the advantage of providing higher pressures as the engine speed increased.

Control systems
Most engines require one or more systems to start and shutdown the engine and to control parameters such as the power, speed, torque, pollution, combustion temperature, efficiency and to stabilise the engine from modes of operation that may induce self-damage such as pre-ignition. Such systems may be referred to as engine control units. Many control systems today are digital, and are frequently termed FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) systems.

Diagnostic systems On Board Diagnostics
Engine On Board Diagnostics (also known as OBD) is a computerized system that allows for electronic diagnosis of a vehicles' powerplant. The first generation, known as OBD1, was introduced 10 years after the U.S. Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1970 as a way to monitor a vehicles' fuel injection system. OBD2, the second generation of computerized on-board diagnostics, was codified and recommended by the California Air Resource Board in 1994 and became mandatory equipment aboard all vehicles sold in the United States as of 1996.

Measures of engine performance Engine types vary greatly in a number of different ways:
 

   

energy efficiency fuel/propellant consumption (brake specific fuel consumption for shaft engines, thrust specific fuel consumption for jet engines) power to weight ratio thrust to weight ratio Torque curves (for shaft engines) thrust lapse (jet engines) Compression ratio for piston engines, Overall pressure ratio for jet engines and gas turbines

Energy efficiency
Once ignited and burnt, the combustion products—hot gases— have more available thermal energy than the original compressed fuel-air mixture (which had higher chemical energy). The available energy is manifested as high temperature and pressure that can be translated into work by the engine. In a reciprocating engine, the high-pressure gases inside the cylinders drive the engine's pistons. Once the available energy has been removed, the remaining hot gases are vented (often by opening a valve or exposing the exhaust outlet) and this allows the piston to return to its previous position (top dead center, or TDC). The piston can then proceed to the next phase of its cycle, which varies between engines. Any heat that isn't translated into work is normally considered a waste product and is removed from the engine either by an air or liquid cooling system. Engine efficiency can be discussed in a number of ways but it usually involves a comparison of the total chemical energy in the fuels, and the useful energy extracted from the fuels in the form of kinetic energy. The most fundamental and abstract discussion of engine efficiency is the thermodynamic limit for extracting energy from the fuel defined by a thermodynamic cycle. The most comprehensive is the empirical fuel efficiency of the total engine system for accomplishing a desired task; for example, the miles per gallon accumulated. Internal combustion engines are primarily heat engines and as such the phenomenon that limits their efficiency is described by thermodynamic cycles. None of these cycles exceed the limit defined by the Carnot cycle which states that the overall efficiency is dictated by the difference between the lower and upper operating temperatures of the engine. A terrestrial engine is usually and fundamentally limited by the upper thermal stability derived from the material used to make up the engine. All metals and alloys eventually melt or decompose and there is

significant researching into ceramic materials that can be made with higher thermal stabilities and desirable structural properties. Higher thermal stability allows for greater temperature difference between the lower and upper operating temperatures—thus greater thermodynamic efficiency. The thermodynamic limits assume that the engine is operating in ideal conditions. A frictionless world, ideal gases, perfect insulators, and operation at infinite time. The real world is substantially more complex and all the complexities reduce the efficiency. In addition, real engines run best at specific loads and rates as described by their power curve. For example, a car cruising on a highway is usually operating significantly below its ideal load, because the engine is designed for the higher loads desired for rapid acceleration. The applications of engines are used as contributed drag on the total system reducing overall efficiency, such as wind resistance designs for vehicles. These and many other losses result in an engines' real-world fuel economy that is usually measured in the units of miles per gallon (or fuel consumption in liters per 100 kilometers) for automobiles. The miles in miles per gallon represents a meaningful amount of work and the volume of hydrocarbon implies a standard energy content. Most steel engines have a thermodynamic limit of 37%. Even when aided with turbochargers and stock efficiency aids, most engines retain an average efficiency of about 18%-20%.[7][8] Rocket engine efficiencies are better still, up to 70%, because they combust at very high temperatures and pressures and are able to have very high expansion ratios. There are many inventions concerned with increasing the efficiency of IC engines. In general, practical engines are always compromised by trade-offs between different properties such as efficiency, weight, power, heat, response, exhaust emissions, or noise. Sometimes economy also plays a role in not only the cost of manufacturing the engine itself, but also manufacturing and distributing the fuel. Increasing the engines' efficiency brings

better fuel economy but only if the fuel cost per energy content is the same.

Measures of fuel/propellant efficiency
For stationary and shaft engines including propeller engines, fuel consumption is measured by calculating the brake specific fuel consumption which measures the number of pounds of fuel that is needed to generate an hours' worth of horsepower-energy. In metric units, the number of grams of fuel needed to generate a kilowatt-hour of energy is calculated. For internal combustion engines in the form of jet engines, the power output varies drastically with airspeed and a less variable measure is used: thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), which is the number of pounds of propellant that is needed to generate impulses that measure a pound an hour. In metric units, the number of grams of propellant needed to generate an impulse that measures one kilonewton per second. For rockets— TSFC can be used, but typically other equivalent measures are traditionally used, such as specific impulse and effective exhaust velocity.

Air and noise pollution
Internal combustion engines such as reciprocating internal combustion engines produce air pollution emissions, due to incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuel. The main derivatives of the process are carbon dioxide CO2, water and some soot—also called particulate matter (PM). The effects of inhaling particulate matter have been studied in humans and animals and include asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular issues, and premature death. There are however some additional products of the combustion process that include nitrogen oxides and sulfur and some uncombusted hydrocarbons, depending on the operating conditions and the fuel-air ratio.

Not all of the fuel will be completely consumed by the combustion process; a small amount of fuel will be present after combustion, some of which can react to form oxygenates, such as formaldehyde or acetaldehyde, or hydrocarbons not initially present in the fuel mixture. The primary causes of this is the need to operate near the stoichiometric ratio for gasoline engines in order to achieve combustion and the resulting "quench" of the flame by the relatively cool cylinder walls, otherwise the fuel would burn more completely in excess air. When running at lower speeds, quenching is commonly observed in diesel (compression ignition) engines that run on natural gas. It reduces the efficiency and increases knocking, sometimes causing the engine to stall. Increasing the amount of air in the engine reduces the amount of the first two pollutants, but tends to encourage the oxygen and nitrogen in the air to combine to produce nitrogen oxides (NOx) that has been demonstrated to be hazardous to both plant and animal health. Further chemicals released are benzene and 1,3-butadiene that are also particularly harmful; and not all of the fuel burns up completely, so carbon monoxide (CO) is also produced. Carbon fuels contain sulfur and impurities that eventually lead to producing sulfur oxides (SO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the exhaust which promotes acid rain. One final element in exhaust pollution is ozone (O3). This is not emitted directly but made in the air by the action of sunlight on other pollutants to form "ground level ozone", which, unlike the "ozone layer" in the high atmosphere, is regarded as a bad thing if the levels are too high. Ozone is broken down by nitrogen oxides, so one tends to be lower where the other is higher. For the pollutants described above (nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone) there are accepted levels that are set by legislation to which no harmful effects are observed—even in sensitive population groups. For the other three: benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and particulates, there is no way of proving they are safe at any level so the experts set standards where the risk to health is, "exceedingly small".

Finally, significant contributions to noise pollution are made by internal combustion engines. Automobile and truck traffic operating on highways and street systems produce noise, as do aircraft flights due to jet noise, particularly supersonic-capable aircraft. Rocket engines create the most intense noise. A jet engine is a reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet of fluid to generate thrust in accordance with Newton's laws of motion. This broad definition of jet engines includes turbojets, turbofans, rockets, ramjets, pulse jets and pump-jets. In general, most jet engines are internal combustion engines[1] but noncombusting forms also exist. In some common parlance, the term 'jet engine' is loosely referred to an internal combustion duct engine, which typically consists of an engine with a rotary (rotating) air compressor powered by a turbine ("Brayton cycle"), with the leftover power providing thrust via a propelling nozzle. These types of jet engines are primarily used by jet aircraft for long distance travel. The early jet aircraft used turbojet engines which were relatively inefficient for subsonic flight. Modern subsonic jet aircraft usually use high-bypass turbofan engines which help give high speeds as well as, over long distances, giving better fuel efficiency than many other forms of transport. About 7.2% of the oil used in 2004 was ultimately consumed by jet engines.[2] In 2007, the cost of jet fuel, while highly variable from one airline to another, averaged 26.5% of total operating costs, making it the single largest operating expense for most airlines.[3]

History Timeline of jet power
Jet engines can be dated back to before the first century AD, when Hero of Alexandria (a Greek mathematician) described the aeolipile. This used steam power directed through two jet nozzles so as to cause a sphere to spin rapidly on its axis. So far

as is known, it was not used for supplying mechanical power, and the potential practical applications of this invention were not recognized. It was simply considered a curiosity. Jet propulsion only literally and figuratively took off with the invention of the rocket by the Chinese in the 13th century. Rocket exhaust was initially used in a modest way for fireworks but gradually progressed to propel formidable weaponry; and there the technology stalled for hundreds of years. Archytas, the founder of mathematical mechanics, as described in the writings of Aulus Gellius five centuries after him, was reputed to have designed and built the first artificial, selfpropelled flying device. This device was a bird-shaped model propelled by a jet of what was probably steam, said to have actually flown some 200 meters. In Ottoman Turkey in 1633 Lagari Hasan Çelebi took off with what was described to be a cone-shaped rocket and then glided with wings into a successful landing, winning a position in the Ottoman army. However, this was essentially a stunt. The problem was that rockets are simply too inefficient at low speeds to be useful for general aviation.

The Coandă-1910.
In 1910 Henri Coandă designed, built and piloted the first 'thermojet'-powered aircraft, known as the Coandă-1910, which he demonstrated publicly at the second International Aeronautic

Salon in Paris. The powerplant used a 4-cylinder piston engine to power a compressor, which fed two burners for thrust, instead of using a propeller. At the airport of Issy-les-Moulineaux near Paris, Coandă lost control of the jet plane, which went off of the runway and caught fire. Fortunately, he escaped with minor injuries to his face and hands. Around that time, Coandă abandoned his experiments due to a lack of interest from the public, scientific and engineering institutions. It would be nearly 30 years until the next thermojet-powered aircraft, the Caproni Campini N.1 (sometimes referred to as C.C.2). In 1913 René Lorin came up with a form of jet engine, the subsonic pulsejet, which would have been somewhat more efficient, but he had no way to achieve high enough speeds for it to operate, and the concept remained theoretical for quite some time. However, engineers were beginning to realize that the piston engine was self-limiting in terms of the maximum performance which could be attained; the limit was essentially one of propeller efficiency.[4] This seemed to peak as blade tips approached the speed of sound. If engine, and thus aircraft, performance were ever to increase beyond such a barrier, a way would have to be found to radically improve the design of the piston engine, or a wholly new type of powerplant would have to be developed. This was the motivation behind the development of the gas turbine engine, commonly called a "jet" engine, which would become almost as revolutionary to aviation as the Wright brothers' first flight. The earliest attempts at jet engines were hybrid designs in which an external power source first compressed air, which was then mixed with fuel and burned for jet thrust. In one such system, called a thermojet by Secondo Campini but more commonly, motorjet, the air was compressed by a fan driven by a conventional piston engine. Examples of this type of design were Henri Coandă's Coandă-1910 aircraft, and the much later Campini Caproni CC.2, and the Japanese Tsu-11 engine intended to power

Ohka kamikaze planes towards the end of World War II. None were entirely successful and the CC.2 ended up being slower than the same design with a traditional engine and propeller combination.

Albert Fonó's ramjet-cannonball from 1915

Albert Fonó's German patent for jet Engines (January 1928granted 1932). The third illustration is a turbojet The key to a practical jet engine was the gas turbine, used to extract energy from the engine itself to drive the compressor. The gas turbine was not an idea developed in the 1930s: the patent for a stationary turbine was granted to John Barber in England in 1791. The first gas turbine to successfully run selfsustaining was built in 1903 by Norwegian engineer Ægidius Elling. Limitations in design and practical engineering and metallurgy prevented such engines reaching manufacture. The main problems were safety, reliability, weight and, especially, sustained operation.

In Hungary, Albert Fonó in 1915 devised a solution for increasing the range of artillery, comprising a gun-launched projectile which was to be united with a ramjet propulsion unit. This was to make it possible to obtain a long range with low initial muzzle velocities, allowing heavy shells to be fired from relatively lightweight guns. Fonó submitted his invention to the AustroHungarian Army but the proposal was rejected. In 1928 he applied for a German patent on aircraft powered by supersonic ramjets, and this was awarded in 1932.[5][6][7] The first patent for using a gas turbine to power an aircraft was filed in 1921 by Frenchman Maxime Guillaume.[8] His engine was an axial-flow turbojet. In 1923, Edgar Buckingham of the US National Bureau of Standard published a report[9] expressing scepticism that jet engines would be economically competitive with prop driven aircraft at the low altitudes and airspeeds of the period: "there does not appear to be, at present, any prospect whatever that jet propulsion of the sort here considered will ever be of practical value, even for military purposes." Instead, by the 1930s, the piston engine in its many different forms (rotary and static radial, aircooled and liquid-cooled inline) was the only type of powerplant available to aircraft designers. This was acceptable as long as only low performance aircraft were required, and indeed all that were available.

The Whittle W.2/700 engine flew in the Gloster E.28/39, the first British aircraft to fly with a turbojet engine, and the Gloster Meteor

In 1928, RAF College Cranwell cadet [10]Frank Whittle formally submitted his ideas for a turbo-jet to his superiors. In October 1929 he developed his ideas further.[11] . On 16 January 1930 in England, Whittle submitted his first patent (granted in 1932). [12] The patent showed a two-stage axial compressor feeding a single-sided centrifugal compressor. Practical axial compressors were made possible by ideas from A.A.Griffith in a seminal paper in 1926 ("An Aerodynamic Theory of Turbine Design"). Whittle would later concentrate on the simpler centrifugal compressor only, for a variety of practical reasons. Whittle had his first engine running in April 1937. It was liquid-fuelled, and included a self-contained fuel pump. Whittle's team experienced near-panic when the engine would not stop, accelerating even after the fuel was switched off. It turned out that fuel had leaked into the engine and accumulated in pools. So the engine would not stop until all the leaked fuel had burned off. Whittle was unable to interest the government in his invention, and development continued at a slow pace.

Heinkel He 178, the world's first aircraft to fly purely on turbojet power In 1935 Hans von Ohain started work on a similar design in Germany, apparently unaware of Whittle's work.[13] His first engine was strictly experimental and could only run under external power, but he was able to demonstrate the basic concept. Ohain was then introduced to Ernst Heinkel, one of the larger aircraft industrialists of the day, who immediately saw the promise of the design. Heinkel had recently purchased the Hirth engine company, and Ohain and his master machinist Max Hahn were set up there as a new division of the Hirth company. They had their first HeS 1 centrifugal engine running by September 1937. Unlike Whittle's design, Ohain used hydrogen as fuel,

supplied under external pressure. Their subsequent designs culminated in the gasoline-fuelled HeS 3 of 1,100 lbf (5 kN), which was fitted to Heinkel's simple and compact He 178 airframe and flown by Erich Warsitz in the early morning of August 27, 1939, from Rostock-Marienehe aerodrome, an impressively short time for development. The He 178 was the world's first jet plane.

Jendrassik Cs-1, The first Turboprop engine. built in Hungarian Ganz works in 1938 The world's first turboprop was the Jendrassik Cs-1 designed by the Hungarian mechanical engineer György Jendrassik. It was produced and tested in the Ganz factory in Budapest between 1938 and 1942. It was planned to fit to the Varga RMI-1 X/H twinengined reconnaissance bomber designed by László Varga in 1940, but the program was cancelled. Jendrassik had also designed a small-scale 75 kW turboprop in 1937. Whittle's engine was starting to look useful, and his Power Jets Ltd. started receiving Air Ministry money. In 1941 a flyable version of the engine called the W.1, capable of 1000 lbf (4 kN) of thrust, was fitted to the Gloster E28/39 airframe specially built for it, and first flew on May 15, 1941 at RAF Cranwell.

A picture of an early centrifugal engine (DH Goblin II) sectioned to show its internal components A Scottish aircraft engine designer, Frank Halford, working from Whittle's ideas developed a "straight through" version of the centrifugal jet; his design became the de Havilland Goblin. One problem with both of these early designs, which are called centrifugal-flow engines, was that the compressor worked by "throwing" (accelerating) air outward from the central intake to the outer periphery of the engine, where the air was then compressed by a divergent duct setup, converting its velocity into pressure. An advantage of this design was that it was already well understood, having been implemented in centrifugal superchargers, then in widespread use on piston engines. However, given the early technological limitations on the shaft speed of the engine, the compressor needed to have a very large diameter to produce the power required. This meant that the engines had a large frontal area, which made it less useful as an aircraft powerplant due to drag. A further disadvantage was that the air flow had to be "bent" to flow rearwards through the combustion section and to the turbine and tailpipe, adding complexity and lowering efficiency. Nevertheless, these types of engines had the major advantages of light weight, simplicity and reliability, and development rapidly progressed to practical airworthy designs.

A cutaway of the Junkers Jumo 004 engine.
Austrian Anselm Franz of Junkers' engine division (Junkers Motoren or Jumo) addressed these problems with the introduction of the axial-flow compressor. Essentially, this is a turbine in reverse. Air coming in the front of the engine is blown

towards the rear of the engine by a fan stage (convergent ducts), where it is crushed against a set of non-rotating blades called stators (divergent ducts). The process is nowhere near as powerful as the centrifugal compressor, so a number of these pairs of fans and stators are placed in series to get the needed compression. Even with all the added complexity, the resulting engine is much smaller in diameter and thus, more aerodynamic. Jumo was assigned the next engine number in the RLM numbering sequence, 4, and the result was the Jumo 004 engine. After many lesser technical difficulties were solved, mass production of this engine started in 1944 as a powerplant for the world's first jet-fighter aircraft, the Messerschmitt Me 262 (and later the world's first jet-bomber aircraft, the Arado Ar 234). A variety of reasons conspired to delay the engine's availability, this delay caused the fighter to arrive too late to decisively impact Germany's position in World War II. Nonetheless, it will be remembered as the first use of jet engines in service. In the UK, their first axial-flow engine, the Metrovick F.2, ran in 1941 and was first flown in 1943. Although more powerful than the centrifugal designs at the time, the Ministry considered its complexity and unreliability a drawback in wartime. The work at Metrovick led to the Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire engine which would be built in the US as the J65. Following the end of the war the German jet aircraft and jet engines were extensively studied by the victorious allies and contributed to work on early Soviet and US jet fighters. The legacy of the axial-flow engine is seen in the fact that practically all jet engines on fixed wing aircraft have had some inspiration from this design. Centrifugal-flow engines have improved since their introduction. With improvements in bearing technology the shaft speed of the engine was increased, greatly reducing the diameter of the centrifugal compressor. The short engine length remains an advantage of this design, particularly for use in helicopters where overall size is more important than frontal area. Also as

their engine components are more robust they are less liable to foreign object damage than axial-flow compressor engines. Although German designs were more advanced aerodynamically, the combination of simplicity and Britain's war-time availability of requisite rare metals for the necessary advanced metallurgy (such as tungsten, chromium and titanium) for high-stress components such as turbine blades and bearings, etc) meant that Whittle-derived designs were generally more reliable than their German counterparts. British engines were also widely manufactured under license in the US (see Tizard Mission), and were sold to Soviet Russia who reverse engineered them with the Nene going on to power the famous MiG-15. American and Soviet designs, independent axial-flow types for the most part, would strive to attain superior performance until the 1960s, although the General Electric J47 provided excellent service in the F-86 Sabre in the 1950s. By the 1950s the jet engine was almost universal in combat aircraft, with the exception of cargo, liaison and other specialty types. By this point some of the British designs were already cleared for civilian use, and had appeared on early models like the de Havilland Comet and Avro Canada Jetliner. By the 1960s all large civilian aircraft were also jet powered, leaving the piston engine in such low-cost niche roles such as cargo flights. Relentless improvements in the turboprop pushed the piston engine (an internal combustion engine) out of the mainstream entirely, leaving it serving only the smallest general aviation designs and some use in drone aircraft. The ascension of the jet engine to almost universal use in aircraft took well under twenty years. However, the story was not quite at an end, for the efficiency of turbojet engines was still rather worse than piston engines, but by the 1970s with the advent of high bypass jet engines, an innovation not foreseen by the early commentators like Edgar Buckingham, at high speeds and high altitudes that seemed

absurd to them, only then did the fuel efficiency finally exceed that of the best piston and propeller engines, [14] and the dream of fast, safe, economical travel around the world finally arrived, and their dour, if well founded for the time, predictions that jet engines would never amount to much, were killed forever.

Types
There are a large number of different types of jet engines, all of which achieve forward thrust from the principle of jet propulsion.

Type

Description

Advantages

Disadvantages

Water jet

For propelling water rockets and jetboats; squirts water out the back through a nozzle

In boats, can run in shallow water, high acceleration, no risk of engine overload (unlike propellers), less noise and vibration, highly maneuverable at all boat speeds, high speed efficiency, less vulnerable to damage from debris, very reliable, more load flexibility, less harmful to wildlife

Can be less efficient than a propeller at low speed, more expensive, higher weight in boat due to entrained water, will not perform well if boat is heavier than the jet is sized for

Motorjet

Works turbojet

like

a Higher exhaust Heavy, inefficient but velocity than a and underpowered.

instead of a turbine driving the compressor a piston engine drives it.

propeller, Examples include: offering better Coandă-1910 and thrust at high Caproni Campini speed N.1.

Turbojet

A tube with a compressor and turbine sharing a common shaft with a burner in between and a propelling nozzle for the exhaust.[15] Uses a high exhaust gas velocity to produce thrust. Has a much higher core flow than bypass type engines

A basic design, misses many Simplicity of improvements in design, efficient efficiency and at supersonic power for subsonic speeds (~M2) flight, relatively noisy.

Low-bypass Turbofan

One- or two-stage fan added in front bypasses a proportion of the air through a bypass duct straight to the nozzle/afterburner, avoiding the combustion chamber, with the rest being heated in the combustion

As with the turbojet, the design is aerodynamic, with only a modest increase in diameter over the turbojet required to accommodate the bypass fan and chamber. It is capable of

Noisier and less efficient than highbypass turbofan, with less static (Mach 0) thrust. Added complexity to accommodate dual shaft designs. More inefficient than a turbojet around M2 due to higher cross-

chamber and passing through the turbine.[16] Compared with its turbojet ancestor, this allows for more efficient operation with somewhat less noise. This is the engine of highspeed military aircraft, some smaller private jets, and older civilian airliners such as the Boeing 707, the McDonnell Douglas DC-8, and their derivatives.

supersonic sectional area. speeds with minimal thrust drop-off at high speeds and altitudes yet still more efficient than the turbojet at subsonic operation.

High-bypass Turbofan

First stage compressor drastically enlarged to provide bypass airflow around engine core, and it provides significant amounts of thrust. Compared to the low-bypass turbofan and nobypass turbojet, the high-bypass

Quieter around 10 to 20 percent more than the turbojet engine due to greater mass flow and lower total exhaust speed and more efficient for a useful range of subsonic airspeeds for same reason, cooler exhaust

Greater complexity (additional ducting, usually multiple shafts) and the need to contain heavy blades. Fan diameter can be extremely large, especially in high bypass turbofans such as the GE90. More subject to FOD and ice damage. Top speed is limited due to

turbofan works on the principle of moving a great deal of air somewhat faster, rather than a small amount extremely fast.[16] Most common form of jet engine in civilian use todayused in airliners like the Boeing 747, most 737s, and all Airbus aircraft.

temperature. Less noisy and exhibit much better efficiency than low bypass turbofans.

the potential for shockwaves to damage engine. Thrust lapse at higher speeds, which necessitates huge diameters and introduces additional drag.

Rocket

Carries all propellants and oxidants on-board, emits jet for [17] propulsion

Very few moving parts, Mach 0 to Mach 25+, efficient at very high speed (> Mach 5.0 or so), thrust/weight ratio over 100, no complex air inlet, high compression ratio, very high speed (hypersonic) exhaust, good cost/thrust ratio, fairly easy to test, works in a vacuum-indeed works best

Needs lots of propellantvery low specific impulse — typically 100-450 seconds. Extreme thermal stresses of combustion chamber can make reuse harder. Typically requires carrying oxidiser on-board which increases risks. Extraordinarily noisy.

exoatmospheric which is kinder on vehicle structure at high speed, fairly small surface area to keep cool, and no turbine in hot exhaust stream.

Ramjet

Intake air is compressed entirely by speed of oncoming air and duct shape (divergent), and then it goes through a burner section where it is heated and then passes through a propelling nozzle[18]

Very few moving parts, Mach 0.8 to Mach 5+, efficient at high speed (> Mach 2.0 or so), lightest of all airbreathing jets (thrust/weight ratio up to 30 at optimum speed), cooling much easier than turbojets as no turbine blades to cool.

Must have a high initial speed to function, inefficient at slow speeds due to poor compression ratio, difficult to arrange shaft power for accessories, usually limited to a small range of speeds, intake flow must be slowed to subsonic speeds, noisy, fairly difficult to test, finicky to keep lit.

Turboprop (Turboshaft similar)

Strictly not a jet at all — a gas turbine engine is used as a powerplant to drive a propeller shaft (or rotor in

High efficiency at lower subsonic airspeeds (300 knots plus), high shaft power to

Limited top speed (aeroplanes), somewhat noisy, complex transmission

the case helicopter)

of

a weight

Turbojet engine that also drives one or more Propfan/Unducted propellers. Similar Fan to a turbofan without the fan cowling.

Higher fuel efficiency, potentially less noisy than turbofans, could lead to higherspeed commercial aircraft, popular in the 1980s during fuel shortages

Development of propfan engines has been very limited, typically more noisy than turbofans, complexity

Pulsejet

Air is compressed and combusted intermittently instead of continuously. Some designs use valves.

Noisy, inefficient (low compression Very simple ratio), works poorly design, on a large scale, commonly used valves on valved on model aircraft designs wear out quickly

Similar to a pulsejet, but combustion occurs as a Maximum Pulse detonation detonation theoretical engine instead of a engine efficiency deflagration, may or may not need valves

Extremely noisy, parts subject to extreme mechanical fatigue, hard to start detonation, not practical for current use

Air-augmented rocket

Essentially a ramjet where intake air is compressed and burnt with the exhaust from a rocket

Mach 0 to Mach 4.5+ (can also run exoatmospheric), good efficiency at Mach 2 to 4

Similar efficiency to rockets at low speed or exoatmospheric, inlet difficulties, a relatively undeveloped and unexplored type, cooling difficulties, very noisy, thrust/weight ratio is similar to ramjets.

Scramjet

Similar to a ramjet without a diffuser; airflow through the entire engine remains supersonic

Few mechanical parts, can operate at very high Mach numbers (Mach 8 to 15) with good efficiencies[19]

Still in development stages, must have a very high initial speed to function (Mach >6), cooling difficulties, very poor thrust/weight ratio (~2), extreme aerodynamic complexity, airframe difficulties, testing difficulties/expense

Turborocket

A turbojet where an additional oxidizer such as oxygen is added to the airstream to increase

Very close to existing designs, operates in very high altitude, wide range of altitude and

Airspeed limited to same range as turbojet engine, carrying oxidizer like LOX can be dangerous. Much

maximum altitude airspeed

heavier than simple rockets.

Intake air is chilled to very low temperatures at inlet in a heat Precooled jets / exchanger before LACE passing through a ramjet and/or turbojet and/or rocket engine.

Easily tested on ground. Very high thrust/weight ratios are possible (~14) together with good fuel efficiency over a wide range of airspeeds, mach 0-5.5+; this combination of efficiencies may permit launching to orbit, single stage, or very rapid, very long distance intercontinental travel.

Exists only at the lab prototyping stage. Examples include RB545, Reaction Engines SABRE, ATREX. Requires liquid hydrogen fuel which has very low density and heavily insulated tankage.

Uses
Jet engines are usually used as aircraft engines for jet aircraft. They are also used for cruise missiles and unmanned aerial vehicles. In the form of rocket engines they are used for fireworks, model rocketry, spaceflight, and military missiles. Jet engines have also been used to propel high speed cars, particularly drag racers, with the all-time record held by a rocket

car. A turbofan powered car ThrustSSC currently holds the land speed record. Jet engine designs are frequently modified to turn them into gas turbine engines which are used in a wide variety of industrial applications. These include electrical power generation, powering water, natural gas, or oil pumps, and providing propulsion for ships and locomotives. Industrial gas turbine can create up to 50,000 shaft horsepower. Many of these engines are derived from older military turbojets such as the Pratt & Whitney J57 and J75 models. There is also a derivative of the P&W JT8D low-bypass turbofan that creates up to 35,000 HP.

Major components Components of jet engines

The major components of a jet engine are similar across the major different types of engines, although not all engine types have all components. The major parts include:


Cold Section:







Air intake (Inlet) — For subsonic aircraft, the air intake to a jet engine consists essentially of an opening which is designed to minimise drag. The air reaching the compressor of a normal jet engine must be travelling below the speed of sound, even for supersonic aircraft, to allow smooth flow through compressor and turbine blades. At supersonic flight speeds, shockwaves form in the intake system, these help compress the air, but also there is some inevitable reduction in the recovered pressure at inlet to the compressor. Some supersonic intakes use devices, such as a cone or a ramp, to increase pressure recovery. o Compressor or Fan — The compressor is made up of stages. Each stage consists of vanes which rotate, and stators which remain stationary. As air is drawn deeper through the compressor, its heat and pressure increases. Energy is derived from the turbine (see below), passed along the shaft. o Bypass ducts — Much of the thrust of essentially all modern jet engines comes from air from the front compressor that bypasses the combustion chamber and gas turbine section that leads directly to the nozzle or afterburner (where fitted). Common: o Shaft — The shaft connects the turbine to the compressor, and runs most of the length of the engine. There may be as many as three concentric shafts, rotating at independent speeds, with as many sets of turbines and compressors. Other services, like a bleed of cool air, may also run down the shaft. Diffuser section: - This section is a divergent duct that utilizes Bernoulli's principle to decrease the velocity of the compressed air to allow for easier ignition. And, at the same time, continuing to increase the air pressure before it enters the combustion chamber. Hot section:
o

o

Combustor or Can or Flameholders or Combustion Chamber — This is a chamber where fuel is continuously burned in the compressed air.

A blade with internal cooling as applied in the high-pressure turbine
 o

o

o

Turbine — The turbine is a series of bladed discs that act like a windmill, gaining energy from the hot gases leaving the combustor. Some of this energy is used to drive the compressor, and in some turbine engines (ie turboprop, turboshaft or turbofan engines), energy is extracted by additional turbine discs and used to drive devices such as propellers, bypass fans or helicopter rotors. One type, a free turbine, is configured such that the turbine disc driving the compressor rotates independently of the discs that power the external components. Relatively cool air, bled from the compressor, may be used to cool the turbine blades and vanes, to prevent them from melting. Afterburner or reheat (chiefly UK) — (mainly military) Produces extra thrust by burning extra fuel, usually inefficiently, to significantly raise Nozzle Entry Temperature at the exhaust. Owing to a larger volume flow (i.e. lower density) at exit from the afterburner, an increased nozzle flow area is required, to maintain satisfactory engine matching, when the afterburner is alight. Exhaust or Nozzle — Hot gases leaving the engine exhaust to atmospheric pressure via a nozzle, the

o

objective being to produce a high velocity jet. In most cases, the nozzle is convergent and of fixed flow area. Supersonic nozzle — If the Nozzle Pressure Ratio (Nozzle Entry Pressure/Ambient Pressure) is very high, to maximize thrust it may be worthwhile, despite the additional weight, to fit a convergent-divergent (de Laval) nozzle. As the name suggests, initially this type of nozzle is convergent, but beyond the throat (smallest flow area), the flow area starts to increase to form the divergent portion. The expansion to atmospheric pressure and supersonic gas velocity continues downstream of the throat, whereas in a convergent nozzle the expansion beyond sonic velocity occurs externally, in the exhaust plume. The former process is more efficient than the latter.

The various components named above have constraints on how they are put together to generate the most efficiency or performance. The performance and efficiency of an engine can never be taken in isolation; for example fuel/distance efficiency of a supersonic jet engine maximises at about mach 2, whereas the drag for the vehicle carrying it is increasing as a square law and has much extra drag in the transonic region. The highest fuel efficiency for the overall vehicle is thus typically at Mach ~0.85. For the engine optimisation for its intended use, important here is air intake design, overall size, number of compressor stages (sets of blades), fuel type, number of exhaust stages, metallurgy of components, amount of bypass air used, where the bypass air is introduced, and many other factors. For instance, let us consider design of the air intake.

Common types
There are two types of jet engine that are seen commonly today, the turbofan which is used on almost all commercial airliners, and rocket engines which are used for spaceflight and other terrestrial uses such as ejector seats, flares, fireworks etc.

Turbofan engines Turbofan

an animated turbofan engine
Most modern jet engines are actually turbofans, where the low pressure compressor acts as a fan, supplying supercharged air not only to the engine core, but to a bypass duct. The bypass airflow either passes to a separate 'cold nozzle' or mixes with low pressure turbine exhaust gases, before expanding through a 'mixed flow nozzle'. Turbofans are used for airliners because they give an exhaust speed that is better matched for subsonic airliners. At airliners' flight speed, conventional turbojet engines generate an exhaust that ends up travelling very fast backwards, and this wastes energy. By emitting the exhaust so that it ends up travelling more slowly, better fuel consumption is achieved as well as higher thrust at low speeds. In addition, the lower exhaust speed gives much lower noise. In the 1960s there was little difference between civil and military jet engines, apart from the use of afterburning in some (supersonic) applications. Civil turbofans today have a low exhaust speed (low specific thrust -net thrust divided by airflow) to keep jet noise to a minimum and to improve fuel efficiency. Consequently the bypass ratio (bypass flow divided by core flow) is relatively high (ratios from 4:1 up to 8:1 are common). Only a single fan stage is required, because a low specific thrust implies a low fan pressure ratio.

Today's military turbofans, however, have a relatively high specific thrust, to maximize the thrust for a given frontal area, jet noise being of less concern in military uses relative to civil uses. Multistage fans are normally needed to reach the relatively high fan pressure ratio needed for high specific thrust. Although high turbine inlet temperatures are often employed, the bypass ratio tends to be low, usually significantly less than 2.0.

Rocket engine
A common form of jet engine is the rocket engine. Rocket engines are used for high altitude flights because they give very high thrust and their lack of reliance on atmospheric oxygen allows them to operate at arbitrary altitudes. This is used for launching satellites, space exploration and manned access, and permitted landing on the moon in 1969. However, the high exhaust speed and the heavier, oxidiser-rich propellant results in more propellant use than turbojets, and their use is largely restricted to very high altitudes, very high speeds, or where very high accelerations are needed as rocket engines themselves have a very high thrust-to-weight ratio. An approximate equation for the net thrust of a rocket engine is:

Where F is the thrust, Isp(vac) is the specific impulse, g0 is a standard gravity, is the propellant flow in kg/s, Ae is the area of the exhaust bell at the exit, and P is the atmospheric pressure.

General physical principles
All jet engines are reaction engines that generate thrust by emitting a jet of fluid rearwards at relatively high speed. The forces on the inside of the engine needed to create this jet give a strong thrust on the engine which pushes the craft forwards.

Jet engines make their jet from propellant from tankage that is attached to the engine (as in a 'rocket') as well as in duct engines (those commonly used on aircraft) by ingesting an external fluid (very typically air) and expelling it at higher speed.

Thrust
The motion impulse of the engine is equal to the fluid mass multiplied by the speed at which the engine emits this mass: I = mc where m is the fluid mass per second and c is the exhaust speed. In other words, a vehicle gets the same thrust if it outputs a lot of exhaust very slowly, or a little exhaust very quickly. (In practice parts of the exhaust may be faster than others, but it is the average momentum that matters, and thus the important quantity is called the effective exhaust speed - c here.) However, when a vehicle moves with certain velocity v, the fluid moves towards it, creating an opposing ram drag at the intake: mv Most types of jet engine have an intake, which provides the bulk of the fluid exiting the exhaust. Conventional rocket motors, however, do not have an intake, the oxidizer and fuel both being carried within the vehicle. Therefore, rocket motors do not have ram drag; the gross thrust of the nozzle is the net thrust of the engine. Consequently, the thrust characteristics of a rocket motor are different from that of an air breathing jet engine, and thrust is independent of speed. The jet engine with an intake duct is only useful if the velocity of the gas from the engine, c, is greater than the vehicle velocity, v, as the net engine thrust is the same as if the gas were emitted with the velocity c − v. So the thrust is actually equal to S = m(c − v)

This equation shows that as v approaches c, a greater mass of fluid must go through the engine to continue to accelerate at the same rate, but all engines have a designed limit on this. Additionally, the equation implies that the vehicle can't accelerate past its exhaust velocity as it would have negative thrust.

Energy efficiency

Dependence of the energy efficiency (η) upon the vehicle speed/exhaust speed ratio (v/c) for air-breathing jet and rocket engines Energy efficiency (η) of jet engines installed in vehicles has two main components, cycle efficiency (ηc)- how efficiently the engine can accelerate the jet, and propulsive efficiency (ηp)-how much of the energy of the jet ends up in the vehicle body rather than being carried away as kinetic energy of the jet. Even though overall energy efficiency η is simply: η = ηp η c For all jet engines the propulsive efficiency is highest when the engine emits an exhaust jet at a speed that is the same as, or nearly the same as, the vehicle velocity as this gives the smallest residual kinetic energy.(Note:[20]) The exact formula for air-breathing engines moving at speed v with an exhaust velocity c is given in the literature as:[21] is

And for a rocket:

[22]

In addition to propulsive efficiency, another factor is cycle efficiency; essentially a jet engine is typically a form of heat engine. Heat engine efficiency is determined by the ratio of temperatures that are reached in the engine to that they are exhausted at from the nozzle, which in turn is limited by the overall pressure ratio that can be achieved. Cycle efficiency is highest in rocket engines (~60+%), as they can achieve extremely high combustion temperatures and can have very large, energy efficient nozzles. Cycle efficiency in turbojet and similar is nearer to 30%, the practical combustion temperatures and nozzle efficiencies are much lower.

Specific impulse as a function of speed for different jet types with kerosene fuel (hydrogen I sp would be about twice as high). Although efficiency plummets with speed, greater distances are covered, it turns out that efficiency per unit distance (per km or mile) is roughly independent of speed for jet engines as a group; however airframes become inefficient at supersonic speeds

Fuel/propellant consumption
A closely related (but different) concept to energy efficiency is the rate of consumption of propellant mass. Propellant consumption in jet engines is measured by Specific Fuel Consumption, Specific impulse or Effective exhaust velocity. They all measure the same thing, specific impulse and effective

exhaust velocity are strictly proportional, whereas specific fuel consumption is inversely proportional to the others. For airbreathing engines such as turbojets energy efficiency and propellant (fuel) efficiency are much the same thing, since the propellant is a fuel and the source of energy. In rocketry, the propellant is also the exhaust, and this means that a high energy propellant gives better propellant efficiency but can in some cases actually can give lower energy efficiency.

Engine type

scenario

SFC in SFC in Isp lb/(lbf·h) g/(kN·s) s

Effective in exhaust velocity (m/s)

NK-33 engine

rocket

vacuum

10.9

309

330

3,240

SSME engine

rocket

Space Shuttle vacuum

7.95

225

453

4,423

Ramjet

M1

4.5

127

800

7,877

J-58 turbojet

SR-71 at 1.9 M3.2 (wet)

53.8

1,900

18,587

RollsRoyce/Snecma Olympus 593

Concorde M2 cruise 1.195[23] 33.8 (dry)

3,012

29,553

CF6-80C2B1F

Boeing 747-400

0.605[23] 17.1

5,950

58,400

turbofan

cruise

General Electric sea level CF6 turbofan

0.307

8.696

11,700 115,000

Thrust-to-weight ratio
The thrust to weight ratio of jet engines of similar principles varies somewhat with scale, but mostly is a function of engine construction technology. Clearly for a given engine, the lighter the engine, the better the thrust to weight is, the less fuel is used to compensate for drag due to the lift needed to carry the engine weight, or to accelerate the mass of the engine. As can be seen in the following table, rocket engines generally achieve very much higher thrust to weight ratios than duct engines such as turbojet and turbofan engines. This is primarily because rockets almost universally use dense liquid or solid reaction mass which gives a much smaller volume and hence the pressurisation system that supplies the nozzle is much smaller and lighter for the same performance. Duct engines have to deal with air which is 2-3 orders of magnitude less dense and this gives pressures over much larger areas, and which in turn results in more engineering materials being needed to hold the engine together and for the air compressor.

Engine

Thrust-to-weight ratio

Concorde's Rolls-Royce/Snecma Olympus 593 4.0 with reheat[24] turbojet

J-58 (SR-71 Blackbird jet engine)

5.2[25]

Space shuttle's SSME rocket engine

73.12[26]

RD-180 rocket engine

73.4

NK-33 rocket engine

136.66[27]

Comparison of types

Comparative suitability for (left to right) turboshaft, low bypass and turbojet to fly at 10 km altitude in various speeds. Horizontal axis - speed, m/s. Vertical axis displays engine efficiency. Turboprops obtain little thrust from jet effect, but are useful for comparison. They are gas turbine engines that have a rotating fan that takes and accelerates the large mass of air but by a relatively small change in speed. This low speed limits the speed of any propeller driven airplane. When the plane speed exceeds this limit, propellers no longer provide any thrust (c-v < 0). However, because they accelerate a large mass of air, turboprops are very efficient. Turbojets accelerate a much smaller mass of the air and burned fuel, but they emit it at the much higher speeds possible with a de Laval nozzle. This is why they are suitable for supersonic and higher speeds.

Low bypass turbofans have the mixed exhaust of the two air flows, running at different speeds (c1 and c2). The thrust of such engine is S = m1 (c1 - v) + m2 (c2 - v) where m1 and m2 are the air masses, being blown from the both exhausts. Such engines are effective at lower speeds, than the pure jets, but at higher speeds than the turboshafts and propellers in general. For instance, at the 10 km altitude, turboshafts are most effective at about Mach 0.4 (0.4 times the speed of sound), low bypass turbofans become more effective at about Mach 0.75 and turbojets become more effective than mixed exhaust engines when the speed approaches Mach 2-3. Rocket engines have extremely high exhaust velocity and thus are best suited for high speeds (hypersonic) and great altitudes. At any given throttle, the thrust and efficiency of a rocket motor improves slightly with increasing altitude (because the backpressure falls thus increasing net thrust at the nozzle exit plane), whereas with a turbojet (or turbofan) the falling density of the air entering the intake (and the hot gases leaving the nozzle) causes the net thrust to decrease with increasing altitude. Rocket engines are more efficient than even scramjets above roughly Mach 15.[28]

Altitude and speed
With the exception of scramjets, jet engines, deprived of their inlet systems can only accept air at around half the speed of sound. The inlet system's job for transonic and supersonic aircraft is to slow the air and perform some of the compression. The limit on maximum altitude for engines is set by flammabilityat very high altitudes the air becomes too thin to burn, or after compression, too hot. For turbojet engines altitudes of about 40 km appear to be possible, whereas for ramjet engines 55 km may be achievable. Scramjets may theoretically manage 75 km.[29] Rocket engines of course have no upper limit.

Flying faster compresses the air in at the front of the engine, but ultimately the engine cannot go any faster without melting. The upper limit is usually thought to be about Mach 5-8, except for scramjets which may be able to achieve about Mach 15 or more, as they avoid slowing the air.

Noise
Noise is due to shockwaves that form when the exhaust jet interacts with the external air. The intensity of the noise is proportional to the thrust as well as proportional to the fourth power of the jet velocity.Generally then, the lower speed exhaust jets emitted from engines such as high bypass turbofans are the quietest, whereas the fastest jets are the loudest. Although some variation in jet speed can often be arranged from a jet engine (such as by throttling back and adjusting the nozzle) it is difficult to vary the jet speed from an engine over a very wide range. Therefore since engines for supersonic vehicles such as Concorde, military jets and rockets inherently need to have supersonic exhaust at top speed, so these vehicles are especially noisy even at low speeds.

Advanced designs J-58 combined ramjet/turbojet
The SR-71 Blackbird's Pratt & Whitney J58 engines were rather unusual. They could convert in flight from being largely a turbojet to being largely a compressor-assisted ramjet. At high speeds (above Mach 2.4), the engine used variable geometry vanes to direct excess air through 6 bypass pipes from downstream of the fourth compressor stage into the afterburner.[30] 80% of the SR71's thrust at high speed was generated in this way, giving much higher thrust, improving specific impulse by 10-15%, and permitting continuous operation at Mach 3.2. The name coined for this setup is turbo-ramjet.

Hydrogen fuelled air-breathing jet engines

Jet engines can be run on almost any fuel. Hydrogen is a highly desirable fuel, as, although the energy per mole is not unusually high, the molecule is very much lighter than other molecules. The energy per kg of hydrogen is twice that of more common fuels and this gives twice the specific impulse. In addition, jet engines running on hydrogen are quite easy to build—the first ever turbojet was run on hydrogen. Also, although not duct engines, hydrogen-fueled rocket engines have seen extensive use. However, in almost every other way, hydrogen is problematic. The downside of hydrogen is its density; in gaseous form the tanks are impractical for flight, but even in the form of liquid hydrogen it has a density one fourteenth that of water. It is also deeply cryogenic and requires very significant insulation that precludes it being stored in wings. The overall vehicle would end up being very large, and difficult for most airports to accommodate. Finally, pure hydrogen is not found in nature, and must be manufactured either via steam reforming or expensive electrolysis. Nevertheless, research is ongoing and hydrogenfueled aircraft designs do exist that may be feasible.

Precooled jet engine
An idea originated by Robert P. Carmichael in 1955 [31] is that hydrogen-fueled engines could theoretically have much higher performance than hydrocarbon-fueled engines if a heat exchanger were used to cool the incoming air. The low temperature allows lighter materials to be used, a higher massflow through the engines, and permits combustors to inject more fuel without overheating the engine. This idea leads to plausible designs like Reaction Engines SABRE, that might permit single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles,[32] and ATREX, which could permit jet engines to be used up to hypersonic speeds and high altitudes for boosters for launch vehicles. The idea is also being researched by the EU for a concept to achieve non-stop antipodal supersonic passenger travel at Mach 5 (Reaction Engines A2).

Nuclear-powered ramjet
Project Pluto was a nuclear-powered ramjet, intended for use in a cruise missile. Rather than combusting fuel as in regular jet engines, air was heated using a high-temperature, unshielded nuclear reactor. This dramatically increased the engine burn time, and the ramjet was predicted to be able to cover any required distance at supersonic speeds (Mach 3 at tree-top height). However, there was no obvious way to stop it once it had taken off, which would be a great disadvantage in any non-disposable application. Also, because the reactor was unshielded, it was dangerous to be in or around the flight path of the vehicle (although the exhaust itself wasn't radioactive). These disadvantages limit the application to warhead delivery system for all-out nuclear war, which it was being designed for.

Scramjet
Scramjets are an evolution of ramjets that are able to operate at much higher speeds than any other kind of airbreathing engine. They share a similar structure with ramjets, being a speciallyshaped tube that compresses air with no moving parts through ram-air compression. Scramjets, however, operate with supersonic airflow through the entire engine. Thus, scramjets do not have the diffuser required by ramjets to slow the incoming airflow to subsonic speeds. Scramjets start working at speeds of at least Mach 4, and have a maximum useful speed of approximately Mach 17.[33] Due to aerodynamic heating at these high speeds, cooling poses a challenge to engineers.

Environmental considerations
Jet engines are usually run on fossil fuel propellant, and are thus a source of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Some scientists believe that jet engines are also a source of global dimming due to the water vapour in the exhaust causing cloud formations. Nitrogen compounds are also formed from the combustion process from atmospheric nitrogen. At low altitudes this is not thought to be especially harmful, but for supersonic aircraft that fly in the stratosphere some destruction of ozone may occur. Sulphates are also emitted if the fuel contains sulphur.

Safety and reliability Air safety
Jet engines are usually very reliable and have a very good safety record. However, failures do sometimes occur.

Compressor blade containment Blade off testing
The most likely failure is compressor blade failure, and modern jet engines are designed with structures that can catch these blades and keep them contained within the engine casing. Verification of a jet engine design involves testing that this system works correctly.

Bird strike
Bird strike is an aviation term for a collision between a bird and an aircraft. It is a common threat to aircraft safety and has caused a number of fatal accidents. In 1988 an Ethiopian Airlines Boeing 737 sucked pigeons into both engines during take-off and then crashed in an attempt to return to the Bahir Dar airport; of the 104 people aboard, 35 died and 21 were injured. In another incident in 1995, a Dassault Falcon 20 crashed at a Paris airport during an emergency landing attempt after sucking lapwings into an engine, which caused an engine failure and a fire in the

airplane fuselage; all 10 people on board were killed. A US Airways Airbus A320 aircraft sucked in one bird in each engine. The plane landed in the Hudson River after taking off from LaGuardia International Airport in New York City. There were no fatalities. Modern jet engines have the capability of surviving an ingestion of a bird. Small fast planes, such as military jet fighters, are at higher risk than big heavy multi-engine ones. This is due to the fact that the fan of a high-bypass turbofan engine, typical on transport aircraft, acts as a centrifugal separator to force ingested materials (birds, ice, etc.) to the outside of the fan's disc. As a result, such materials go through the relatively unobstructed bypass duct, rather than through the core of the engine, which contains the smaller and more delicate compressor blades. Military aircraft designed for high-speed flight typically have pure turbojet, or low-bypass turbofan engines, increasing the risk that ingested materials will get into the core of the engine to cause damage. The highest risk of the bird strike is during the takeoff and landing, in low altitudes, which is in the vicinity of the airports.

Uncontained failures
One class of failures that has caused accidents in particular is uncontained failures, where rotary parts of the engine break off and exit through the case. These can cut fuel or control lines, and can penetrate the cabin. Although fuel and control lines are usually duplicated for reliability, the crash of United Airlines Flight 232 was caused when hydraulic fluid lines for all three independent hydraulic systems were simultaneously severed by shrapnel from an uncontained engine failure. Prior to the United 232 crash, the probability of a simultaneous failure of all three hydraulic systems was considered as high as a billion-to-one. However, the statistical models used to come up with this figure did not account for the fact that the number-two engine was mounted at the tail close to all the hydraulic lines, nor the

possibility that an engine failure would release many fragments in many directions. Since then, more modern aircraft engine designs have focused on keeping shrapnel from penetrating the cowling or ductwork, and have increasingly utilized high-strength composite materials to achieve the required penetration resistance while keeping the weight low. Turbojets are the oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. Two engineers, Frank Whittle in the United Kingdom and Hans von Ohain in Germany, developed the concept independently into practical engines during the late 1930s, although credit for the first turbojet is given to Whittle who submitted the first proposal and held a UK patent that was widely read. Turbojets consist of an air inlet, an air compressor, a combustion chamber, a gas turbine (that drives the air compressor) and a nozzle. The air is compressed into the chamber, heated and expanded by the fuel combustion and then allowed to expand out through the turbine into the nozzle where it is accelerated to high speed to provide propulsion.[1] Turbojets are quite inefficient (if flown below about Mach 2) and very noisy. Most modern aircraft use turbofans instead for economic reasons. Turbojets are still very common in medium range cruise missiles,[citation needed] due to their high exhaust speed, low frontal area and relative simplicity.

History
Albert Fonó's German patent for jet Engines (January 1928). The third illustration is a turbojet The first patent for using a gas turbine to power an aircraft was filed in 1921 by Frenchman Maxime Guillaume.[2] His engine was to be an axial-flow turbojet, but was never constructed, as it would have required considerable advances over the state of the art in compressors.

Practical axial compressors were made possible by ideas from A.A.Griffith in a seminal paper in 1926 ("An Aerodynamic Theory of Turbine Design").

Heinkel He 178, the world's first aircraft to fly purely on turbojet power, using an HeS 3 engine On 27 August 1939 the Heinkel He 178 became the world's first aircraft to fly under turbojet power, thus becoming the first practical jet plane. The first two operational turbojet aircraft, the Messerschmitt Me 262 and then the Gloster Meteor entered service towards the end of World War II in 1944. A turbojet engine is used primarily to propel aircraft. Air is drawn into the rotating compressor via the intake and is compressed to a higher pressure before entering the combustion chamber. Fuel is mixed with the compressed air and ignited by a flame in the eddy of a flame holder. This combustion process significantly raises the temperature of the gas. Hot combustion products leaving the combustor expand through the turbine where power

is extracted to drive the compressor. Although this expansion process reduces the turbine exit gas temperature and pressure, both parameters are usually still well above ambient conditions. The gas stream exiting the turbine expands to ambient pressure via the propelling nozzle, producing a high velocity jet in the exhaust plume. If the momentum of the exhaust stream exceeds the momentum of the intake stream, the impulse is positive, thus, there is a net forward thrust upon the airframe. Early generation jet engines were pure turbojets, designed intially to use a centrifugal compressor (as in the Heinkel HeS 3), and very shortly afterwards began to use Axial compressors (as in the Junkers Jumo 004) for a smaller diameter to the overall engine housing. They were used because they were able to achieve very high altitudes and speeds, much higher than propeller engines, because of a better compression ratio and because of their high exhaust speed. However they were not very fuel efficient. Modern jet engines are mainly turbofans, where a proportion of the air entering the intake bypasses the combustor; this proportion depends on the engine's bypass ratio. This makes turbofans much more efficient than turbojets at high subsonic/transonic and low supersonic speeds. One of the most recent uses of turbojet engines was the Olympus 593 on Concorde. Concorde used turbojet engines because it turns out that the small cross-section and high exhaust speed is ideal for operation at Mach 2. Concorde's engine burnt less fuel to produce a given thrust for a mile at Mach 2.0 than a modern high-bypass turbofan such as General Electric CF6 at its Mach 0.86 optimum speed. Concorde's airframe, however, was far less efficient than that of any subsonic airliner. Although ramjet engines are simpler in design as they have virtually no moving parts, they are incapable of operating at low flight speeds.

Air intake

An animation of an axial compressor. The darker colored blades are the stators.

Schematic diagram showing the operation of a centrifugal flow turbojet engine. The compressor is driven via the turbine stage and throws the air outwards, requiring it to be redirected parallel to the axis of thrust.

Schematic diagram showing the operation of an axial flow turbojet engine. Here, the compressor is again driven by the turbine, but the air flow remains parallel to the axis of thrust. Preceding the compressor is the air intake (or inlet). It is designed to be as efficient as possible at recovering the ram pressure of the air streamtube approaching the intake. The air

leaving the intake then enters the compressor. The stators (stationary blades) guide the airflow of the compressed gases.

Compressor
The compressor is driven by the turbine. The compressor rotates at very high speed, adding energy to the airflow and at the same time squeezing (compressing) it into a smaller space. Compressing the air increases its pressure and temperature. In most turbojet-powered aircraft, bleed air is extracted from the compressor section at various stages to perform a variety of jobs including air conditioning/pressurization, engine inlet anti-icing and turbine cooling. Bleeding air off decreases the overall efficiency of the engine, but the usefulness of the compressed air outweighs the loss in efficiency. Several types of compressor are used in turbojets and gas turbines in general: axial, centrifugal, axial-centrifugal, doublecentrifugal, etc. Early turbojet compressors had overall pressure ratios as low as 5:1 (as do a lot of simple auxiliary power units and small propulsion turbojets today). Aerodynamic improvements, plus splitting the compression system into two separate units and/or incorporating variable compressor geometry, enabled later turbojets to have overall pressure ratios of 15:1 or more. For comparison, modern civil turbofan engines have overall pressure ratios of 44:1 or more. After leaving the compressor section, the compressed air enters the combustion chamber.

Combustion chamber
The burning process in the combustor is significantly different from that in a piston engine. In a piston engine the burning gases are confined to a small volume and, as the fuel burns, the pressure increases dramatically. In a turbojet the air and fuel

mixture passes unconfined through the combustion chamber. As the mixture burns its temperature increases dramatically, but the pressure actually decreases a few percent. The fuel-air mixture must be brought almost to a stop so that a stable flame can be maintained. This occurs just after the start of the combustion chamber. The aft part of this flame front is allowed to progress rearward. This ensures that all of the fuel is burned, as the flame becomes hotter when it leans out, and because of the shape of the combustion chamber the flow is accelerated rearwards. Some pressure drop is required, as it is the reason why the expanding gases travel out the rear of the engine rather than out the front. Less than 25% of the air is involved in combustion, in some engines as little as 12%, the rest acting as a reservoir to absorb the heating effects of the burning fuel. Another difference between piston engines and jet engines is that the peak flame temperature in a piston engine is experienced only momentarily in a small portion of the full cycle. The combustor in a jet engine is exposed to the peak flame temperature continuously and operates at a pressure high enough that a stoichiometric fuel-air ratio would melt the can and everything downstream. Instead, jet engines run a very lean mixture, so lean that it would not normally support combustion. A central core of the flow (primary airflow) is mixed with enough fuel to burn readily. The cans are carefully shaped to maintain a layer of fresh unburned air between the metal surfaces and the central core. This unburned air (secondary airflow) mixes into the burned gases to bring the temperature down to something a turbine can tolerate.

Turbine
Hot gases leaving the combustor are allowed to expand through the turbine. Turbines are usually made up of high temperature metals such as inconel to resist the high temperature, and frequently have built-in cooling channels.

In the first stage the turbine is largely an impulse turbine (similar to a pelton wheel) and rotates because of the impact of the hot gas stream. Later stages are convergent ducts that accelerate the gas rearward and gain energy from that process. Pressure drops, and energy is transferred into the shaft. The turbine's rotational energy is used primarily to drive the compressor. Some shaft power is extracted to drive accessories, like fuel, oil, and hydraulic pumps. Because of its significantly higher entry temperature, the turbine pressure ratio is much lower than that of the compressor. In a turbojet almost two thirds of all the power generated by burning fuel is used by the compressor to compress the air for the engine.

Nozzle propelling nozzle
After the turbine, the gases are allowed to expand through the exhaust nozzle to atmospheric pressure, producing a high velocity jet in the exhaust plume. In a convergent nozzle, the ducting narrows progressively to a throat. The nozzle pressure ratio on a turbojet is usually high enough for the expanding gases to reach Mach 1.0 and choke the throat. Normally, the flow will go supersonic in the exhaust plume outside the engine. If, however, a convergent-divergent "de Laval" nozzle is fitted, the divergent (increasing flow area) section allows the gases to reach supersonic velocity within the nozzle itself. This is slightly more efficient on thrust than using a convergent nozzle. There is, however, the added weight and complexity since the con-di nozzle must be fully variable to cope basically with engine throttling.

Net thrust
The net thrust of a turbojet is given by:[3][4]

where: is the rate of flow of air through the engine is the rate of flow of fuel entering the engine is the speed of the jet (the exhaust plume) and is assumed to be less than sonic velocity is the true airspeed of the aircraft represents the nozzle gross thrust represents the ram drag of the intake. If the speed of the jet is equal to sonic velocity the nozzle is said to be choked. If the nozzle is choked the pressure at the nozzle exit plane is greater than atmospheric pressure, and extra terms must be added to the above equation to account for the pressure thrust. The rate of flow of fuel entering the engine is very small compared with the rate of flow of air.[3] If the contribution of fuel to the nozzle gross thrust is ignored, the net thrust is:

The speed of the jet must exceed the true airspeed of the aircraft if there is to be a net forward thrust on the airframe.

Thrust to power ratio
A simple turbojet engine will produce thrust of approximately: 2.5 pounds force per horsepower (15 mN/W).

Afterburner
An afterburner or "reheat jetpipe" is a device added to the rear of the jet engine. It provides a means of spraying fuel directly into the hot exhaust, where it ignites and boosts available thrust significantly; a drawback is its very high fuel consumption rate. Afterburners are used mostly on military aircraft, but the two supersonic civilian transports, Concorde and the TU-144, also

utilized afterburners, as does Scaled Composites White Knight, a carrier aircraft for the experimental SpaceShipOne suborbital spacecraft.

Thrust reverser
A thrust reverser is, essentially, a pair of clamshell doors mounted at the rear of the engine which, when deployed, divert thrust normal to the jet engine flow to help slow an aircraft upon landing. They are often used in conjunction with spoilers. The accidental deployment of a thrust reverser during flight is a dangerous event that can lead to loss of control and destruction of the aircraft. Thrust reversers are more convenient than drogue parachutes.

Cycle improvements
Thermodynamics of a jet engine are modelled approximately by a Brayton Cycle. Increasing the overall pressure ratio of the compression system raises the combustor entry temperature. Therefore, at a fixed fuel flow and airflow, there is an increase in turbine inlet temperature. Although the higher temperature rise across the compression system, implies a larger temperature drop over the turbine system, the nozzle temperature is unaffected, because the same amount of heat is being added to the system. There is, however, a rise in nozzle pressure, because overall pressure ratio increases faster than the turbine expansion ratio. Consequently, net thrust increases, while specific fuel consumption (fuel flow/net thrust) decreases. Thus turbojets can be made more fuel efficient by raising overall pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature in union. However, better turbine materials and/or improved vane/blade cooling are required to cope with increases in both turbine inlet temperature and compressor delivery temperature. Increasing the latter requires better compressor materials.

By Increasing the useful work to system , by minimizing the heat losses by conduction etc and minimizing the inlet temperature ratio up to a certain level will increase the themal efficiency of the turbo jet engine.

Early designs

J85-GE-17A turbojet engine from General Electric (1970) Early German engines had serious problems controlling the turbine inlet temperature. A lack of suitable alloys due to war shortages meant the turbine rotor and stator blades would sometimes disintegrate on first operation and never lasted long. Their early engines averaged 10-25 hours of operation before failing—often with chunks of metal flying out the back of the engine when the turbine overheated. British engines tended to fare better, running for 150 hours between overhauls. A few of the original fighters still exist with their original engines, but many have been re-engined with more modern engines with greater fuel efficiency and a longer TBO (such as the reproduction Me-262 powered by General Electric J85s). The United States had the best materials because of their reliance on turbo/supercharging in high altitude bombers of World War II. For a time some US jet engines included the ability to inject water into the engine to cool the compressed flow before combustion, usually during takeoff. The water would tend to prevent complete combustion and as a result the engine ran cooler again, but the planes would take off leaving a huge plume of smoke.

Today these problems are much better handled, but temperature still limits turbojet airspeeds in supersonic flight. At the very highest speeds, the compression of the intake air raises the temperatures throughout the engine to the point that the turbine blades would melt, forcing a reduction in fuel flow to lower temperatures, but giving a reduced thrust and thus limiting the top speed. Ramjets and scramjets do not have turbine blades; therefore they are able to fly faster, and rockets run even hotter still. At lower speeds, better materials have increased the critical temperature, and automatic fuel management controls have made it nearly impossible to overheat the engine.


				
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