Lexical Development by xiaoyounan


									October 28, 2009
Lexical Development
Chapter 5 & 9
                                        Lexical Development
      Word – set of arbitrary symbols that refer to entities, actions, nouns
          o Phototactics
          o Symbols represent objects even when object is not present

Early Lexical Development

      Mental Lexicon
           o Lexicon – vocabulary; words belonging to a particular language
                     Mental dictionary that belong to our language
           o Word knowledge – phonological, grammatical, meaning
                     with cognitive development, a child creates schemes as they perceive the world helps
                        them create vocabulary they use later on – gain lexical knowledge with each
                        experience and map meaning
      From Babbling to (true) Words
           o PCF – (Protowords, vocalables, quasi-words) early first words, words children put together that
               are not like adult words, early entries to lexicon
                     Growing knowledge of how to form words, directly tied to environment and situations
                     Mother –child interaction are tied to later lexical development
           o Babbling to true first words is between 10 – 15 months from PCF to true first words which
               become first vocabulary
                     Grouping of sounds are more like adults (true first words)
                     Early word – yaya for banana – situational specific, context dependent
                             Systematic with errors in first words (pcf’s)
                     True word – banana, more referential and adult like
                     Jargon decreases – can use the word when they have a conceptual difference, know the
                        meaning outside of situations and context
           o As children move from babbling to first true words are phonological process
                     First one tends to be final consonant deletion
                     As they continue to ‘practice’ will eventually be suppressed and include final consonants
      Theories
           o Because infants babble, sounds that don’t fit their native language, that perhaps because an
               infant slows down to work on motor development
           o discontinued theory – a disconnect and babbling period and first words
                     babbling and first words are 2 different stages b/c they babbled with sounds that
                        weren’t in their language
                     Some thought there must be different period of language b/c there are some babbling
                        that don’t fit the infants’ native language
           o Babbling Drift Theory - Maybe it is one long stage from babbling to speech
                     More evidence suggests that there is just one stage from babbling to first words
                     Babbling to words is one stage
                     Even though infants babble words that aren’t in their language, it is all part of practicing
                        and phonological processes
      Pre-lexical Transitional Utterances
           o Progressing from babbling to stabilize vocalizations around certain situations
           o Phonetically consistent forms (Protowords) Dore says PCF’s are (when they are used)
October 28, 2009
Lexical Development
Chapter 5 & 9
                      Affect expressions – terms that express feelings
                      Instrumental expression – attempting to regulate mom/daddy behavior
                            Saying “up up up” to be picked up
                    Indicating expression – produced in conduction with a gesture
                            Point to some object
           o Transition period has babbling, PCF , jargon
                    PCF is the middle piece between babbling and first words
      What makes a true word?
           o Arbitrary symbol
           o Refers to things
           o Phonetic relationship to an adult word
           o Used consistently to mark a particular situation or object
      Early Lexical Development
           o First words – processes to form internal representation (cognitive schemes)
                    Context-bound words – words infants use to refer to a situation that they hear a lot and
                       develop and use them around those activities
                            Context bound words become decontextualized after they have a better
                            PCF’s are context bounds, eventually with first true words, they can refer to
                               things outside context
                            Can first words be context bound and referential? Yes
                    Referential – names for things, not bound to context, can talk about past experience,
                            First true words are referential because they are beginning to grasp the word
           o 2 kinds of lexical entries
                    Situation Specific
                    Word encodes meaning
      Concept Formation (what are learning strategies to develop lexical vocabulary)
           o Semantic Feature Hypothesis (Clark, 1975)
                    References can be defined by a universal set of semantic features
                    Over/underextension – the errors made when a child is practicing
                            Using the referent for 1 object for all objects with similar features
                            Underextension is when they see a baseball and say ball but when shown a
                               basketball or kickball they don’t accommodate that it is a ball too
                    Child understands concepts by looking at specific features
                    *As a child tries to map meaning and internalizes it, taking all perceived features and
                       catalog them to later retrieve knowledge
                    Early on, before children utter a word, a child has understanding
                    Receptive knowledge precedes production, in the early stages of development
                            Children can understand things before they say them
           o Functional – Core Hypothesis (nelson, 1977)
                    Motion features helps child derive meaning
                    The motion of features rather than a static perceptual feature
                    Example: motion of a ball is to roll, bounce – child will know its function rather than it is
                       black and white
                            Child might register that it is black and white but this researcher says children
                               register function before features
October 28, 2009
Lexical Development
Chapter 5 & 9
                      Bad thing – it is better to explain how children acquire verbs
                            Also is not able to explain cross-linguistic
                            Any country has a ball with the same features, but not all languages have a set
                                of universal knowledge about verbs
                                     o Example: football in America is different than in Spain called soccer
           o Associative and Prototypic Complexes
                    1 type of similarity may be too restrictive
                    Shift from 1 feature to another which indicates loosely defined criterion for the concept
                    Children create an association/prototype to what concepts look like
                    Another hypothesis, older theory about how children acquire concept knowledge
                            Maybe children learn a word by the associations with the words
                            Creating schemes by associations or
                    Children build knowledge around things that are similar (associative/context) OR
                       children develop a prototype
                    Children map meaning to words and try to acquire a knowledge base
                    189 – 190 more theories need to know
           o Nelson – grammatical classification of first words
                    Determined types of grammatical function (purposes) and categorized information
                    Nouns are acquired first because it’s easier to map meaning of ideas that are whole
                       rather than abstract
      Lexical Growth (after first true words and words become decontextualized)
           o Research showed linear pattern of vocabulary growth (18 – 24 month vocab spurt)
           o Vocabulary growth spurts
                    Variable rates (all at once or incrementaly)
                    Could be due to more experience, motherese provided more opportunity to practice
                    Linear pattern of growth
                    New words tend to be related to familiar objects, events and relationships
           o Causes of word learning: (explanation for how children acquire vocabulary)
                    Maturation of internal word-learning constraints (several scheme concepts)
                    Figured out how the lexicon works (decontextualize, retrieve things quicker)
                            “naming insight”
                    Influence of phonological abilities
                    Cognitive development
      Referential and Expressive Continuum (nelson)
           o Referential style – ‘noun lovers’
                    Object labels, used more nouns
           o Expressive style - “noun leavers”
                    Personal social words – some like more personal words
                    Greetings, thank you, bye bye
           o Different acquisition strategies
                    Naming things
                    Encoding a broad range of experiences
                    Either children are noun lovers or social term lovers
           o Differences in learning style:
                    Bottom –up strategy
                            Take the little pieces of the concept to build up to the whole concept
October 28, 2009
Lexical Development
Chapter 5 & 9
                               Example – expose a child to phonics, and learning to read then build up to a
                     Top- down
                            Take whole concept then break it down into pieces
                     Other factors associated with referential style
                            Gender
                            Birth order (child born first is fast mapper
                            Socio economic status
      Semantic Class Distinctions (Louis bloom)
            o Researchers looked at categorizing the words children use
            o Understanding first words – researchers Louis bloom and Nelson
            o Substantive words – refer to specific entities,
            o Relational words –
      Content categories – system if you do an analysis of early words children use, you can see what they are
       trying to say
            o Existence
                     Say ‘there man’
            o Nonexistence
            o Disappearance
      Louis bloom = semantic categories
      Have a more thorough understanding of first word and first word transcriptions, these categories can
       help understand meaning
      Phase I – single word to convey existence, nonexistence or disappearance
      Look for another power point
      On quiz = what semantic category does ‘all gone’ belong to?

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