October 28, 2009 Lexical Development Chapter 5 & 9 Lexical Development Word – set of arbitrary symbols that refer to entities, actions, nouns o Phototactics o Symbols represent objects even when object is not present Early Lexical Development Mental Lexicon o Lexicon – vocabulary; words belonging to a particular language Mental dictionary that belong to our language o Word knowledge – phonological, grammatical, meaning with cognitive development, a child creates schemes as they perceive the world helps them create vocabulary they use later on – gain lexical knowledge with each experience and map meaning From Babbling to (true) Words o PCF – (Protowords, vocalables, quasi-words) early first words, words children put together that are not like adult words, early entries to lexicon Growing knowledge of how to form words, directly tied to environment and situations Mother –child interaction are tied to later lexical development o Babbling to true first words is between 10 – 15 months from PCF to true first words which become first vocabulary Grouping of sounds are more like adults (true first words) Early word – yaya for banana – situational specific, context dependent Systematic with errors in first words (pcf’s) True word – banana, more referential and adult like Jargon decreases – can use the word when they have a conceptual difference, know the meaning outside of situations and context o As children move from babbling to first true words are phonological process First one tends to be final consonant deletion As they continue to ‘practice’ will eventually be suppressed and include final consonants Theories o Because infants babble, sounds that don’t fit their native language, that perhaps because an infant slows down to work on motor development o discontinued theory – a disconnect and babbling period and first words babbling and first words are 2 different stages b/c they babbled with sounds that weren’t in their language Some thought there must be different period of language b/c there are some babbling that don’t fit the infants’ native language o Babbling Drift Theory - Maybe it is one long stage from babbling to speech More evidence suggests that there is just one stage from babbling to first words Babbling to words is one stage Even though infants babble words that aren’t in their language, it is all part of practicing and phonological processes Pre-lexical Transitional Utterances o Progressing from babbling to stabilize vocalizations around certain situations o Phonetically consistent forms (Protowords) Dore says PCF’s are (when they are used) October 28, 2009 Lexical Development Chapter 5 & 9 Affect expressions – terms that express feelings Instrumental expression – attempting to regulate mom/daddy behavior Saying “up up up” to be picked up Indicating expression – produced in conduction with a gesture Point to some object o Transition period has babbling, PCF , jargon PCF is the middle piece between babbling and first words What makes a true word? o Arbitrary symbol o Refers to things o Phonetic relationship to an adult word o Used consistently to mark a particular situation or object Early Lexical Development o First words – processes to form internal representation (cognitive schemes) Context-bound words – words infants use to refer to a situation that they hear a lot and develop and use them around those activities Context bound words become decontextualized after they have a better understanding PCF’s are context bounds, eventually with first true words, they can refer to things outside context Can first words be context bound and referential? Yes Referential – names for things, not bound to context, can talk about past experience, First true words are referential because they are beginning to grasp the word meaning o 2 kinds of lexical entries Situation Specific Word encodes meaning Concept Formation (what are learning strategies to develop lexical vocabulary) o Semantic Feature Hypothesis (Clark, 1975) References can be defined by a universal set of semantic features Over/underextension – the errors made when a child is practicing Using the referent for 1 object for all objects with similar features Underextension is when they see a baseball and say ball but when shown a basketball or kickball they don’t accommodate that it is a ball too Child understands concepts by looking at specific features *As a child tries to map meaning and internalizes it, taking all perceived features and catalog them to later retrieve knowledge Early on, before children utter a word, a child has understanding Receptive knowledge precedes production, in the early stages of development Children can understand things before they say them o Functional – Core Hypothesis (nelson, 1977) Motion features helps child derive meaning The motion of features rather than a static perceptual feature Example: motion of a ball is to roll, bounce – child will know its function rather than it is black and white Child might register that it is black and white but this researcher says children register function before features October 28, 2009 Lexical Development Chapter 5 & 9 Bad thing – it is better to explain how children acquire verbs Also is not able to explain cross-linguistic Any country has a ball with the same features, but not all languages have a set of universal knowledge about verbs o Example: football in America is different than in Spain called soccer o Associative and Prototypic Complexes 1 type of similarity may be too restrictive Shift from 1 feature to another which indicates loosely defined criterion for the concept Children create an association/prototype to what concepts look like Another hypothesis, older theory about how children acquire concept knowledge Maybe children learn a word by the associations with the words Creating schemes by associations or Children build knowledge around things that are similar (associative/context) OR children develop a prototype Children map meaning to words and try to acquire a knowledge base 189 – 190 more theories need to know o Nelson – grammatical classification of first words Determined types of grammatical function (purposes) and categorized information Nouns are acquired first because it’s easier to map meaning of ideas that are whole rather than abstract Lexical Growth (after first true words and words become decontextualized) o Research showed linear pattern of vocabulary growth (18 – 24 month vocab spurt) o Vocabulary growth spurts Variable rates (all at once or incrementaly) Could be due to more experience, motherese provided more opportunity to practice Linear pattern of growth New words tend to be related to familiar objects, events and relationships o Causes of word learning: (explanation for how children acquire vocabulary) Maturation of internal word-learning constraints (several scheme concepts) Figured out how the lexicon works (decontextualize, retrieve things quicker) “naming insight” Influence of phonological abilities Cognitive development Referential and Expressive Continuum (nelson) o Referential style – ‘noun lovers’ Object labels, used more nouns o Expressive style - “noun leavers” Personal social words – some like more personal words Greetings, thank you, bye bye o Different acquisition strategies Naming things Encoding a broad range of experiences Either children are noun lovers or social term lovers o Differences in learning style: Bottom –up strategy Take the little pieces of the concept to build up to the whole concept October 28, 2009 Lexical Development Chapter 5 & 9 Example – expose a child to phonics, and learning to read then build up to a word Top- down Take whole concept then break it down into pieces Other factors associated with referential style Gender Birth order (child born first is fast mapper Socio economic status Semantic Class Distinctions (Louis bloom) o Researchers looked at categorizing the words children use o Understanding first words – researchers Louis bloom and Nelson o Substantive words – refer to specific entities, o Relational words – Content categories – system if you do an analysis of early words children use, you can see what they are trying to say o Existence Say ‘there man’ o Nonexistence o Disappearance Louis bloom = semantic categories Have a more thorough understanding of first word and first word transcriptions, these categories can help understand meaning Phase I – single word to convey existence, nonexistence or disappearance Look for another power point On quiz = what semantic category does ‘all gone’ belong to?
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