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					                                                        NEA News
                                                        Volume 28, No. 2                            2010




NEA News is published twice yearly in English
and French by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency.
The opinions expressed herein are those of the
                                                        Contents
contributors and do not necessarily reflect the views
of the Organisation or of its member countries. The
material in NEA News may be freely used provided the
source is acknowledged. All correspondence should       Facts and opinions
be addressed to:

    The Editor, NEA News
                                                        Securityofenergysupplyand
    OECD Nuclear Energy Agency                          thecontributionofnuclearenergy            4
    12, boulevard des Îles
    92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux
    France                                              Regulatoryissuesfornewnuclearbuild
    Tel.: +33 (0)1 45 24 10 12
    Fax: +33 (0)1 45 24 11 10                           andnewentrants                              9
     The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is an
intergovernmental organisation established in
1958. Its primary objective is to assist its member     NEA updates
countries in maintaining and further developing,
through international co-operation, the scientific,
technological and legal bases required for a safe,      Transitionfromthermaltofastneutron
environmentally friendly and economical use
of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. It is a        nuclearsystems                              12
non-partisan, unbiased source of information,
data and analyses, drawing on one of the best
international networks of technical experts. The        Explainingtheshortageofmedical
NEA has 29 member countries: Australia, Austria,
Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark,           radioisotopes                                16
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico,
the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the          Newnuclearbuildandevolving
Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States.       radiologicalprotectionchallenges           20
The European Commission takes part in the work of
the NEA. A co-operation agreement is in force with
the International Atomic Energy Agency.                 TheForumonStakeholderConfidence
                                                        celebratesadecadeofwork                  24
    For more information about the NEA, see:
              www.oecd-nea.org

                 Editorial board:
                                                        Decontaminationanddismantlingof
                 Janice Dunn Lee                        radioactiveconcretestructures              27
               Cynthia Gannon-Picot
                     Serge Gas

           Production and marketing:
              Cynthia Gannon-Picot                      News briefs
                Andrée Pham Van
               Solange Quarmeau
                                                        TheBlueRibbonCommissionandsiting
                Design and layout:
                Fabienne Vuillaume                      radioactivewastedisposalfacilities        30

Cover page photo credits: Olkiluoto-3, Finland
(P. Bourdon, AREVA); Superphénix, France
                                                        NEAjointprojects                           32
(Y. Forget); Radioactive waste containers,
Nogent NPP, France (H. Cazin, EDF Photo
Library); Laser ablation, France (CEA). Page  3
photo credit of Luis Echávarri (M. Lemelle, France).    New publications                             38
New build, new entrants
and new members
Aswebeginpreparationsforthe50thanniversarycelebrationsofthe
OrganisationforEconomicCo-operationandDevelopment(OECD),we
alsohavethepleasureinwelcomingfournewOECDmembercountries
andonenewNEAmember.ChileaccededtotheOECDon7May2010,
Sloveniaon21July2010,Israelon7September2010andEstoniaon
9December2010.TheNEA’smostrecentmember–Poland–officially
joinedon18November2010.SloveniahasappliedforNEAmembershipandadecisiononits
applicationwillbetakeninthesecondquarterof2011.Thisactiveevolutioninmembership
reflectsthedynamicenvironmentinwhichOECDandNEAworkisbeingcarriedout.
    Itisalsoaparticularlydynamictimeforthenuclearenergysectoringeneral.Asseveralofthe
articlesinthisissueshow,nuclearenergyisincreasinglybeingviewedasapragmaticsolution
totheissuesofsecurityofsupply,coststabilityandclimatechange,andthisishavingeffectsin
nearlyallareasofdevelopment,deploymentandfollow-up.
    TheNEAhasrecentlycompletedastudyontheSecurity of Energy Supply and the Contribution
of Nuclear Energy.Itisthefirsttimethatthesecurityofenergysupplyhasbeenquantitatively
verifiedwithasetofcoherentindicators,thusplacingthestudyatthecentreofthecurrent
energydebate(seepage4forfurtherdetails).TheroleoftheAgencyinexaminingthesequestions
wasalsorecognisedwhenIwasappointedinSeptembertotheWorldEconomicForum’sCouncil
forGlobalDialogueonEnergySecurity.
   Withthisincreasinginterestinnuclearenergy,manyquestionsevidentlyariseintermsof
newbuildandnewentrants.Afirstarticlelooksatthisissuefromtheregulatoryperspective,
highlightingthemainchallengesandconsiderationsthatneedtobeaddressedbyregulatorsin
thecurrentcontext,andplacingspecialemphasisontheneedsofnewentrants.Thearticleon
newnuclearbuildandradiologicalprotectionstresses inter alia theimportanceofincorporating
operationallessonslearntintonewdesigns(seepage20).
    Asnewbuildprogresses,whetherincountrieswithmaturenuclearenergyprogrammesor
entirelynewones,stakeholderconsultationandinvolvementwillremainanessentialelement
throughouttheprocess.Siteselection,nuclearsafety,radiologicalprotectionofworkersandthe
environment,andradioactivewastemanagementareamongthemostcommontopicsofpublic
concern.Asshowninmanystudies,includingthoseoftheNEAForumonStakeholderConfidence
whichhasrecentlycelebratedits10thanniversary(seepage24),collaborativedecision-making
isthemosteffectivemeansforadoptingmeasuresthataremorebroadlyacceptedandthereby
moresustainableoverthelongrun.Nuclearenergyisalong-terminvestmentwhich,handled
withcare,canreapclearbenefits.




                                         LuisE.Echávarri
                                       NEADirector-General




Editorial, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                                                       3
                Security of energy supply and
              the contribution of nuclear energy
                                         by R. Cameron and J.H. Keppler*




    T     hecontinuousavailabilityandaffordabilityof
          energyand,inparticular,electricityhasbecome
    anindispensableconditionfortheworkingofmod-
                                                                     Ageneralstartingpointisthefollowingconsen-
                                                                 susdefinition:“Security of energy supply is the resilience
                                                                 of the energy system to unique and unforeseeable events
    ern society. This is especially true for advanced    that threaten the physical integrity of energy flows or that
    industrialorpost-industrialsocieties,whereelec-         lead to discontinuous energy price rises, independent of
    tricityprovidestheservicesessentialforproduction,     economic fundamentals.” Itcanbeshownthat“import
    communicationandexchange.Unsurprisingly,gov-             dependencyanddiversification”,“resourceandcar-
    ernmentsofOECDcountriesarethusconcernedwith          bonintensity”aswellas“infrastructureadequacy”
    understandingthefactorsinfluencingthesecurityof       arethreekeyverifiableparametersthatareencap-
    energyandelectricitysuppliesandseektodevelop         sulatedinthisgeneraldefinition.Itisimportant,
    policyframeworksandstrategiestoenhancethem.           however,tokeepinmindthatthesethreeparam-
                                                                 etersarenotidenticalwithenergysupplysecurity,
       Asadomesticallyproduced,largelycarbon-free          but their qualification and contextualisation are
    sourceofelectricity,nuclearenergyis,inprinciple,     importantineachindividualcase.
    well-placedtoplayaconstructiveroleinthiscon-
    text.ThisiswhytheNEAlaunchedacomprehensive
    study on “The Security of Energy Supply and the     Two key dimensions of energy
    ContributionofNuclearEnergy”,seekingtoempiri-
                                                                 supply security
    callyassessthecontributionofnuclearenergytothe
    energysupplysecurityofOECDcountriesoverthe           Energy supply security is a classic example of an
    pastfourdecades.Itisthefirsttimethatquantita-       externality, i.e. of an impact on the well-being of
    tiveindicatorsforenergysupplysecurityhavebeen        individualsandsocietygeneratedbyaneconomic
    developedandappliedtoacoherentsetofdataover        activity,butwhichisnotalreadypricedinthemar-
    suchalongtimeframe.Theresultsaretelling.While      ketplace.Beinganegativeexternality,energysup-
    nottheonlyfactor,nuclearenergyhasbeenasignif-       plyriskconstitutesapolicyissue.Thismeansthat
    icantcontributortothenotableimprovementinthe         privateindividualscannotcoverthemselvesforsuch
    securityofenergysuppliesofmanyOECDcountries.         risks due to their complexity and unquantifiable
                                                                 nature.Thisiswheregovernmentsneedtostepin.
        However,beforeconsideringquantitativeindica-         Energysupplyriskscanbeconsideredintermsof
    tors,theconceptof“securityofenergysupply”must       twomaindimensions:theexternalorgeopolitical
    bedefinedandunderstoodasitappliestothefor-          dimension,andtheinternaldimensionthatincludes
    mulationofgovernmentpolicy.Thisislessstraight-        technical,financialandeconomicissues.Nuclear
    forwardthanitmayseem.Energysupplysecurity            energycanplayaconstructiveroleinbothofthem
    canmeanverydifferentthingstodifferentpeople.         (seeFigure1).
    Aforeignpolicyexpertwilllookattheissuefrom
    anotheranglethananetworkengineeroranecono-
    mist.Definitionsofwhatissecurityofenergysupply      Import dependence, resource exhaustion and
    byvariousexpertsabound,buttheyareoftentoo           carbon policy: the external dimension
    abstracttoaddresstheconcreteissuesintrinsically
    linkedtogeopoliticalpreferences,strategictechnol-       Geopolitical risk almost always refers to primary
    ogychoicesandfundamentalorientationsofsocial          energycarriers(oil,gas,coal,uraniumorrenewables)
    policy.Definitionsalsochangefromonecountryto         sincetheirlocationdependsonthevagariesofgeol-
    another.Forexample,acountrywithlimitedaccess         ogyandclimate.Productionandconsumptionare
    tocross-borderenergyinfrastructuresbutabroad
    domesticresourcebasewillthinkdifferentlyabout
    thesecurityofitsenergysuppliesthanasmall,open
    economycloselyinterconnectedwithitsneighbours
    butwithfewresourcesofitsown.Notunlikethe
    notion of “sustainability”, another key dimension
    of energy policy in OECD countries, the notion of   * Dr. Ron Cameron (ron.cameron@oecd.org) is Head of, and
    securityofenergysupplyisoftenbeingappliedin         Dr. Jan Horst Keppler (jan-horst.keppler@oecd.org) Principal
    diversewaystosupportdifferentpolicyobjectives.         Administrator in, the NEA Nuclear Development Division.



4                                                                           Facts and opinions, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
           Figure 1: Dimensions of energy security and potential contributions of nuclear energy



                                          SECURITY OF ENERGY SUPPLY



            EXTERNAL DIMENSION                                                     INTERNAL DIMENSION


                  Geopolitics,                                                     Adequacy of generation
             access to primary fuels                                                     capacity


             Safety and adequacy of                                                 Adequacy of domestic
          international infrastructures                                            transport infrastructure


                 Unanticipated                                                       Adequacy of market
              resource exhaustion                                                   design and regulation


              Resilience to changes
                                                                                        Price stability
                in climate policy


                                                                                    Operational reliability




thusoftenphysicallylocatedfarapart,incountries        shortdistances.InislandcountriessuchasJapan
andregionswithdifferenthistories,culturesand           andAustralia,orde factoisolatedcountriessuchas
values.Apartfromexplorationandproduction,all           theRepublicofKorea,nationalelectricitygeneration
otherstepsoftheenergychainsuchasrefinement           mustbeabletocovernationaldemand.
orenrichment,conversionanddistributioncanbe
movedphysicallyclosertothefinalcustomerorare,
likeconsumption,directlyunderthelatter’scontrol.       Economic, financial and technical conditions for
                                                              energy security: the internal dimension
    Giventhatafundamentalcauseofgeopolitical
supplyrisksisthephysicalseparationofthecentres       Energysecuritybeginsathome.Themostimportant
ofprimaryenergyproductionandconsumption,it             responsibilityforOECDgovernmentsistoestablish
istemptingtoaddresstheissuebystrivingtobring        appropriate framework conditions for providing
productionhome(“energyindependence”).Whether             incentivestoprivateactorstoinstalldomestically
thisisagoodapproachdependsonacountry’sgeo-           an adequate level of facilities for the production,
graphicalposition,itsownenergyendowment,the            transport,conversionandconsumptionofenergy.
stateofitsphysicalinfrastructuresfortransportand      Importantelementsinthisstrategyareregulatory
storage,thediversificationofitssupplies,thewill-       stability,marketorganisation,fiscalcoherenceand
ingnessofitspopulationtoaccepthigher,average          predictabilityofenvironmentalpolicy.Thechallenge
long-termpricesforlowervolatilityandahostof          intheelectricitysectoristhecreationofframework
otherissues.                                                 conditionsthat:
                                                              • do not discriminate against domestically pro-
    Inanidealworld,securityofenergysupplywould
                                                                 duced, low-carbon energy sources such as
not be equated to energy independence or self-
                                                                 nuclearandrenewables;and
sufficiency. Free and global energy trade through
smoothlyfunctioningcompetitivemarketswould               • allowfortheconstructionofadequatetransport,
guaranteetimelydeliveryofallnecessaryenergy               productionandconversioncapacitywithappro-
resources.Mostcountriesarerelyingatleastpar-              priatelong-termfinancialarrangements.
tially on the international trade of energy and           OECD governments thus have a responsibility
willcontinuetodoso.However,theissueofself-           tocreatemarketconditionsthatallowlow-carbon
sufficiencydoesassumeaparticularsignificance            technologieswithlowersupplyriskstocompeteon
in electricity markets since, due to the technical    alevelplayingfield.Governmentsalsohavearoleto
andeconomicchallengesassociatedwithitsstor-             playwithregardtotheprovisionofadequatelevels
age, electricity is only transported over relatively   oftransport,distributionandconversioncapacity.



Security of energy supply and the contribution of nuclear energy, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                  5
    Such capacity can partly be provided by markets                            account the degree of diversity and supply origin
    themselves,butinothercases,itrequiresregulation                            ofdifferentenergycarriers,theefficiencyofenergy 
    andsupervision.First,regulationmustprovidesuf-                               consumptionandthestateoftheelectricitygenera-
    ficientlyattractivefinancialconditionsforinvest-
             70                                                                        tioninfrastructure.
    ment in transport and conversion infrastructure.
                                                                                           TheevolutionoftheSSDIthroughouttheperiod
    Second,projectsmusthavepoliticalbackingatthe
                                                                                       (1970-2007) was analysed for several OECD coun-
    national level against excessive delays, through
             60                                                                        tries:Australia,Austria,Canada,Finland,France,
    appropriateregulatoryprocessesandzoninglaws,
                                                                                       Italy,Japan,theNetherlands,theRepublicofKorea,
    aswellaseffectivemechanismsforconsultation,
                                                                                       Sweden,theUnitedKingdomandtheUnitedStates
    mediationandcompensation.
                                                                                       (seeFigure2).Itidentifieschangesinthetrendwhen
             50                                                                        importantpolicychangeshavebeenimplemented,
                                                                                       suchastheUnitedKingdom’sswitchfromcoaltogas
      SSDI




    Empirical evidence                                                                 ortheintroductionofnuclearpowerprogrammesin
                                                                                       FranceandtheUnitedStates.
             40
    Indicatorsforenergysecurityofsupplythusneedto
    includeinformationon:                                                                                                                     
                                                                                           Figure 2 shows that the value of the SSDI has
    • import dependency and diversification of fuel                             significantlyincreasedbetween1970and2007inthe
       andenergysupply;                                                             caseofmostcountriesunderstudy:Canada,Finland,
            30                                                                         France,Japan,theNetherlands,Sweden,theUnited
    • resourceandcarbonintensity;
                                                                                       KingdomandtheUnitedStates.Theimprovement
    • systemandinfrastructureadequacy.                                             intheSSDIinthefirstsetofOECDcountriesisdue
       The NEA study applied the Simplified Supply                              tothreedifferentfactors:
             20
    andDemandIndex(SSDI)thatiscapableofworking 86 • 88theintroductionofnuclearpowerforelectricity
                    70    72    74    76     78     80    82     84             90    92  94      96    98    00    02       04    06
                 19    19    19    19     19     19    19
    withtheonlyavailable,consistentdatasetonOECD 1   19    9  19 generation; 19
                                                                             19    19          19    19    20    20       20    20
    countries’ energy sectors over the past 40 years,
                                                                      • thedecreaseinenergyintensity;
    the IEA Energy Statistics. The SSDI is composed of
                       Australia         Austria          Canada           Finland         France                    Italy
    threeweightedcontributions:demand,infrastruc-                 • the increase in the diversification of primary
                       Japan             Korea            Netherlands      Sweden          United Kingdom            United States
    ture and supply. These contributions take into                 energysources.




                                      Figure 2: Evolution of the SSDI for selected OECD countries



             70



             60



             50
      SSDI




             40



             30



             20
                    70     72      74      76      78       80     82      84     86     88      90       92     94      96     98     00     02         04     06
                  19     19      19      19      19       19     19      19     19     19      19       19     19      19     19     20     20       20       20


                         Australia              Austria               Canada                  Finland               France                       Italy

                         Japan                  Korea                 Netherlands             Sweden                United Kingdom               United States




6                                                                                                     Facts and opinions, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
                                                             Figure 3: The contribution of nuclear power to improved SSDIs



                                          14


                                          12
 Nuclear contribution to improved SSDIs




                                          10


                                           8


                                           6


                                           4


                                           2


                                           0
                                                 70     72     74     76     78      80       82     84      86      88     90     92     94      96     98     00     02      04     06
                                               19     19     19     19     19      19       19     19      19      19     19     19     19      19     19     20     20      20     20


                                                      Canada                      Finland                 France                        Japan                        Korea

                                                      Netherlands                 Sweden                  United Kingdom                United States




   Thewidespreadadoptionofnuclearenergyfrom                                                                 intoaccounttheaveragediscountedrevenue.One
thisperspectiveisunderstandablegivenitsadvan-                                                                keyelementistheuncertaintytowhichinvestors
tages in strengthening the external dimension of                                                            areexposed.Theadvantageofnuclearenergyinthis
energysupplysecurity:                                                                                            contextisthatitsaveragecostremainsverystable
• Intermsofvalue,nuclearpowerplantssource                                                                 intheeventofchangesinfuelcostsorinthepriceof
   morethan90%oftheirinputsdomestically.                                                                     carbon.Doublingthecarbonprice,forinstance,from
                                                                                                                   USD30pertonneofCO2toUSD60pertonnewould
• Uraniumimportsarewidelydiversifiedandare
                                                                                                                   increase the total average cost of coal-produced
   frequentlysuppliedbyotherOECDcountries.
                                                                                                                   powerby30%,morethandoublingitsvariablecost
• Nuclear energy would be unaffected by a sud-                                                             intheprocess.Thisisnotanunrealisticnumber.
   dentighteningofrestrictionsongreenhousegas                                                               Given current commitments to reduce global car-
   emissions.                                                                                                     bonemissionsby50%by2050inordertolimitthe
   Overall,inthefaceofgeopoliticalsupplyrisks,                                                             riseofglobalmeantemperaturesto2°C,modelling
whether due to import dependence, resource                                                                   resultsimplymarginalcostsforcarbonabatement
exhaustionorchangesintheglobalcarbonregime,                                                                of at least USD 100 per tonne of CO2 and perhaps
nuclear energy holds advantages that other fuels                                                            muchhigher.
suchasoil,coalandgasdonotenjoy:wideavail-                                                                    Basedonthesestrengths,manyOECDcountries
abilityofresourcesforalongtimetocome,modest                                                              investedmassivelyinnuclearpowerdevelopment
impacts of increases in resource prices and resil-                                                          duringthe1970sand1980s.Asshowninthefigure,
ienceagainstcarbonpolicyshifts.                                                                               nuclearenergyhascontributedsignificantlytothe
    In terms of the internal dimension, the joint                                                          increaseinenergysupplysecurityofthesecoun-
IEA/NEA study on the Projected Costs of Generating                                                             tries(Figure3extractsthenuclearcontributionto
Electricity: 2010 Editionshowsthatnuclearenergyis                                                            theSSDIinFigure2).InthecaseofFrance,thecon-
averyattractiveoptionatrealinterestratesthatare                                                          tributionofnuclearpowertotheSSDIismorethan
beloworonlyslightlyabove5%.Theattractivenessof                                                            12pointsin2007(about30%ofitsSSDIscore),fol-
aninvestmentinpowergeneration,however,isnot                                                                lowedbySwedenwith11points(21%),Finlandwith
onlydefinedbyitslifetimecostsofelectricitythat                                                            9points(26%),andJapanandKoreawithapproxi-
correspondtothesumofthelifetimecoststaking                                                                mately6points(about17%ofthetotalSSDIscore).



Security of energy supply and the contribution of nuclear energy, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                                                                                 7
    The role of governments                                           Duetoitslargefixedcosts(notonlyatthelevel
                                                                  oftheindividualplantbutalsoatthelevelofedu-
    Totheextentthatmarketscannotensuresecurityof         cation,regulatoryinfrastructures,fuelcyclestrat-
    supplybythemselves,governmentsneedtoplaya             egies, etc.), nuclear energy will never be wholly
    role.Regardingtheexternaldimension,inadditionto       an ordinary industry. Nevertheless, as a concrete
    ensuringadequatesharesofdomesticallyproduced            response to widely recognised problems, nuclear
    energy, governments need to ensure transparent          energyisincreasinglybeingviewedmoredispas-
    globalmarkets;therealisationofthecomparative           sionatelyandjudgedonitsmeritsaspartofthesolu-
    advantageofeachtradingpartnerisofparticular           tiontoquestionsofsecurityofsupply,coststability
    importance.Intermsoftheinternaldimension,the          andreductionsingreenhousegasemissions.
    focusmustbeoncreatingappropriatemarketcon-
    ditionsandincentivesystemsthatenablealltech-
    nologies to deliver their potential contribution to
    thesecurityofsupply,inparticularhighfixedcost,
    low-carbontechnologies.
         Due to its complexity and the dynamic evolu-
    tion of the many parameters involved, as well as
    publicdemandfor“secure”supply,energysecurity
    remains an uninternalised externality, or a pub-
    lic good that markets are unable to provide at an
    appropriate,acceptablelevel.Eveninthepresence
    ofaglobalisedmarketplaceformostenergycom-
    modities,givenitsimportanceforthefunctioningof
    theeconomy,energysupplysecuritythusremainsa           References
    policyissueforwhichgovernmentsneedtoassume            IEA (2010), Energy Statistics of OECD Countries, OECD/IEA,
    responsibility.                                              Paris.
        Nuclear energy, as an essentially carbon-free,      IEA/NEA (2010), Projected Costs of Generating Electricity:
    largely domestic source, possesses a number of         2010Edition,OECD,Paris.
    attractivecharacteristicsthatenableittocontrib-         NEA/IAEA (2010), Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and
    ute to both the external and internal dimensions      Demand,OECD,Paris.
    of energy supply security. It is cost-competitive,
    withhighenergeticdensityandlowsensitivityto
    variationsintheresourceprice,unlikefossilfuels.
    Uraniumresourcesarealsowell-distributed,with            Further reading
    OECD countries such as Australia, Canada or the       NEA(2010),The Security of Energy Supply and the Contribution
    UnitedStatesholdingsignificantshares.                    of Nuclear Energy,OECD,Paris.




8                                                                             Facts and opinions, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
  Regulatory issues for new nuclear build
            and new entrants
                                                   by J. Nakoski*




M      anycountriesareshowinggrowinginterestin
       usingnuclearpowertomeetincreasedenergy
demands,eveninthecurrenteconomicenvironment.
                                                          powerplants.Fornewentrants,thechallengeswill
                                                          potentiallybemoresignificant.
                                                              Therearemanychallengesthatcountriesadd-
Some70countriesarediscussingnuclearpowerasa      ingnewnuclearpowercapacitywillface.Tosupport
potentialpartoftheirnationalenergypolicies.The    acountry’sdecisiononthenuclearpoweroption,
levelofinterestinthesecountriesdoes,however,      the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
vary.Ofthesecountries,onlyahandfulwillmake       issuedNG-G-3.1,“MilestonesintheDevelopmentof
thecommitmenttolicense,constructandoperate         aNationalInfrastructureforNuclearPower”.This
theirfirstnuclearpowerplantbefore2020.These       report provides a roadmap that addresses essen-
“newentrants”areinadditiontothosecountriesthat   tiallyalltheissuesacountrymayfaceasitseeksto
alreadyhaveestablishednuclearpowerprogrammes        introducenuclearpowerinitsenergymix.Included
andareincreasingtheirnuclearcapacity.               hereisabriefoverviewofthemainchallengesasso-
                                                          ciated with developing regulatory infrastructure,
        Nuclear power plants under construction           thesubjectoftwoforthcomingNEAreportsdueto
                (asof17November2010)                 beissuedshortly.

                                           Capacity
           Country          No. of units
                                            (MWe)         Fundamental safety principles
Argentina                         1              692
                                                          Manyofthecountriesstartinganuclearpowerpro-
Brazil                            1             1 245
                                                          grammehavelittleexperienceinthesafeapplication
Bulgaria                          2             1 906     ofthistechnology.Anissuethatnewentrantsneed
China                            22            22 020     toaddressisunderstanding,thenapplying,funda-
Chinese Taipei                    2             2 600     mentalsafetyprinciplestotheirdecision-making
Finland                           1             1 600     processes.Thisconcernsthelicensees(ownersand
France                            1             1 600     operators),theconstructionorganisations,andthe
India                             4             2 506     nuclearsteamsupplysystem(NSSS)vendors,aswell
Iran, Islamic Republic of         1              915
                                                          asthegovernmentandtheregulator.
Japan                             2             2 650         Whilethelicenseeisprimarilyresponsiblefor
Korea, Republic of                5             5 560     allaspectsofplantsafety,thelatterstartswiththe
Pakistan                          1              300      designdevelopedbyanNSSSvendor.Theregulator
                                                          hasaroleinensuringsafetybyverifyingthatthe
Russian Federation               11             9 153
                                                          NSSSvendor’sdesignincorporatestheconceptof
Slovak Republic                   2              782
                                                          defence-in-depthtoprotectthepublicandtheenvi-
Ukraine                           2             1 900     ronment,andthatthelicenseeappliesthisconcept
United States                     1             1 165     asitoperatesandmaintainstheplantinamanner
Total                            61            59 194     consistentwiththedesign.
                                                             In addition, during construction, the operator,
Source: IAEAPowerReactorInformationSystem(PRIS).
                                                          the NSSS vendor, the construction organisations
                                                          andtheregulatorneedtoensurethattheplantis
    Lessonslearntfromthepasthavedemonstrated       constructedasdesignedandlicensed.Thisincludes
theimpactthataneventatanuclearpowerplant        conductingreviews,testsoranalysesthatdemon-
inonecountrycanhaveonthenuclearpowerpro-         stratethatthestructures,systemsandcomponents
grammesinothercountries.Theselessons,aswell       aremanufacturedandconstructedwiththeneces-
asothers,havebeenincorporatedintothenuclear       saryqualitytoprovideconfidencethattheplantcan
power programmes of countries with established      beoperatedasdesigned.
programmesandcontributetotheexcellentsafety
performanceofnuclearpowerplantsinthesecoun-
tries.However,recentexperienceshowsthateven
forcountrieswithmatureprogrammes,challenges         * Mr. John Nakoski (john.nakoski@oecd.org) works in the NEA
remainforlicensingandconstructingnewnuclear        Nuclear Safety Division.



Facts and opinions, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                                                            9
                               Protection of public health and safety and the environment

                                                                  Top-level safety goal national policy on the safe
                                                                                 use of nuclear power


                                                   Emergency              High-level safety goals laws and
                                                  preparedness                       regulations
                                                  and planning
                                               Operational policies
                                                 and procedures                     Policies, standards,
                                                                                procedures, guidelines and
                           Licensees,        Construction, testing and
                                                                                  administrative controls
                           owners and         maintenance practices                                          Regulatory
                           operators                                                                          authority
                                              Long-term decay heat                 Accident mitigation
                                                 removal design                        policies and
                           NSSS                                                         strategies                NSSS
                                          Emergency core cooling design
                           vendors                                                                              vendors
                                        Design-driven site selection criteria            Design-
                                                                                         speci c
                                               Containment design                        physical
                                     Reactor coolant pressure boundary design            barriers
                                               Fuel cladding design
                                                    Fuel design

                                                              Defence-in-depth




        Applying the fundamental safety principles to                      maintainandexpandtheirworkforcetosupportthe
     decision-making processes can be challenging as                       increasedscopeoftheirnuclearprogrammes.
     scheduleandcostsarealsofactorsthatinfluence
                                                                                    Other countries with mature nuclear power
     the introduction of nuclear power to a country’s
                                                                                 programmes have not been building new nuclear
     energysupply.Licensees,vendorsandconstruction
                                                                                 powerplantsandhavebeenfocusingonreplacing
     organisations are responsible for implementing
                                                                                 the experienced workforce as its members retire.
     theirdecision-makingprocessessuchthatthereis
                                                                                 Asthesecountriesbegintoaddnewnuclearplants,
     acleardemonstrationthatthefundamentalsafety
                                                                                 theyareimplementingprogrammestoincreasethe
     principlesarebeingmetwhilemeetingschedules
                                                                                 numbersofstaffwiththeknowledgeandskillsto
     andkeepingcostswithinbudget.Regulatorshave
                                                                                 support their planned expansions. Building upon
     theroleofestablishingtheframeworkthatrequires
                                                                                 theirexistingstaff,theprogrammesaretransfer-
     safetytocomebeforecostandschedule.Regulatory
                                                                                 ringtheknowledgeandexperiencefromtheirsenior
     oversightneedstofocusonensuringthatnuclear
                                                                                 stafftorecentlyhiredpersonnel.
     safetyisthefirstcomponentofthedecisionsmade
     duringallphasesofanuclearpowerprogramme,                                For new entrants, it is more challenging since
     from design through decommissioning and long-                          they likely do not have a workforce that has the
     termstorageofspentfuel.                                                 skills,knowledgeandexperiencenecessarytosup-
                                                                                 portanuclearpowerprogramme.Theyneedtobuild
                                                                                 on the experience of countries with established
     Workforce development                                                       programmes and by working with international
                                                                                 organisations.Manynewentrantshaveestablished       
     Closelyrelatedtounderstandingandimplementing
                                                                                 bilateralandmultilateralarrangementswithexperi-
     strongsafetyprinciplesishavingaworkforcewith
                                                                                 encedregulatorstodevelopneededregulatoryskills.
     thetechnical,programmatic,tradeandregulatory
                                                                                 IAEAMemberStateshaveestablishedaRegulatory
     skills,aswellastheknowledgeandexperienceto
                                                                                 Co-ordinationForumtofacilitatecapacitybuildingin
     supportanuclearpowerprogramme.Eachorgani-
                                                                                 countriesaddingnuclearpowertotheirenergysupply.
     sation needs to understand its role in the overall
     programme;whatskills,knowledgeandexperience
     arenecessarytoeffectivelyimplementthisrole;the
     gapbetweentheskills,knowledgeandexperience
                                                                                 Legislative and regulatory
     ofitsstaff;andwhattheorganisationneedstobe                        infrastructure
     successful.                                                                 Undergirdinganuclearpowerprogrammearethe
        Before the recent renewed interest in nuclear                     lawsandregulationsthatprovidealegalframework
     power, very few countries had built any nuclear                     forthepeacefuluseofnuclearenergy.Forcountries
     powerplantsoverthepast30years.Thesecountries                       withestablishednuclearpowerprogrammes,such
     haveeducationalanddevelopmentprogrammesto                             frameworksareinplace.However,fornewentrants



10                                                                                            Facts and opinions, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
itisanissuethatshouldbeaddressedveryshortly            After a nuclear power plant has been licensed
afterthedecisionismadetopursuetheadditionof        forconstruction,theregulator’sroleneedstoshift
nuclearpowertotheenergysupply.                          from design reviews and analyses to verification
                                                             thatconstructionisbeingcarriedoutinaccordance
   Whilemanynewentrantshaveexistinglegisla-
                                                             withthedesignandtotheappropriatelevelofqual-
tiveandregulatoryinfrastructuressupportingthe
                                                             ity.Thelicenseehastheprimaryresponsibilityfor
peaceful use of nuclear energy for industrial and
                                                             ensuringthattheplantisconstructedasdesigned.
medicaluses,amorerobustsystemisrequiredfor
                                                             However,withintheregulatoryframeworktheregu-
usingnuclearenergyforpowerproductioninorder
                                                             latorisresponsibleforoverseeingtheactivitiesof
tocomplywithinternationaltreatiesandtomeet
                                                             thelicenseeandconstructionwork.Thisprovides
internationalstandardsforsafety,securityandsafe-
                                                             anadditionalassessmenttoensurethattheplantis
guards.Withtheobjectiveofsharinginformationon
                                                             beingconstructedastheregulatorlicensedit.
regulatoryinfrastructure,theNEAWorkingGroupon
theRegulationofNewReactors(WGRNR)sponsored                When the regulatory body is developing its
aworkshop1on“NewReactorSiting,Licensingand           construction oversight programme, it faces the
ConstructionExperience”inSeptember2010.The             challenge of balancing its need to independently
StateOfficeforNuclearSafetyoftheCzechRepublic       observeconstructionactivitieswiththeconstruc-
hostedtheworkshopinPrague.Manyofthe60-some          tion schedule. In some regulatory programmes,
participantswerefromcountriesdevelopingtheir           hold points are established for the regulator to
regulatoryauthoritiestosupportnewnuclearbuild.        witness specific activities, approve the use of
During the workshop insights were shared, with        specific components, or approve the continua-
developing regulators encouraging experienced            tionofconstructionactivities.Otherprogrammes
regulatorstoexaminetheirpracticesforenhance-           relyoncloseco-ordinationbetweentheregulator
ments, and experienced regulators encouraging           body’s staff overseeing the construction activi-
developing regulators to continue their focus on      tiesandtheconstructionorganisationstoidentify
protectionofthepublicandtheenvironment.                opportunities for the regulator to witness a sam-
    IAEA Member States have worked together to        ple of activities to gain confidence in the proc-
develop safety standards that reflect an interna-      essesbeingusedtoensurethatthedesignisbeing
tionalconsensusonwhatconstitutesahighlevel           respectedandthenecessaryqualitybeingachieved.
ofsafetyforprotectingpeopleandtheenvironment            TheWGRNRisalsopreparingareportthatwill
fromtheharmfuleffectsofionizingradiation.The         provideinsightsintothepoliciesandpracticesbeing
IAEAsafetystandardsandsafetyguidesprovidea           usedbymatureregulatorstooverseeconstruction.
frameworkforestablishinglegislativeandregula-           Theseinsightscanserveasaguideforregulators
tory policies and programmes. By following the        developing or enhancing their construction over-
frameworkestablishedbythesesafetystandards,            sightprogrammes.
new entrants can benefit from the experience of
matureregulatoryprogrammesastheybuildcapac-
itytosupportanuclearpowerprogramme.
                                                             Conclusions
   Akeypartofthelegalframeworkisthelicens-
ingprocessduringwhichtheregulatorreviewsand          Ascountriesdeveloptheirlegislativeandregulatory
approves an application for a new nuclear power      frameworksfornewnuclearpowerprogrammes,it
plant.Duringthisprocess,theregulatorassessesthe      isnecessarytoensurethattheregulatoryauthor-
technicalaspectsofthedesign;theorganisational         ity understands the fundamental nuclear safety
capabilityoftheapplicanttoeffectivelymanagethe       principlesandappliesthemtoitsdecision-making
design,construction,testing,operationandmainte-         processes. It needs to develop and maintain an
nanceofthereactor;thesuitabilityofthesiteforthe   experiencedstaffwiththeknowledgeandskillsto
selectedreactordesign;andtheplansforsecurity         review the design and licensing of the plant, and
andemergencyresponse,amongotherissues.                  toverifythattheplantisconstructedasdesigned
                                                             andlicensed.Finally,thelegislativeandregulatory
   As the regulatory body develops its licensing      frameworkmustbeinplacetosupporttheregulatory
process, it will need to create the programmes       body,givingittheindependence,responsibilityand
and procedures to guide its staff in conducting      authoritytoimplementthelicensingreviewsand
thesereviewsandassessmentsconsistentwiththe           oversightofconstruction.Withoutthelegalframe-
overarching legal framework and nuclear safety         work supporting the regulatory programmes, the
principles. The WGRNR is drafting a report that      abilityoftheregulatorybodytoenforceitsmandate
will describe the regulatory structure, licensing      toprotectpublichealth,safetyandtheenvironment
processes and resources used by a cross-section       cannotbemet.
ofexperiencedregulatorsandbythenewentrants
workingwiththegroup.Thisreportwillserveasa
guideforregulatorsstartingthereviewoftheirfirst
newreactorapplicationandprovideabenchmark             Note
againstwhichmoredevelopedregulatorscanassess          1. See www.oecd-nea.org/nsd/workshops/new-reactor-siting/
theirprogrammes.                                               for more information.



Regulatory issues for new nuclear build and new entrants, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                        11
        Transition from thermal to fast neutron
                    nuclear systems
                                      by K.A. McCarthy, Y.J. Choi and E. Bertel




     C    oncerns about global climate change and
          securityofenergysupplyaretriggeringrenewed
     interest in nuclear energy. Although uranium
                                                                       TheNEANuclearScienceCommittee(NSC)(NEA,
                                                                    2009a and NEA, 2009b) and the NEA Committee
                                                                    for Technical and Economic Studies on Nuclear
     resourcesfornuclearfuelaresufficientlyabundant          DevelopmentandtheFuelCycle(NDC)(NEA,2009c)
     tosupportsignificantgrowthofnuclearelectricity          have undertaken several studies on technical,
                                                          
     generationbasedoncurrentreactortypesfordecades         strategicandpolicyaspectsofdifferentfuelcycle
     (NEA/IAEA, 2010), nuclear systems using fissile          transition scenarios. Their main findings are
     materialsmoreefficientlyareconsideredadesirable         describedbelow.
     optionfromalong-termsustainableperspective.
        Today, nearly 150 000 tonnes of spent nuclear
     fuelfromlightwaterandothernuclearreactortypes         Main findings from technical
     arestoredforcoolingbeforedisposalortreatment.          analyses of transition scenarios
     Thesefuelscontain1300-1500tonnesoftransu-
     ranic elements (TRUs), mainly plutonium, and a          UndertheauspicesoftheNSC,thetechnicalissues
     smaller amount of minor actinides (MAs), such           raisedbytransitionscenarios,aswellasthepoten-
     asneptunium,americiumandcurium.Continued                 tialroleofP&T,wereinvestigatedbothatanational
     generation of nuclear electricity in an increasing      levelandataregionallevelforEurope.Globalsce-
     numberofcountrieswillinevitablyleadtoincreased         nariosarealsocurrentlybeingstudied.
     volumesofspentfuelrequiringstorage.                           P&Tisanimportantcomponentinsometransi-
         Advancednuclearfuelcycleswithcriticalorsub-         tionscenariosbecauseitisconsideredasaneffi-
     criticalfastneutronsystems,suchasGenerationIV          cientmeanstoreducetheburdenandstewardship
     reactorsandaccelerator-drivensystems(ADSs),can           requirement of radioactive waste. Indeed, most
     optimisetheuseofuraniumresources,minimise               long-term radiotoxicity and residual heat from
     radioactivewasteandincreaseproliferationresist-           theradioactivewastearegeneratedbyplutonium
     ance.Thesenuclearfuelcyclescanincludethepar-           and minor actinides, which may be significantly
     titioningandtransmutation(P&T)ofTRUsand/or              reduced through P&T. The concept is to separate
     MAs,anoptionwhichcanreduceradiotoxicityand             suchnuclidesfromtheirradiatedfuelandtotrans-
     heatloadofradioactivewaste.                                mute them into short-lived or stable materials.
                                                                    Partitioningandtransmutationcanbeimplemented
         Inthiscontext,researchershavestudiedthefea-
                                                                    byusingthermalorfastneutronsystems.Ingeneral,
     sibilityofimplementingscenariosforatransition
                                                                    theuseofafastneutroncriticalorasub-criticalsys-
     fromthecurrentfleetofthermalneutronreactors
                                                                    temhasadvantagesintermsofanimprovedtrans-
     operatedwithaonce-throughorapartiallyclosed
                                                                    mutationrateforTRUsand/orMAs.Analysesshow
     fuelcycletoadvancedfastneutronsystemscapable
                                                                    thatincountrieswithoutadvancedfuelcycletech-
     ofusingrecycledfissilematerials.Simultaneously,
                                                                    nologies,itwouldtakeabout20yearstoimplement
     analystsrespondingtoconcernsofpolicymakers
                                                                    TRUfuelmulti-recyclinginsodium-cooledfastreac-
     about cost-effectiveness, industrial aspects and
                                                                    tors,whileitwouldtakesome30yearstoimplement
     internationalissuesareinvestigatingtheopportu-
                                                                    moreadvancedsystems,suchasTRUfuelrecycling
     nitiesandchallengesassociatedwiththedifferent
                                                                    inothertypesoffastreactorsorADSs.
     transitionscenarios.
                                                                       From a technical viewpoint, the major issues
                                                                    raised by transition scenarios include the design
                                                                    anddevelopmentof:
                                                                    • fuelsforrecyclinginlightwaterreactors(from
                                                                       standardplutoniumrecyclingtoTRUrecycling);
                                                                    • fuelsforrecyclinginhigh-temperaturereactors
     * Dr. Kathryn A. McCarty (kathryn.mccarthy@inl.gov) is            (fromuraniumfuelstodeepplutoniumburners);
     Deputy Associate Laboratory Director, Nuclear Science and
     Technology, Idaho National Laboratory, Dr. Yong-Joon Choi      • fuelsforrecyclinginafastreactorrecycle(fuels
     (yongjoon.choi@oecd.org) is the Scientific Secretary of the       for homogeneous or targets for heterogeneous
     NEA Working Party on Scientific Issues of the Fuel Cycle and      TRUrecycle,anddedicatedfuels,e.g.forminor
     Dr. Evelyne Bertel is a consultant to the NEA.                    actinideconsumption);



12                                                                                  NEA updates, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
• separationtechnologies(bothwithaqueousand           • Group A: stagnant or phase-out scenario for
   pyro-processes);                                            nuclear energy including management of the
                                                                spentfuel;
• reactor(criticalorsub-critical)designandrelated
   technologies(suchasspecificcoolanttechnology        • Group B: continued use of nuclear energy and
   andmaterials).                                              optimisation of the plutonium resources for  
                                                                futuredeploymentoffastreactors;
    Beyondtechnologydevelopmentrequirements,
                                                             • GroupC:subsetofGroupA,afterstagnation,an
issues such as adequate and timely management
                                                                envisaged“renaissance”ofnuclearenergy;
of fissile materials and industrial-scale deploy-
mentofadvancedprocesseshavetobeaddressed.            • Group D: initially with no nuclear energy but
Technologypreparednessisessentialtoensurethat            decidestoaddittotheenergymix.
performancewillremainexcellentalongtheentire              FourdifferentEuropeanscenariosusingfastneu-
processchainfromreprocessingtofuelfabrication         tronsystems,bothADStype(scenarios1and2)or
whenshiftingfromlaboratorytocommercialpro-             criticalfastreactors(scenario3),wereinvestigated
ductioninlargeindustrial-scalefacilities.                asfollows:

   NationalscenarioswereanalysedinnineNEA             • Scenarios 1 and 2 consider the deployment of
member countries – Belgium, Canada, France,               agroupofADSssharedbyGroupAandB.The
Germany,Japan,Korea,Spain,theUnitedKingdom               ADSsusetheplutoniumofGroupAandtrans-
and the United States – covering various nuclear        mutetheminoractinidesofthetwogroups.The
energydevelopmentpatterns.Theanalysisshowed               plutoniumofGroupBiseithermono-recycledin
that:                                                           pressurisedwaterreactors(PWR)andthenstored
                                                                forfuturedeploymentoffastreactors(scenario1)
• incountrieswhichstartedusingclosednuclear             oriscontinuouslyrecycledinPWRs(scenario2).
   fuel cycles early and plan to continue using      • Scenario3considersthedeploymentoffastreac-
   nuclearenergy,stocksofTRUsand/orMAscan               torsinGroupB.Thesefastreactorsusethepluto-
   bestabilisedbytheendofthecentury;                     niumofGroupsAandBandrecyclealltheminor
• countrieswhichwanttodiminishtheirdepend-               actinides.
   enceonnuclearenergycanonlypartiallyreduce         • Scenario 4 corresponds to a “renaissance” of
   theirinventoriesduringthiscentury,unlessthey          nuclear energy in selected countries. Starting
   actinaregionalcontext;                                   from Scenario 3, Group B and some Group A
• countries which will be implementing new               countries will deploy fast reactors to manage
   nuclear fuel cycles, for example a fast reactor      theirowntransuranicelements.
   cycle,forplutoniumandminoractiniderecycle              TheoutcomeofthestudiesindicatesthatP&T
   laterinthiscentury,e.g.around2050,canstill       may benefit the whole region despite different
   stabilisetheminoractinideinventoryoverthe          nuclearenergypoliciesineachcountry.Aregional
   entirenuclearfuelcycleduringthiscentury.            strategymayalsofavouranuclear“renaissance”in
                                                             somecountries.Iffastreactorswithhomogeneous
    Inaddition,itisnotedthattheminoractinide        recyclingofnon-separatedTRUsaredeployed,use
inventory is related to the pace of fast reactor    offastreactorsandsupportinginfrastructuremust
deploymentanditwilltakealongtimetoreplace          take into consideration the relevant nuclear fuel
alllightwaterreactorsbyfastreactorsasfastreac-      cyclecharacteristics,e.g.conversionratio,cooling
torswillneedplutoniumfromlightwaterreactorsas       time,etc.,tomeetthepotentiallydifferentobjec-
start-upfuel.Toavoidgrowthintheminoractinide        tivesofdifferentcountrieswithinaregionalarea.If
inventory,fastreactorfuelcyclesshouldbedeployed      a“doublestrata”scenario,i.e.ascenariowithboth
asearlyaspossible.Inthiscontext,therecanalsobe    fast reactors and ADSs, is deployed, it should be
incentives,suchaseconomic,resourceavailability,        notedthatmostoftheADSswillbeusedforminor
safety(useofbestpracticesandinternationallyrec-       actinidetransmutation.TheADSismoreapttobe
ognisedtechnologies)andnon-proliferation(strict         usedinaregionalscenariowheredifferentcountries
internationalcontrolovertransportflowsandavery       withdifferentobjectivesshareresources,facilities
limitednumberofjointlyoperatedsites),todevelop       and spent fuel inventories in order to minimise
a“regional”approach.                                       waste.TheADSwouldbelessusefulinthecaseofa
   Regional scenarios can in principle provide a      singlecountrywithastagnantorphase-outnuclear
frameworkforimplementationofadvancednuclear            energypolicy,whichwoulddeployP&Tin“isolation”
fuelcycles,witheffortsdividedequitablyamongdif-       forwastemanagement.
ferentcountriesandtakingintoaccountprolifera-              Analysesofglobaltransitionscenarioscurrently
tionconcernsandresourceoptimisation.Specific           underwayattheNEAcovertheinfrastructuredevel-
scenarioshavebeeninvestigatedaspartofawider         opmentneededtosupportglobalgrowthofnuclear
effortunderwayinEuropetopreparearoadmapfor          energy,aswellashowthatinfrastructuremightbe
thepossibleimplementationofP&Ttechnologies.            deployedinvariousregions.Nuclearfuelcyclessuch
Four potential groups of countries with different     as once-through, limited recycling and continu-
scenariosweresuggestedintheNEAstudy:                   ousrecyclingarealloptionsoverthenextseveral



Transition from thermal to fast neutron nuclear systems, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                         13
                           Figure 1: Schematic diagram of scenarios 1 and 2


              Spent
             fuel of A
                                                                                           GROUP A

                            Pu + MA
                                           ADS fuel
          Reprocessing A                                                 ADS
                                          fabrication
                                                 Pu + MA                                   REGIONAL
                            MA                                                             FACILITIES
          Reprocessing B                 ADS fuel                      ADS
                                       reprocessing                  spent fuel

     Pu
                                           Scenario 2                                      GROUP B
             MOX                 PWR
          fabrication            MOX
                                                    Spent                       Stock
                                                   fuel of B     Scenario 1
             UOX                 PWR
          fabrication            UOX



          Enriched U




                              Figure 2: Schematic diagram of scenario 3

              Spent
             fuel of A
                                                                                           GROUP A

                                 Pu + MA
          Reprocessing A                      Reprocessing B
                                                                                           REGIONAL
                                                                                           FACILITIES
             Pu + MA


                    Fast reactor                                         Spent             GROUP B
                                              Fast reactor
                  fuel fabrication                                      fuel of B




                              Figure 3: Schematic diagram of scenario 4


                                                  Fast reactor                  Spent          Spent fuel
     GROUP A (including C)                            of C                     fuel of C        of A - C


                                            Pu + MA                         Pu + MA
     REGIONAL            Reprocessing B                 Fuel fabrication                   Reprocessing A
     FACILITIES


     GROUP B                                             Fast reactor                         Spent
                                                             of B                            fuel of B




14                                                                             NEA updates, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
decades.Thetransitionfromcurrentfuelcyclesto        thermaltofastneutronsystems.Buildingindustrial
advancedfuelcyclesobviouslywillbedependenton        capabilitiesforthetransitionperiodmightbedif-
thematurityandavailabilityofspecifictechnolo-         ficultatthenationallevel.Multinationalfacilities
gies,aswellasnon-technicalfactorssuchaseco-         couldprovideopportunitiesforeconomiesofscale
nomicsandvariouscountry-specificpolicies.               andeconomicoptimisation,whichwouldbeimpos-
                                                            sible at national level. International co-operation
                                                            couldalsohelpensureadequatesupplyoffuelcycle
                                                            servicesatthegloballevelwhilelimitingtheriskof
Main findings on strategic and policy
                                                            proliferation.
issues
                                                                Thetransitionfromthermaltofastneutronsys-
In light of the age and performance of existing    temsisameanstoachievenationalenergypolicy
nuclearpowerplants,theroleofnuclearenergyis        goals,andgovernments,whichareresponsiblefor
likelytogrowinthecomingdecadesthroughthe           designingenergypolicies,haveamajorroletoplay
lifetimeextensionofexistingplantsandthecon-          infacilitatingtheimplementationoffastneutron
structionofnewreactors,followedbythedevelop-         reactorsandclosedfuelcycleswhentheyareinte-
mentanddeploymentofadvancednuclearsystems            gratedwithintheirstrategicchoices.Adaptationof
beyond2050.Thelifetimeofnuclearpowerplants          legalandregulatoryframeworks,R&Dprogrammes,
in operation or currently being built is expected   educationandtraining,andstabilityofenergypol-
to exceed half a century. Advanced fast neutron     icyarekeyaspectsofgovernmentinvolvementand
systemsofthefourthgeneration,whichareunder          responsibilities.
development,willnotbeavailableforcommercial
                                                                Thenuclearenergyrenaissanceexpectedinthe
deploymentbeforetwodecadesormore.Therefore,
                                                            first decades of the 21st century is likely to rein-
transitiontofastneutronsystemswillbepursued
                                                            force the attractiveness of fast neutron systems.
overlongperiodsoftime,likelyuptotheendofthis
                                                            Ambitious R&D programmes have been under-
century.
                                                            takenatthenationallevelinmanycountriesand
    Fastneutronsystemsoperatedwithclosedfuel         intheframeworkofseveralinternationalprojects;
cyclesofferpossibilitiesforenhancingsecurityof       theyshouldleadtothedesignanddevelopmentof
energysupplythroughbetteruseoftheenergycon-         advancedreactorsandfuelcyclefacilitiesrespond-
tentofnaturaluranium,andforfacilitatingwaste        ingtothesustainabledevelopmentgoalsofgovern-
management by reducingthevolumes andradio-            mentsandsociety.
toxicity of radioactive waste ultimately requiring
                                                                Theimplementationoffastneutronsystemswill,
disposal.Recyclinguranium,plutoniumandminor
                                                            however, require sustained efforts and enhanced
actinidesinfastneutronreactorscanmultiplyby
                                                            international co-operation to address the chal-
50 or more the energy extracted from each unit
                                                            lengesraisedbythetransitionperiod.Scientistsand
ofnaturaluraniummined.Furthermore,itshort-
                                                            analystscanprovidepolicymakerswithdataand
ensthetimeduringwhichmostradioactivewaste
                                                            informationinsupportofrobustdecision-making
requiresstewardship.
                                                            inthisregard.Ultimately,decisionmakersshould
   However, the attractiveness of fast neutron        take adequate measures in order to ensure that
systems and the relevance of transitioning from      theinfrastructureisadaptedtotherequirements
thermaltofastreactorsvaryfromonecountryto          ofevolvingsystems,andthattheoverallcontextof
another.Keyparametersaffectingthecost/benefit         national energy policy is coherent and consistent
analysisoftransitioningincludethesizeandageof      withitsgoals.
thenuclearreactorfleet,theexpectedfuturereli-
anceonnuclearenergy,accesstouraniumresources,
domestic nuclear infrastructure and technology
development,andradioactivewastemanagement
policiesinplace.
   Transitioningfromthecurrentfleetofthermal
reactorstosystemsbasedonfastneutronreactors
andclosedfuelcyclesisachallengingendeavour.
The management of fissile materials during the
transitionperiodrequirescarefullong-termplan-
ning to evaluate the dynamic evolution of mass      References
flowsinevolvingsystemsandtoensurecontinu-            NEA(2009a),Nuclear Fuel Cycle Synergies and Regional Scenarios
ingsecurityofsupplyatallstepsofthefuelcycle.     for Europe,OECD,Paris.
In-depthanalysesofrequirementsformaterialsand        NEA (2009b), Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transition Scenario Studies
servicesareaprerequisitetoembarkingontransi-         Status Report,OECD,Paris.
tion scenarios and should be based upon reliable
                                                            NEA(2009c),Strategic and Policy Issues Raised by the Transition
dataandrobustmodels.                                     from Thermal to Fast Nuclear Systems,OECD,Paris.
   Infrastructure adaptation is another key chal-      NEA/IAEA (2010), Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and
lenge to ensuring the successful transition from     Demand,OECD,Paris.



Transition from thermal to fast neutron nuclear systems, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                               15
                           Explaining the shortage of
                             medical radioisotopes
                                                      by C. Westmacott




     A     spartofitsworktoexaminetheproblemsand
           tosuggestpossiblesolutionsforensuringthe
     long-term,reliablesupplyofmolybdenum-99(99Mo)
                                                                    predictable,sincetheeconomicsandmedicalutility
                                                                    of99Mo/99mTcdependonminimisingdecaylosses.
                                                                       Historically, only five reactors have been
     and technetium-99m ( 99mTc), the NEA undertook           producing90-95%ofglobal99Mosupply,allofwhich
     aneconomicstudyonthe 99Mosupplychain.This             areover43yearsoldandsubjecttolongerandmore
     articlepresentsanoverviewofthefindingsfrom             frequentplannedandunplannedshutdowns.Allthe
     The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes: An Economic Study         majorproducersirradiatetargetsusingmultipurpose
     of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain.                            researchreactors,whichwereoriginallyconstructed
                                                                    and operated with 100% government funding,
                                                                    mainlyforresearchandmaterials-testingpurposes.
                                                                    When99Moproductionstarted,thereactors’original
     The supply chain and historical
                                                                    capitalcostshadbeenpaidorfullyjustifiedforother
     implications                                                   purposes.Asaresult,99Mowasseenasaby-product
                                                                    thatprovidedanothermissionforthereactorthat
     The supply chain consists of uranium target             couldgenerateextrarevenuetosupportresearch.
     manufacturers,reactoroperatorswhoirradiatethe            Thisresultedin:
     targetstocreate99Moaspartofthefissionreaction,
                                                                    • reactoroperatorsoriginallyonlyrequiringreim-
     processorswhoextractthe99Mofromtheirradiated
                                                                       bursementof direct short-runmarginalcosts;
     targetsandpurifyittoproducebulk99Mo,generator
     manufacturers who produce generators with the            
                                                                    •     Mo prices not covering any significant share
                                                                         99

     bulk 99 Mo, and radiopharmacies and hospital                  of the costs of overall reactor operations and
     radiopharmacydepartmentswhoelute 99mTcfrom                    maintenance,orofcapitalcostsorallowances
     thegeneratorandcoupleitwith“coldkits”toprepare            forreplacementorrefurbishmentcosts;
     radiopharmaceutical doses for nuclear medical             • the by-product status remaining with no sub-
     imagingofpatients(seeFigure1).Giventheshort              stantivepricingchangesevenastheimportance
     half-lives of 99Mo (66 hours) and 99mTc (6 hours),       of 99Mo production increased among reactor
     the logistical arrangements have to be quick and          operatingactivities.




                                                   Figure 1: 99Mo supply chain

                                                                           99
                                                                             Mo                  99
                                                                                                   Mo/99mTc
                                                                          “bulk”                 generators
                235
                   U                                                      liquid
              targets
                                                                                                              RX




                               Reactor                         99
                                                                 Mo                 Generator              Hospitals,
                                target                      processing             manufacture            pharmacies
                             irradiation                      facility
                                                                                    99
                                                                                      Mo/99mTc

             Source: AdaptedfromPonsard,2010.




     * Mr. Chad Westmacott (chad.westmacott@oecd.org) works in the NEA Nuclear Development Division.



16                                                                                    NEA updates, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
   Asaresult,pricespaidtothereactoroperator          thechangedidnotbecomeclearuntiltherewere
weretoolowtosustainablysupporttheportionof           requestsforspecificfundingtorefurbishareactoror
reactoroperationsattributableto 99Moproduction,         toconstructanewreactor.Thesesubsidieswerealso
didnotevencovershort-runmarginalcostsinsome          supportingtheproductionof 99Mothatwasbeing
cases,anddidnotprovideenoughfinancialincen-            exportedtoothercountries.
tivetosupportthereplacementorrefurbishmentof
ageingreactors.                                             Governments are re-examining their subsidies
    Theprocessingcomponent,originallyfundedby           Recently, governments from all major producing
governments,wascommercialisedinthe1980sand             countrieshaveindicatedthattheyarereconsider-
1990s. Commercialisation was originally thought          ing or no longer interested in subsidising new or
to be beneficial to all parties; however, contracts   ongoingproductionof 99Moathistoricallevels(or
werebasedonhistoricalperceptionsofcostsand            atall)–somemoreformallythanothers–question-
pricing.Thisresultedinlong-termcontractswith           ingwhetheritremainsinthepublicinterest.With
favourabletermsforcommercialprocessingfirms,            achangeinsocialcontract,theeconomicshaveto
withnosubstantialchangetothepricesforirradia-         becomesustainableonafull-costbasisortheavail-
tion.Oncethesecontractswereestablished,theyset        abilityofalong-term,reliablesupplyof99Mowillbe
thestandardfornewprocessorsandreactorsthat            threatened.
enteredthemarket.
    Anunintendedeffectofcommercialisationwas            Prices must increase, but the impact on end users
establishingmarketpowerforprocessors.Thecon-            will be small
tracts,insomecases,createdasituationwherethe
reactoroperatorhadonlyoneavenueforsellingits         Startingfromarepresentativecostandpricingstruc-
99 Mo irradiation services. Barriers to entry (both    turedevelopedbytheNEA,andbasedoninforma-
natural and created, such as aggressive pricing        tionfromsupplychainparticipants,levelisedunit
strategies)sustainedthisbalanceofpowerinthe           costof 99Mo(LUCM)calculationswerecarriedout
marketandcontributedtomaintaininglowprices             to determine the magnitude of the price changes
forirradiationservices.                                    neededforeconomicsustainability.Theirimpact,
                                                              basedonvariouscapitalinvestmentscenarios,was
     A complicating factor was the historical exist-    alsoexamined.Thesescenariosrangefromusing
enceofexcesscapacityofirradiationservices.Some        existingreactorstobuildingafullydedicatediso-
excesscapacityisnecessarytoprovideback-upat           topereactorandprocessingfacilities.Underallthe
times when reactors are not operating, or when        scenarios,pricesmustincrease.Theanalysisofthe
unexpectedorextendedshutdownsoccur.However,             currenteconomicsituationfoundthat,forexisting
operators were not compensated for maintaining          reactors,themarginalrevenuefromproductionwas
reservecapacity,creatinganincentiveforthemto          lowerthanthemarginalcosts,withreactorsfacing
usethecapacitytogainrevenueratherthanleaving         alossoneveryunitof99Moproduced.
itidle,drivingdownthepricesofirradiationservices
further,reducingreliabilityandperpetuatingpro-               TheLUCMcalculationsindicatedthatsignificant
cessormarketpower.                                          priceincreasesarenecessaryintheupstreamsup-
                                                              plychaininorderforthelattertobecomeeconomi-
    Furtherdownstream,pricingstrategiesofgen-            callysustainable.Reactorirradiationserviceprices
eratormanufacturerswerefocusedonencouraging             would need to increase from EUR 45 per six-day
salesoftheircoldkits.Thesestrategieshadafeed-        curie(calculatedfromendofprocessing)toarange
backeffectupstream,withprofitsnotflowingback          ofapproximatelyEUR55to400.However,theanaly-
throughthe99Mosupplychainandlimitingtheflex-          sisalsofindsthatthereisverylittleeffectonthe
ibilitytoabsorbproposedupstreampriceincreases.         pricesperpatientdose.Thereactorshareinthefinal
    Thequestionthatarisesis:If the supply chain pric-    reimbursementrateswouldincreasefromapproxi-
ing structure was such that the irradiation services were     matelyEUR0.26perprocedureatpre-shortageprices
economically unsustainable, why did reactors continue to      tobetweenEUR0.33andEUR2.39(seeTable1).
irradiate targets? Theanswerisrelatedtothesocial          Atpre-shortageprices,theirradiationpricefrom
contract between governments and the medical            thereactor(theEUR0.26)islessthanone-fifthof
imagingcommunity.Governmentssubsidisedthe                one percent of the final reimbursement rate (cal-
developmentandoperationofresearchreactorsand           culatedas0.11%).Evenatthemostextremeprice
relatedinfrastructure,includingradioactivewaste          increasefromthereactor,thevalueofirradiation
management. Using part of this funding, reactor        wouldincreasetoonly0.97%ofthefinalreimburse-
operators irradiated targets to produce 99Mo. In       mentrate.Theimpactofthehigherfinalradiophar-
return,citizenswouldreceiveanimportantmedical          macypriceonthereimbursementrateisminimal,
isotopefornuclearmedicinediagnosticprocedures.           increasingfrom4.42%ofthereimbursementrateto
   Althoughreactoroperatorswereawarethatgov-            amaximumof5.69%.
ernmentfinancialsupportwasincreasinglyusedfor             The analysis indicates that, while prices will
99Moproduction,thismaynothavebeentransparent          increase for the downstream components, these
togovernments.Insomecases,themagnitudeof              shouldbeabletobeabsorbed.However,thisissue



Explaining the shortage of medical radioisotopes, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                                 17
                                    Table 1: Impact of price increases at hospital level


                                                     Irradiation value within final         Irradiation value as %
                                                   radiopharmaceutical price (EUR)          of reimbursement rate
          Current situation pre-shortage                            0.26                               0.11

          Required for economic sustainability                    0.33-2.39                         0.14-0.97




     mayrequirefurtherstudyandpossibleassessment             costsbutrequireoperations(includingmaintenance,
     byhospitalsandmedicalinsuranceplans,especially          upgrades, share of total reactor operating costs/
     inthecontextofcontinueddownwardpressureon              overheadsandwaste)tobefundedcommercially;or
     reimbursementratesorincaseswherethehealth              torequireall99Mo-relatedcapitalandoperatingcosts
     systemprovidesfixedbudgetstohospitalsforradio-          tobecoveredbymarketprices.Atransitionperiod
     isotopepurchases.                                            could be considered to allow time for the market
                                                                    to adjust to any new pricing paradigm. However,
     Conversion to LEU would also have small effects                thefirsttwooptionsmaycreatedistortionsinthe
     on end users                                                   internationalmarket.

     Theproposedconversionoftargetsnormallycontain-               The commercial model does not result in the
     ingbetween45%and93%235U(highenricheduranium           government abdicating any health care responsi-
     –HEU)totargetscontaininglessthan20%235U(low          bilities. Governments may decide to continue to
     enricheduranium–LEU)fortheproductionof99Mo            payfortheuseof 99mTcthroughincreasinghealth
     hasbeenagreedtobymostgovernmentsforsecurity           insurance reimbursement rates. This is consid-
     andnon-proliferationreasons.Evenwithuncertainty          eredamoreappropriatesubsidyasitensuresthe    
     overcostsofconversionforamajor 99Moproducer,          continuedsupplyof99mTcwithoutspecifyinghowit
     itisclearthatthecurrentpricingstructureprovides       isproduced.Thiswouldenablealternativetechnolo-
     insufficientfinancialincentiveforthedevelopment          gies,iftheyareeconomicandefficient,toenterthe
     andoperationofLEU-basedinfrastructure.                     marketfreely.
         However,intermsofthesupplychaineconom-
     ics,theimpactontheenduserofconvertingtoLEU          Paying for the full costs of   99Mo

     targetsisestimatedtobequitesmall,eventhough           Regardlessofthedefinitionofthesocialcontract,
     the upstream price impact could be significant.         thereactoroperatormustberemuneratedforthe
     Simulating conversion in a situation where the          full costs of 99Mo production. In addition, reactor
     densityoftheuraniuminthetargetscouldnotbe            operators must be compensated for maintaining
     increased significantly, the radiopharmacy price          reservecapacity.Wherethisremunerationwillcome
     went from 5.06% to 5.58% of the final reimburse-       fromdependsonthenationalsocialcontract.
     mentratesandtheshareoftheirradiationservices
     increasedfrom0.35%to0.86%.                                    If governments decide to continue to provide
                                                                    financialsupportfor 99Moproductionandreserve
                                                                    capacity,theyneedtocommittolong-term, increased,
     Recommendations and options                                    ongoingremunerationtoreactoroperators,including
                                                                    dedicatedfundingforreservecapacity.Theythen
     The study makes a number of recommendations
                                                                    needtodecideiftheirsupportistobeonlyfortheir
     andinvestigatesoptionstoassistdecision-makers
                                                                    domesticmarketorforexportsaswell.Inthelatter
     inrestructuringthesupplychain.
                                                                    case,theyneedtobeawarethattheyhaveeffectively
                                                                    enteredintoasocialcontractwiththeglobalsupply
     Government role in supporting the industry                     chain. Government funding, in this case, could
     Governments must first assess their role in the        taketheformofunilateralorinternationalfunding
     industry, especially as related to the level of        arrangements, with funding coming from either
     subsidisationprovidedtotheupstream99Mosupply            generaltaxesorchargesappliedtothe 99Mo/99mTc
     chain(reactorsandinsomecasestheprocessors).            supply chain. An export tax could potentially be
     Thisisfundamentallyapolicydecisionratherthan           usedtohelpreducetheamountoffundsrequired
     aneconomicone.                                              fromthegeneraltaxbase.
        Theoptionsfordefiningthesocialcontractare              Underasocialcontractofincreasedcommercial
     basedontheexpectedroleofthegovernmentand              funding, more appropriate market prices will be
     thedegreeoffinancialsupportitiswillingtoprovide.     requiredtocoverfullcosts.Reactoroperatorswill
     Thegovernmentcanchoosetofundallcapitaland             needtorequireasubstantialincreaseinprices,with
     operating costs, with reactors charging only for        commercial-based pricing becoming the norm in
     direct marginal costs; to fund all infrastructure       industrycontractsovertime.



18                                                                                   NEA updates, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
                        Forreservecapacity,endusersshoulddemand           Changes must occur to secure long-term supply
                    reliablesupplyandbewillingtosupportitthrough
                                                                                 Thecurrenteconomicstructureofthe 99Mosupply
                    a“reliabilitypremium”.Thisdemandandremuner-
                                                                                 chaindoesnotprovidesufficientfinancialincentive
                    ationshouldflowbackthroughthesupplychain,
                                                                                 toeconomicallysupport 99Moproductionatexist-
                    resultingintheupstreamprovidingreservecapac-
                                                                                 ingresearchreactors,letalonetodevelopnewLEU-
                    ityandbeingpaidforit.However,itispossiblethat
                                                                                 based production and processing capacity. It also
                    there may be a role for government intervention,
                                                                                 doesnotrecognisetheeconomicvalueofreserve
                    requiringminimumlevelsofreservecapacity.
                                                                                 capacity.Thelackofinvestmenthasresultedina
                        Thechallengewillbetodevelopaharmonised           systemreliantonolder,less-reliablereactors.The
                    framework across producing countries that will         shortageseenin2009and2010isasymptomofthis
                    allow a transition to full-cost remuneration in a    economicproblem.
                    period during which there are both old and new
                                                                                      Itisclearthatwithoutongoingfinancialsupport
                    reactors, some with HEU and some with LEU tar-
                                                                                 fromgovernments,commercialpricingisrequired
                    gets. If new suppliers enter the market following
                                                                                 forthecontinuedsupplyofreactor-based99Mointhe
                    thehistoricallyunsustainableremunerationmodel,
                                                                                 mediumtolongertermandtheconversiontoLEU-
                    thiscouldresultincommercial-basedreactorsnot
                                                                                 basedproduction.Changesarenecessarytoachieve
                    beingabletosustaintheircurrentoperationsand
                                                                                 a 99Mo/99mTcsupplychainthatiseconomicallysus-
                    newLEU-based 99Moproductioninfrastructurenot
                                                                                 tainableandreliable.Evenasshort-termsupplyhas
                    beingconstructedormaintainedwithoutgovern-
                                                                                 stabilised,itisimportanttostressthatthesymptom
                    mentassistance.Withoutharmonisation,long-term
                                                                                 hasbeenaddressedbuttheunderlyingproblem–the
                    supplyreliabilitywouldbethreatened,withthenew
                                                                                 unsustainableeconomicstructure–hasnot.
                    sourcesofsupplyonlypostponingpendingsupply
                    shortages.Oneoptionforharmonisationwouldbe               For more information regarding NEA work on
                    foranexpertpaneltoreviewthemarketandtopro-         medicalradioisotopesandtoreadthefulleconomic
                    videaviewonwhetherproducersareapplyingthe           study,pleasevisittheNEAwebsite:www.oecd-nea.
                    agreed-uponsocialcontract.                                org/med-radio/.
NTP,SouthAfrica




                                                                                 Reference
                                                                                 Ponsard,B.(2010),“Mo-99SupplyIssues:ReportandLessons
                                                                                 Learned”,paperpresentedatthe14thInternationalTopical
                            ViewoftheSAFARI-1reactorlocatedin            MeetingonResearchReactorFuelManagement(RRFM2010),
                       SouthAfrica.Thisisoneofthereactorsproducing     EuropeanNuclearSociety,ENSRRFM2010Transactions,
                               99Mofortheglobalsupplychain.
                                                                                 21-25March2010,Marrakech,Morocco.



                    Explaining the shortage of medical radioisotopes, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                                   19
     New nuclear build and evolving radiological
              protection challenges
                                                             by T. Lazo




     M      anytrendsandindicatorssuggestthattheuse
            ofnuclearpowerforgeneratingelectricitywill
     increase,perhapssignificantly,inthecoming10to
                                                                    suchdecisionscouldbetakenwithoutsomelevel
                                                                    of“publicdebate”.Atalowerlevel,decisionswillbe
                                                                    neededwithregardtospecificsitingofnewplants.
     20yearsandbeyond.Anysuchexpansionwillnot              Hereagain,nationallevellawsandlegislationwill
     takeplaceinastaticscientificorsocialcontext,but      definetheconsultationanddecision-makingpro-
     ratherinthemidstofongoingchangesinmanyrele-           cessesthatwillbeused,andthemoreclearlythese
     vantfields,radiologicalprotection,radioactivewaste       are defined and broadly understood, the more
     managementandnuclearsafetytonameafew.                   smoothlytheywillproceed.
        Regardingradiologicalprotection,thisevolution              Althoughmostradiologicalprotectiondecisions
     canbecharacterisedinmanydifferentways,butcan          arenotdrivenprimarilybyscience,itevidentlyplays
     convenientlybedescribedashavingscientificand            akeyroleinframingdecisionsthatneedtobemade.
     sociallydrivenaspects.Thesemaywellposechal-             Inthiscontext,itisessentialthatstate-of-the-art
     lengestoradiologicalprotection(RP)policy,regula-         scienceisusedasthefoundationforassessingradio-
     tionandapplicationinthefuture.                           logicalrisks,keepinginmind,nevertheless,thatsci-
                                                                    enceingeneralcarriesafairamountofuncertainty.
                                                                    Hence, some judgement will be necessary when
     Evolution in radiological protection                           decidingwhether,andifsohow,uncertainscien-
                                                                    tificknowledgeshouldbetakenintoaccountwhen
     and new nuclear build                                          applying a precautionary approach. The “tipping
     Overthepast20years,thesystemofradiological            point”atwhichnewscienceshouldinducechange
     protectionhasevolvedsignificantly,intermsofboth        inRPapproachesisadifficult,judgementalchoice
     scientificunderstandingandthesocialaspectsof            thatwillbeverycase-specific.
     decision-making. The scientific underpinnings of              In the particular case of new nuclear build,
     radiological protection continue to progress and         while the evolution of new scientific knowledge
     ongoing studies pose scientific questions that           doesnotseemtoimminentlycallforchangeinRP
     deserveattention(NEA,2007a).Inparallel,giventhe        approaches,thereareclearlyareaswherescientific
     non-absolutecertaintyofscienceandthejudgemen-            resultscouldaffectthewaythatradiologicalprotec-
     talnatureofdefiningwhatis“safeenough”,decision-        tionisstructuredandapplied.Forthemoment,most
     making has become much more concerned with              ofthesequestionsaremoreinthe“whatif”stage,
     stakeholderengagement(NEA,2007b).                          although this status does not dismiss the issues.
                                                                    Rather,itissuggestedthatscientistsandregulatory
        Radiological protection challenges will cer-
                                                                    authoritiesshouldincreasetheircommunicationso
     tainlybeencounteredinthecontextofnewnuclear
                                                                    that,asvariousaspectsofthisscientificresearch
     build.However,approachestomeetingthesechal-
                                                                    begintoreachclosure,moredetailedthinkingasto
     lengesarenotuniquetonewconstructionprojects.
                                                                    theregulatoryandpracticalimplicationsofpossible
     Innovative yet sustainable approaches will be
                                                                    resultscouldbeundertakeninanopenandtrans-
     neededinaddressingmanyradiologicalprotection
                                                                    parentfashion.
     decision-makingsituationsinthefuture,whether
     associatedwithexistingornewfacilities.Overall,
     tomakeprogressonradiologicalprotectionissuesit
     willbenecessarytohavetransparencyindecision-
     makingstructuresandprocesses,tousestate-of-
     the-artscienceandtoengagewithstakeholders.
         Inthecontextofnewnuclearbuild,thistrans-
     latesintoseverallevelsofdiscussionsanddecisions.
     Attheuppermostlevel,manygovernmentshaveor
     will address the utility of nuclear energy in their
     overallenergymix.Thisisinessenceadecisionin
     theareaofjustification,andwillbeaddressedatthe       * Dr. Ted Lazo (edward.lazo@oecd.org) is Principal Administrator
     nationallevelaccordingtonationallaws,legislation        in the NEA Radiological Protection and Radioactive Waste
     andtraditions.Itisdifficulttosee,however,how          Management Division.



20                                                                                    NEA updates, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
Practical considerations for new                               • Effective communication in optimising design:
                                                                  Licensingrequirementsforsafetyandprotection
nuclear power plants
                                                                  ofthepublicandtheenvironmentmayrequire
It will also be important for new nuclear build to      technical and organisational measures that
appropriately incorporate and implement lessons              increase radiation exposure of workers. The
learnt from successful nuclear reactor operation.           desig ner and operator must understand
Theseincludeexperiencewithexposuretrends,but               reg ulator y requirements and how those
alsowith“goodpractice”.Bothoftheseaspectscan             requirements are interpreted for surveillance,
beincludedattheplanningstageinordertoensure             inspectionandotheractivitiesduringtheplant’s
thatworkerandpublicexposuresfromnewnuclear                operatingphase.Havingthatclearunderstanding
powerplantsareaslowasreasonablyachievable                 enablesthedesignertodevelopmeansandtouse
(ALARA)(NEA,2010).                                              designelementsthatreduceradiationexposures.
                                                                  This requires close co-operation between
                                                                  regulators,designersandoperators,aswellas
Incorporating operational RP lessons learnt into
                                                                  transparentandactiveconsultationwithother
the design
                                                                  stakeholders.
Animportantlessonlearntduringthelastdecades
is that a substantial amount of exposure in past      • Recognisable and effective operational RP: The
decadeshasresultedfromlackofattentionduring               concept of operational RP should be forward-
design.Factorssuchasnuclearsafetyandoperational           looking,addressingallphasesofthelifecycleof
availabilityhavetraditionallydominateddesignand             thepowerplantinordertodemonstrateeffective
constructionphasesofnuclearpowerplants,with                management and confidence. This should
operationalRPaspectsoftenaddressedtoalesser               be supported by the full pool of operational
degree.Thereis,however,asignificantpotentialto            experience. The management must always be
avoidradiationdoses,aswellaslong-termmainte-               aware that if the handling of operational RP
nancecosts,ifoperationalradiationprotectionexpe-            appearsnegligentinthepublic’sortheregulator’s
rienceisembeddedinthearchitecturaldesignand               view, then trust in nuclear safety and in the
constructionofnewplants(e.g.integratedladders/              reliability of management is put at risk. This
stairsinsteadofmobilescaffolds,easilyaccessible            jeopardisesnotonlytheoperationalavailability
cabletunnels,in-ductlaidpipelines,etc.).Thefact           of the plant but also nuclear technology as  
thatnewplantdesignsaretargeting60yearsand                awhole.
moreofoperationallifetimeaddsfurtherincentive
tocarefullyassessandincorporateindesigneffec-           Exposure benchmarks
tive and efficient features for dose reduction and
                                                               Sinceabout1990,theaverageannualcollectivedose
plant productivity (e.g. some maintenance opera-
                                                               atnuclearpowerplantshasfallenbymorethana
tionscouldbeperformedevenwhenthereactoris
                                                               factoroftwo.Forpressurisedwaterreactors(PWRs),
operating,orwithareducedshutdowntime).
                                                               thisevolutionisfromjustover2person-Sv/aperunit
   ArecentlypublishedNEAstudyonoperational              tounder0.75person-Sv/aperunit.Forboilingwater
RP lessons (NEA, 2010) has identified several           reactors(BWRs),thedecreaseisslightlyless,from
“guidingprinciples”thatareseentobecrucialfor          about2.6person-Sv/ato1.5person-Sv/aperunit.
thesuccessfulintegrationoflessonsinplanning:             Fornew-generationPWRs,thecurrentannualcollec-
• Proactive implementation of lessons learnt:Crucial        tivedoseiscloserto0.25person-Sv/aperunit.These
   decisions affecting future radiation exposure          collectivedosetrendsareshowninFigures1and2.
   of workers and also long-term expenses for           TheadvancedPWRsrepresentthelatestFrenchand
   maintenance,outagesandmodificationsshould              Germandesigns,whereasthePWRandBWRsingle-
   bemadeduringthedesignphaseofanewnuclear           unitaveragesrepresentallplantsofthesetypesin
   powerplant.Bothradiationdosesandcostscan            theworld.
   bereducedoverthelifecycleoftheplantwhen               Giventhesetrends,itseemsreasonablethatutili-
   practicalexperiencefromdecadesofoperational           tieswishingtobuildnewnuclearpowerplants,and
   RP in existing power plants is included in          regulatoryauthoritiesinvolvedinassessinglicense
   the architectural design at an early stage. It      applications for new nuclear plants, would take
   is also recommended to anticipate potential           thisexperienceintoaccountinestablishingexpo-
   occupationalexposureforthefulllifecycleofthe       surebenchmarks.Forexample,experiencemaybe
   plant(i.e.fromoperationtodecommissioning)             ofusetoestablish,forplanningpurposes,annual
   andtotakeoptimisationmeasuresinadvance.               collective dose benchmarks for new units, which
• Balance of risks and allocation of resources:Radiation    couldbeontheorderof0.25person-Sv/aforPWRs.
   exposure is not the only risk to be considered     BenchmarksforBWRsshouldbesomewherebelow
   whendesigninganewplant.Theallocationof              about1.5person-Sv/a,butfurtherdataisneededin
   resourcesforoccupationalhealthandsafetyat            ordertomakeamoreaccurateassessment.Basedon
   thedesignphaseshouldbebasedonarational             currentgoodpracticeandexperience,suchcriteria
   balanceaimedatoptimisingprotectionagainst             couldbeusefulinidentifyingthemostappropriate
   allriskstoworkers.                                       protectionoptions.



New nuclear build and evolving radiological protection challenges, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                21
                   Figure 1: Average annual collective dose trends for all PWRs and advanced PWRs


                   2.5



                   2.0



                   1.5
     Person-Sv/a




                   1.0



                   0.5



                    0
                          1992   1993   1994   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008


                                  All PWRs                     Advanced PWRs


                         Source: OECD/NEAInformationSystemonOccupationalExposure(ISOE),2008.




                                   Figure 2: Average annual collective dose trends for BWRs


                   3.0


                   2.5



                   2.0
     Person-Sv/a




                   1.5



                   1.0



                   0.5



                    0
                          1992   1993   1994   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008


                                  All BWRs


                         Source: OECD/NEAInformationSystemonOccupationalExposure(ISOE),2008.




22                                                                                                     NEA updates, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
Designing for public and environmental protection            • The headroom allowed between actual dis-
                                                                chargesandlimitingvaluesiskepttotheabso-
In terms of public exposures and environmental           luteminimumstrictlynecessaryforthenormal
protection, the management of radioactive emis-            operationoftheplant.
sionsfromnuclearpowerplantscontinuestobea
priorityandisthesubjectofanongoingstudyatthe         Inthiscontext,itshouldbenotedthatlimiting
NEA.Assessedpublicexposuresfromgaseousand             values are not set at levels corresponding to the
liquidemissionsfromnuclearpowerplantsremain           boundary between acceptable and unacceptable
well below the 1 mSv/a dose limit. Traditionally,    radiologicalimpact.Inparticular,theydonotcor-
effluents have been managed through a focus on       respondtothedoselimitsorconstraintscontained
optimisationandapplyingbestavailabletechniques         innationalorinternationallegislation.Indeed,the
(BAT).However,theresultsofeffluentmanagement          applicationofoptimisationandBATattheplanning
continuetoshowwidevariation,evenamongvery            stageshouldhaveeliminatedanyproposalswhich
similarplants.Tritiumhasbeenseentovarybymore       wouldgiverisetodosesapproachingorexceeding
thanafactoroftwoamongsister-plantunits(identi-       suchlimitsorconstraintsbeforethedischargelimit-
calunits,oftenatdifferentsites),andiodine-131by     settingstageisreached.
overfourordersofmagnitude.Inthiscontext,itis
difficulttojudgewhatwouldbeusedasa“bench-
mark”foroptimummanagementofeffluentsfornew
                                                             Conclusions
nuclearpowerplants,andassuchhowtheregulatory
limitationofdischargesshouldbestbeaccomplished.        The construction of nuclear power plants has
                                                             always raised issues of public concern. Even in
    One approach taken to the regulatory limita-
                                                             the current climate in which nuclear energy is
tion of discharges has been the establishment of
                                                             being seriously reconsidered in many countries
“dischargelimits”or“licensingtechnicalspecifica-
                                                             atnationalgovernmentlevelandatmultinational
tions”thatlimitthetotalactivityreleasedperyear,
                                                             corporatelevel,theconstructionofnewunitshas
andperhapsalsoplacelimitsonthedischargerate.
                                                             alwaysraisedquestionsthatneedtoberesolved.
Suchlimitationvalueshavetraditionallybeensetat
                                                             Experience has shown that in such situations,
higherlevelsthantheactualdischargesthemselves.
                                                             decisions acknowledged as acceptable can take
This“operatingoverhead”givestheoperatorflex-
                                                             sometimetobereached.Toappropriatelyprepareto
ibilitytocopewithnon-routineevents,unplanned
                                                             addressquestionsofnewnuclearbuild,governments
maintenanceandminordeviationsfromthedesign
                                                             should ensure that their established decision-
parameters.However,iftheoperatingoverheadis
                                                             making processes clearly and unambiguously lay
toolarge,thereisreducedpressureforoptimising,
                                                             out rules and responsibilities, and actively and
andthe“apparentlyhigh”limitationvaluescanlead
                                                             effectively engage with stakeholders in gathering
topresentationaldifficulties,sinceintheorythey
                                                             their views. The overall process will involve the
giveanoperatortherighttodischargemuchgreater
                                                             useofstate-of-the-artscienceandastatementof
quantitiesofradioactivitythantheyactuallydoin
                                                             valuesappliedwhenmakingjudgements.Industry
practice.Toolowanoverheadmayresultinopera-
                                                             will need to ensure that its proposed facilities
torsbreachingalimitwhencarryingoutreasonable
                                                             incorporate radiological and other lessons learnt,
and necessary activities, even if such emissions
                                                             and to demonstrate that optimisation and work-
wouldhavearguablynegligibleradiologicalimpacts.
                                                             managementexperiencehasbeeneffectivelyapplied
This too may lead to presentational difficulties,
                                                             tonewplantdesigns,proceduresandprocesses.
sinceabreachofalicencetechnicalspecification
impliesinadequateperformanceandcouldcallinto
question the quality of regulatory oversight. The
challengeistodeviseatransparentandconsistent
approachtosettinglevelsthatarestringentenough
toguaranteeahighlevelofperformanceinrelation
todischarges,whilstgivingoperatorstheflexibility
theyneedtoconductnormal,acceptableoperations
withoutinfringingtheirdischargeauthorisations.
Inprinciple:
• Discharge limitation should be based on the
   minimum level of discharge that the operator
                                                         
   has justified the need for in order to operate   References
   theplant.                                                NEA (2007a), Scientific Issues and Emerging Challenges for
• Limitationshouldprovidenecessaryheadroom             Radiological Protection: Report of the Expert Group on the
   basedonoperationalfluctuationsortrendsinthe       Implications of Radiological Protection Science,OECD,Paris.
   levelofdischargeovertheyearthattheoperator       NEA(2007b), Radiation Protection in Today’s World: Towards
   hassubstantiatedmayoccurinnormalopera-              Sustainability,OECD,Paris.
   tion, even though optimisation and BAT have        NEA(2010),Occupational Radiological Protection Principles and
   beenapplied.                                             Criteria for Designing New Nuclear Power Plants,OECD,Paris.



New nuclear build and evolving radiological protection challenges, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                    23
          The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence
               celebrates a decade of work
                                    by C. Pescatore, C. Mays and D. Diaconu




     S    inceitsfoundationin2000,theNEARadioactive
          Waste Management Committee (RW MC )
     Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) has
                                                                                                                       
                                                                  meetings, and contributions to desk studies and
                                                                  onlineconsultations.
                                                                      Through these varied, participative learning
     fostered constructive dialogues and interactions        activities, the FSC has documented a wealth of
     withhundredsofinterestedpartiesinradioactive          experiencetoldinmanyvoices.Thisongoingrecord
     wastemanagement,rangingfromspecialistsand              benchmarks practice, and allows progress and
     academicresearchers,nationalandlocalpoliticians        changetobeassessed.Studyreports,proceedings
     to local stakeholders and associations. Many of       of workshops and topical sessions, and two-page
     thosepartnerscametoParisinSeptember2010to           summaryflyersareavailableonlineatwww.oecd-
     participateinthecolloquium“LookingBack,Looking        nea.org/fsc.
     Forward in Stakeholder Engagement”. This Ten-
     yearAnniversaryColloquiumaswellastheFSC’s                A new document is the “Ten-year Record of
     eleventhregularmeetingonthefollowingtwodays          Learning”whichservesasanindextothethemes
     wereopentoallinterestedparties.                         approached and the people who contributed.       
                                                                  FSCworkhascanvassedmanyquestionsandissues
        ThisarticledescribestheForumandtheonline          concerningthemanagementofvariouscategoriesof
     reports in which learning is shared. It highlights   radioactivewasteandthediversesolutionsenvis-
     thetwomajortopicsdiscussedattheColloquium            aged.Itsscopeandexperienceextendbeyondgeo-
     andreviewsthejointevaluationmadethereofFSC          logical repositories. Feedback from professionals
     achievements. Finally, it points to the directions    and practitioners indicates that many of the FSC
     selectedforanewdecadeofwork.                           lessonsarepertinentoutsidetheareaofwasteman-
                                                                  agement.TheFSConlinelibraryisthusaprecious
                                                                  resource,foritsbreadth,consistency,thebroadpar-
     The FSC – a sustained experiment,                            ticipativebasisonwhichtheworkrests,anditsutil-
                                                                  ityinaddressingsocio-technicaldecision-making
     an online resource                                           ingeneral.
     TheFSCwascreatedbytheNEAin2000topromote
     thesharingofinternationalexperienceinaddress-
     ing the societal dimension of radioactive waste
     management. The FSC explores means to ensure
                                                                  Ten-year Anniversary Colloquium
     effectivedialogueamongstallstakeholdersandto          The Ten-year Anniversary Colloquium held on
     strengthenconfidenceindecision-makingprocesses          15September2010wastheoccasiontotakestockof
     and socio-technical systems of radioactive waste       FSCachievements,toconductamulti-stakeholder
     management.Theworkingdefinitiongiventothe             discussionoftwoimportantcurrentthemesandto
     term“stakeholder”is“anyactor–institution,group       gatherguidanceonnewdirectionstobetakenbythe
     orindividual–withaninterestorwitharoletoplay     FSCinthecomingyears.
     intheprocess.”
        The Forum is composed of designated repre-
     sentatives from 16 NEA member countries. They
     aremainlygovernmentpolicyandregulatoryoffi-
     cials,R&Dspecialists,implementersandindustry
     representatives,althoughotherprofilesarepresent
     aswell.TheForumisassistedinitsworkbyaca-
     demics(notablysocialscientists)insideandoutside
     thefieldsdirectlyconcernedwithradioactivewaste
                                                                  * Dr. Claudio Pescatore (claudio.pescatore@oecd.org) is
     management.Goodrelationshipshavebeenformed
                                                                  Principal Administrator for Radioactive Waste Management
     withrepresentativesofregionsandlocalcommu-             and Decommissioning at the NEA, Ms. Claire Mays (claire.
     nitieswhoshareaninterestorstakeinthetopics         mays@oecd.org) is a consultant to the NEA and Dr. Daniela
     discussed. Opportunities to participate include         Diaconu (daniela.r-diaconu@gmail.com), who provided input to
     attendanceatthenationalworkshops,community             this article, works at the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR)
     visitsandcasestudypresentationsattheregular          Pitesti in Romania.



24                                                                                  NEA updates, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
Building a durable relationship between the host
community, the facility and the major institutional             Recent publications of the Forum on
players with quality of life in mind                            Stakeholder Confidence
TheFSChasbrokenawayfromtraditionalinstitu-                                    • More than Just Concrete
tionaldiscourseinsuggestingthatradioactivewaste                                  Realities: The Symbolic
managementfacilitysitingisnotabout“acceptance”                                   Dimension of Radioactive
by a local community. Instead, FSC members are                                  WasteManagement.
convincedthatafacilityshouldbeembeddedina
viable,long-termsocietalproject,aimedat“owner-                                 • Partnering for Long-term
ship”andfocusednotablyonthesustainablewell-                                      Management of Radioactive
beingofthehostcommunities.Amongtheimportant                                     Waste: Evolution and
featuresincreatingsuchaprojectistheactualrela-                                 Current Practice in Thirteen
tionshipformedamongthestakeholders,andthe                                        Countries.
symbolicrelationshiptheywillformwiththesite             • Radioactive Waste Repositories and Host Regions:
and facility. Prof. Erik vanHoveof Antwerpchal-            Envisaging the Future Together (Workshop
lengedtheColloquiumaudiencetoconsidertoday’s                Proceedings,France).
contradictorysocialsituation:thehighereconomic
developmentofsocietyshouldofferopportunitiesfor
                                                                NEA News articles
happierlife,yetatthesametimethereisperhaps
more loneliness and empty existences than ever           • “Partneringwithstakeholdersinradioactive
before.HepointedouthowtheFSC’sproposaltogive             wastemanagement”.
addedcommunityvaluetoradioactivewasteman-                 • “Geologicaldisposalofradioactivewaste:
agementisonewayofaddressingsuchimbalances.                 records,markersandpeople”.
    Among the local representatives who took the
floorwereCatarinaBlomoftheUppsalaRegional                  TheFSCalsooffersseveraltwo-pagesum-
Council(Sweden)andMayorKrisvanDijckofDessel            maryflyers,mostinEnglish,French,Japanese
(Belgium). Ms. Blom pointed out how politicians          andSpanish.
become mediators between the needs of techni-
                                                                             Allareavailableonline
cal researchers and the population; addressing
                                                                            atwww.oecd-nea.org/fsc.
wastemanagementinademocraticmannerrein-
forcesdemocracyoverall.MayorvanDijckshared
Belgium’sexperience,showingthatitisveryimpor-
tanttoinvolvepeopleinthesocio-technicaldeci-
sion-making,butthatspecialinstrumentshaveto
becreatedtosupporttheirengagement.Essential            setthroughlegallybindingagreementsorthrough
conditionsinrelationship-buildingarecommuni-              less formal arrangements. Overall, the partner-
cation,correctinformation,afocusonsafetyplan-          shipapproachcontributestotransparencyandcan
ningandassuranceofnewjobsinanewindustry.A          support accountability in decision-making. Most
repositoryshouldrepresentaprofitableinvestment          importantly,itreflectsadeterminationtoempower
forthenextgenerations,andlocalfundsshouldbe          communitiesindecisionsthatmayaffecttheirfuture.
negotiatedinthisregard.
                                                                  Atthecolloquium,acriticallookwastakenat
                                                              partnership, examining whether this governance
Partnering for long-term management of                        tooliswidespreadandsuccessful.Ingeneral,sup-
                                                              port was found and the conditions for achieving
radioactive waste
                                                              co-managementwerehighlighted.TheEC-funded
Early in 2010, the FSC issued a significant report   COWAM (Community Waste Management) pro-
(NEA,2010)andsummaryflyeronthewaysinwhich           grammeshaveinvestigatedandprovedthecapacity
partnershipshavebeenformedandconductedin               of social groups to create competence in assess-
13countries.Thepartnershipapproachisacollabo-          ing potential repository impacts and to analyse
rativeworkingrelationshipbetweenthecommunity            its strategic value. Serge Gadbois of Mutadis pre-
andthemaindeveloperofaradioactivewasteman-            sentedastakeholderassessmentofhowtheAarhus
agementfacility.Relevantlevelsofgovernment,from        Convention could support society to engage in
localtonational,maybeinvolvedeitherdirectlyor        such collaborative decision-making. Institutional
indirectly,whichaddsconfidencethatfuturedeci-           andlocalmembersofdifferentpartnershipsfrom
sionsorrecommendationsbythepartnershipwill             Belgium,France,Hungary,SloveniaandtheUnited
receive due consideration at higher levels. Other      Kingdomshowedthattherearecommonconcerns:
institutionsmayalsoplayaroleinthepartnership.        notnegotiablearesafetyandsecurity,benefitsto
Theformatschosenforpartnershipoperation(per-            thecommunity,correctinformationandaccessto
manentortemporaryworkinggroups,panels,etc.)            knowledge.Throughouttheseexamples,thereare
andtheoutputsittargets(designplans,recommen-           similarexpectationsaswellasfrustrationsregard-
dationstoelectedoradministrativeauthorities)are        ingtheinstitutionalprocesses.



The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence celebrates a decade of work, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                 25
                                                                         PURAM
     FSC




            TechnicalvisitduringtheOctober2004FSCworkshop.                    ParticipantsattheSixthForumonStakeholder
                                                                                              ConfidenceinNovember2006.




           Joint assessment of the FSC as a framework                               Afirst-timevisitortotheFSCstated:“Thepres-
           for learning                                                          entationsanddiscussionsinpanelsgavemeinsight
                                                                                 intothelargeandproductiveactivityoftheForum
           AllFSCcontactswereinvitedtoevaluatethepast                   aswellasthedifferentapproachestopublicinvolve-
           decadeofworkandtoprovideguidanceforthenext.                 ment in decision-making processes in countries
           Asurveywasavailableonlinethroughoutthesum-                     either already having a history (Finland, France,
           merof2010andwascompletedby64stakeholders.                    Spain,Sweden,theUnitedKingdom…)orjustpav-
           Whilemanystatedthattheybelongtoaninstitution                 ingnow(Italy,Poland)thewaytowardsademocratic
           withanofficialroleinradioactivewastemanage-                    processinradioactivewastedisposalimplementa-
           ment (RWM), they did not emerge as a majority.               tion.Allpresentationsreflectedthe needfor dia-
           Amongthewiderangeofstakeholderswhoanswered                    logueandtransparency,theneedforademocratic
           thesurvey,twogroupsweremoststronglyrepre-                      framework, the need to understand the public’s
           sented:implementersandoperators,andinterested                   concernsandrequirementsforauthorities.Thecol-
           citizens.Thesurveyaskedhowpeoplehadlearnt                     loquiumdialogueextendedtothenationalscalein
           about the FSC, which themes aremostpertinent,                 manyNEAmembercountries.”
           whichpublicationsaremostappreciated,whichare
           themosteffectivelearningapproachesappliedby
           theForumandwhichideashavepeopletakenaway.
           SuggestionsonimprovingtheFSCanditsservice
           to stakeholders, as well as for new activities and
           themes,werealsocollected.
               Thesurveyresultsandthecollectionofreports
           andmaterialavailableontheFSCwebpage,bene-
           fitted from an outside and independent analy-
           sis. Teacher/researchers from the University of
           VersaillesandOxfordpointedoutthattheFSCcor-
           pusexploresalargerangeofmethods,engageda
           broadspectrumofproblemsandaddressedthemain
           characteristicsofthewastemanagementprocess:
           patience,thelong-termdimension,costs,peopleand
           skills.FSCproceduresandreportsprovideanexcel-
           lentresourcebaseforteachingandtraininginthat
           everythingisverywelldocumented,representing
           multiplelearningpathwaysandofferingsolutions
           to a class of sensitive problems and to contradic-
           toryaspectsoftheproblems.Fivedozensuggestions
           weremadefornewFSCexplorations,includingon
           the stepwise approach, knowledge maintenance                     Reference
           and transfer, participation fatigue, expectations                NEA(2010),Partnering for Long-term Management of Radioactive
           regardingparticipationprocessesandthestability                  Waste: Evolution and Current Practice in Thirteen Countries,
           ofdecision-makingprocesses.                                         OECD,Paris.



26                                                                                                 NEA updates, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
       Decontamination and dismantling of
         radioactive concrete structures
                         by P. O’Sullivan, J.G. Nokhamzon and E. Cantrel*




T    he treatment and disposal of contaminated
     concreteisamajorissueforalmostalldecom-
missioningprojectsduetotheverylargequantities
                                                                               surfacesforcoatingapplications.Dependingon
                                                                               theoverallobjectiveandthenatureofthesur-
                                                                               facematerial(e.g.steel,concrete…),theprocess
ofmaterialwhichmaybeinvolved.Theselection                              uses different abrasive media such as plastic,
anduseofdifferentdismantlinganddecontamina-                              glassorsteelbeads,orgrit,suchasgarnet,soda
tiontechniquescansignificantlyinfluencethetotal                         or aluminium oxide. Compared to scarifying
amountofcontaminatedmaterialthatneedstobe                              techniques,theseprocessesmayproducesignifi-
managed.Forexample,ifacontaminatedbuildingis                           cantamountsofsecondarywaste.Thepossibility
fullydemolished,alldebrisisconsideredcontami-                            ofrecyclingtheabrasivematerialshouldalways
natedandrequiresspecialhandling.Intheeventthat                        beaddressed.
asurfaceremovaltechniqueisfirstusedtoseparate                      • High-pressure liquid jetting techniques: these
thecontaminatedconcrete,thevolumeofmaterial                             comprisehigh-pressurewaterjetting(HPWJ)and
requiring disposal as radioactive material will be                      liquidnitrogenjetting.HPWJhasprovedtobea
significantlyreduced,thoughcarewillbeneededin                          veryeffectivemethodtocleanconcretesurfaces
caseofpossiblenon-superficialcontaminationalong                          andtoremovecorrodedconcretelayers,which
cracksandinpipepenetrations.                                              canstripconcretelayersuptoseveralcentime-
    Significantincreasesinthevolumeofconcrete                           tresinasingleworkingstep.Themainproblem
tobehandledinthenearfuturemaybeexpected                              arisesfromtheresultingcontaminationofthe
given the growing trend towards prompt decom-                            water which can, in turn, lead to deep cross-
missioningratherthanallowingaperiodofseveral                           contamination,especiallyincracksandjoints.
yearsofsafestore/decaypriortofinaldismantling.
Thisisbecausemoderntechnology,improvedwork
processesandemphasisonsafetyhavenegatedthe
advantagesoflong-termdecay.Advancesindisman-
tling techniques (including remote dismantling),
recycling/re-use, increasing waste storage costs,
andimprovedplanningprocesseshavemadethis
approachcost-effective,aswellasgenerallybeing
preferabletothelocalcommunitiesinvolved.


Decontamination techniques
                                                             Belgoprocess




Inrecentyears,arangeofdecontaminationtech-
niqueshavebeenusedtoreducesubstantiallythe
amount of contaminated material for disposal by
removingsurfacecontaminationofvaryingdepths.
Thefollowingtechniquesareusedwhenfutureland-                                  Abrasiveblastinginstallationusedfor
usescenariosincludereuse,whenitisimpractical                               thedecontamiationofconcretecontainers.
todemolishthestructure(e.g.alaboratorywithina
building)ortominimisewastevolume:
• Scarifying techniques: the scarification proc-
   essinvolvesthephysicalabradingofcoatedor                         * At the time of writing, Patrick O’Sullivan (patrick.osullivan@
   uncoated surfaces, i.e. the successive removal                     oecd.org) worked in the NEA Radiological Protection and Radio-
   of multiple layers of contaminated surfaces                        active Waste Management Division. Jean-Guy Nokhamzon
   until reaching a depth at which the surface is                  (jean-guy.nokhamzon@cea.fr) works for the French Atomic
   uncontaminated.                                                          Energy Commission (CEA); he is Chair of the NEA Co-operative
                                                                            Programme on Decommissioning (CPD). Eric Cantrel
• Abrasiveblastingtechniques:thesearetypically                       (ecantrel@sckcen.be) works for the Belgian Nuclear Energy
   usedinconventionalindustrytocleanequipment                        Centre (SCK• CEN); he is Chair of the CPD Task Group on
   orsurfacesofremovableorfixedcontaminants,                         Decontamination and Dismantling of Radioactive Concrete
   suchasgrease,rustandpaint,and/ortoprepare                       Structures.



NEA updates, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                                                                                          27
     • Laser ablation: the principle of laser ablation
        (with low power) is based on the rapid heat-
        ingofthesurfacecausingthesuperficiallayer
        toexpandandspall.Theresultinglocalshock-
        waveissufficienttoejectthepaint/coatingfrom
        thesurface.Thistechnologyiscurrentlyinits
        demonstrationphase;itdiffersfromearlierhigh
        energysystemsinthatthecontaminatedlayeris
        ejectedfromthesurfaceratherthanburnt.


     Dismantling and demolition
     techniques
     Dismantling and demolition techniques are used




                                                                  CEA
     whenever large quantities or deep layers of acti-
     vatedorcontaminatedconcreteneedtoberemoved.                         Laserablationoncarrierwithvacuum.
     Dependingontheplantlayout,therearecurrently
     a large range of possible well-proven, highly reli-
     able and generally economical techniques. Such
     techniquesmaybeused,evenatanearlystageof
     adecommissioningproject,forcreatingopenings
     andaccessestorooms,e.g.hotcells,ortoenlarge
                                                                           theuseofexpandinggrout.Drillingandspalling
     existingopeningsallowingshipmentofequipment
                                                                           isrecommendedforhard-to-reachareas,forthe
     totheworkingplaceorremovaloflargecomponents.
                                                                           separationofmedium-scaleblocksorasprepara-
     Theyinclude:
                                                                           tionforfurthertreatment.Apartfromthedrilling
     • Diamond wire sawing: this enables the crea-                  process,spallingmaybeconsideredaquiet,safe
        tion of wall openings and the detachment of                andcleantechnique.
        largeconcretestructures.Thesaw-cutsurfaces
        areverysmooth.Incontrasttomostothercut-                 • High-pressurewaterjetcutting:abrasivewater
        tingtechniques,therearefewlimitationstothe                 jettechnology(AWJ)usesamultifunctionaltool
        sizeandthicknessofthecomponentstobecut.                   thatcanbeusedforalmostalltypesofcutting,
        Althoughdiamondwiresawingtechniquesare                       drillingandremovalactivities.Theadvantages
        normallyusedwithwatercooling,theymayalso                   aremainlyrelatedtotheabsenceofmechani-
        be applied in dry conditions. Dust emissions                cal tools that suffer from interference such as
        canbereducedusingasealedcollectionsystem                   vibrations, thermal stress, seizures, tool abra-
        locatedattheoutletofthewire.                                 sionandtheconditionandshapeofthematerial
                                                                           beingcut.AlthoughAWJcuttinghasbeensuc-
     • Circular sawing: this may be considered as                  cessfullyappliedtotheunderwaterdismantling
        theprimaryoptionwhenveryprecisecutsare                     ofreactorvesselsandisconsideredanadequate
        required. Appropriate guiding devices need to                toolforthisapplication,therearecertaindraw-
        beattachedtothestructuretocontrolthecut-                   backsincludingpossiblecross-contaminationby
        tingforcesandtoavoidlockingtheblade,which                 thecontaminatedwaterandthehighamountof
        reduces the attractiveness of this technique                 secondarywaste.High-pressurewaterjetcutting
        comparedtowiresawing.Themaximumcutting                      mightbeconsideredinspecialcasesorifefficient
        depthisaboutonemetre.                                          waterandabrasivemanagementisimplemented.
     • Hammering:whenmassivestructureshavetobe
        removed,hydraulichammeringisacost-effective
        technique (low investment, high yield, simple
        implementation)butitrequiresparticularatten-               Conclusions
        tiontosafetyaspects(structuralstability,release
                                                                        Dismantling and demolition works need to be
        ofvibrationenergy,fallingrubble,highnoiselev-
                                                                        planned and undertaken with due consideration
        els).Theremovaloftheactivatedmaterialinthe
                                                                        beinggiventotheneedforaccuratecharacterisation
        biologicalshieldisatypicalapplication.
                                                                        oftheresultingdebris,whichmaybedestinedfor
     • Drilling and spalling: this technique involves            furthertreatment,freereleaseordisposal.Typically,
        drilling25-40mmdiameterholes,approximately                thechoiceofthedismantlingordecontamination
        75mmdeep,intowhichahydraulicallyoperated                techniqueforaspecificapplicationisdetermined
        spallingtoolwithanexpandabletubeisinserted.             onacase-by-casebasisbyconsideringtheadvan-
        Ataperedmandrelisthenhydraulicallyforced                 tages and disadvantages of each of the available
        intotheholetospreadthe“fingers”andspalloff            techniques.Acombinationofdifferenttechniques
        the concrete. Other options involve the use of          isoftennecessaryduetothediversityofsituations
        spreadablesidepistonsinsteadofmandrelsor                 foundintheinstallationbeingdecommissioned.



28                                                                                       NEA updates, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
                                                                            • In recent years, alternatives to strenuous/
                                                                               low-yield mechanical techniques (hammer-
                                                                               ing, scarifying) have been thoroughly investi-
                                                                               gated (microwave, rebar heating, explosives),
                                                                               thoughfewhaveproventobecompatiblewith
                                                                               theconstraintsofadismantlingproject(includ-
                                                                               ingnuclearandindustrialsafetyrequirements,
                                                                               minimisationofwastevolumeandeconomics).
                                                                               However,recentactivetrialswith(lowenergy)
                                                                               laserandnitrojetprocesseshavedemonstrated
                                                                               thatbothtechniquesarenowmatureenoughto
                                                                               beimplementedondecommissioningprojects.
                                                                            • Techniques currently being used for segmen-
                                                                               tation, such as diamond sawing and drilling
                                                                               techniques, are still being improved to match
                                                                               the specific needs of dismantling operations,
                                                                               e.g. recent common efforts of diamond tool
                                                                               manufacturersandthedecommissioningindus-
                                                                               tryhaveledtoseveralsuccessfulapplicationsof
Belgoprocess




                                                                               drysawingofreinforcedconcrete.
                                                                            • Abrasive blasting techniques (particularly grit
                                                                               blasting)haveproventobeveryversatiletech-
                                                                               niquesforbothin situdecontaminationandfor
                                  Concretespalling.                           dismantled components, e.g. shielding blocks
                                                                               andcontainers.Concretelayersofseveralmil-
                                                                               limetresinthicknesscanberemovedathighpro-
                                                                               ductionratesprovidedthatanadequateabrasive
                   Importantconsiderationswhenselectingtech-               ischosenandiscontinuouslyrecycled.Possible
               niquesforthedecontaminationanddismantlingof              cross-contamination of surfaces is an issue to
               concretestructuresaretheproductionofsecond-               consider when planning the operation. Also,
               arywaste,thecontainmentofcontamination,safety            becauseoftheporosityoftheconcrete,wettech-
               issues, and the yield and reliability of the tech-      niques which can induce cross-contamination    
               niques.Often,theapplicationofaspecifictechnique         shouldbeavoided.
               iscloselyconnectedtothepossibleuseofadequate        • Specific(operator)safetyissuesrelatedtocon-
               toolguidancesystemstoensureexpectedstandards             cretedecontaminationanddismantlinginclude:
               ofaccuracyandyield.Specialconsiderationmust              dust control/ventilation of the work area, air-
               alwaysbegiventoavoidcausingunacceptabledam-              borne contamination, vibration, noise, projec-
               agetothestructure,especiallyforreasonsofbuild-          tions (of debris and/or abrasives) and falling
               ingstability.                                                  equipment.
                   Experiencefromdecommissioningworkunder-              • Differentsegmentationtechniquesarelikelyto
               takenduringthepastdecadehashighlightedthe               beneededtodealwithvariousradiologicalsitu-
               following issues related to the choice of concrete      ationsonaparticularproject,suchasdifferent
               decontaminationanddismantlingtechniques:                    typesofcontaminationanddepthsofpenetra-
               • When considering the use of scarifying tech-           tion,differentqualityofconcrete,andshapesand
                  niques, a major issue is process automation.          sizeconstraintsofstructures.
                  Scarifying tools are mostly extremely heavy,
                  whichtendstolimittheirsizeandsubsequently
                  their intrinsic performance. For the particular
                  case of reactors, rooms to be decontaminated
                  have highly variable dimensions and geom-
                  etry. Therefore different (automated) handling
                  devicesmighthavetobeconsideredinorderto
                  implementagivendecontaminationtechnique
                  indifferentpartsofthefacility.Fortheserea-
                  sons, manual treatment techniques are still
                  oftenpreferredsincethesehaveproventobethe
                  mostefficientintermsofglobaloperationyield,
                  thoughitshouldbenotedthatmanualscarifica-          Acknowledgement: this paper is based on and includes extracts
                  tionisparticularlystrenuousforoperatorsand         from the NEA report entitled Decontamination and Dismantling
                  therefore requires working with several shifts      of Radioactive Concrete Structures.It is available online at
                  andregularbreaks.                                       www.oecd-nea.org.



               Decontamination and dismantling of radioactive concrete structures, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                 29
          The Blue Ribbon Commission and
     siting radioactive waste disposal facilities
                                                        by C. Pescatore*




     O   n21September2010,theNEASecretariatwas
         invitedtoaddresstheBlueRibbonCommission
     onAmerica’sNuclearFuture.Whatfollowsisasum-
                                                                    Once the waste inventories and type of facilities
                                                                    have been decided upon, there should be agree-
                                                                    mentthatallsignificantchangeswillrequireanew
     maryoftheremarksmade.                                      decision-makingprocess.Successfulsitingisthus
                                                                    embedded in a larger system of decision making
         The successful siting of radioactive waste dis-
                                                                    thatincludesnation-and/orstate-widedebateson
     posal facilities implies creating the conditions
                                                                    nuclearandwastemanagementapproaches,aswell
     for continued ownership of the facility over time.
                                                                    region-widedebatesonthetypesoffacility,thetol-
     Acceptanceofthefacilityatasinglepointintime
                                                                    erablenegativeimpactsandthedesirablepositive
     isnotgoodenough.Continuedownershipimplies
                                                                    impacts.
     thecreationofconscious,constructiveanddurable
     relationshipsbetweenthe(mostaffected)communi-                  Anyproposedprojecthasamuchbetterchance
     tiesandthewastemanagementfacility.Continued             tomoveforwardpositivelyiftheaffectedpopula-
     ownershipbyhostcommunitiesfollowsfrombeing              tions can participate in its definition, including,
     comfortableaboutsafety,feelingthattheyarenot           at the appropriate time, its technical details. The
     condoningadubiouspractice,butonethatisintune         technical approach, safety standards, monitoring
     withthebroaderinterestsofsocietyingeneral,and         and mitigation measures, among others, should
     thatthefacilitywillcontributetothequalityoflife      befinalisedonlyafterdeliberationswiththehost
     ofthecommunityandregionacrossgenerations.               community/region during the siting phase. This
                                                                    way,refinementoftheproposedtechnicalapproach
         Being comfortable about the technical safety
                                                                    issharedanditerative.Avoluntaryprocess,from
     ofthefacilityrequiresadegreeoffamiliarityand
                                                                    whichcommunitiesmaywithdrawforsometime,
     control.Havingpeaceofmindaboutthesafetyof
                                                                    improvesthechancesforcommunitywillingnessto
     the facility requires trust in the waste manage-
                                                                    participateandforasustainableoutcome.
     mentsystemanditsactorsaswellassomecontrol
     overthedecisionmaking.Regulatorsareespecially               Apartneringapproachisgenerallybestfordevel-
     importantplayerswhoneedtobevisibleinthecom-           opingtheprojectwithahostcommunity.Avariety
     munity.Theirroleintheserviceofpeopleneedsto          ofpartnershiporganisations(whichmayincorporate
     beprofessed,verifiedandunderstood.Communities            NGOs,localgovernmentassociations,unitswithin
     andregionsthatarefamiliarwithnuclearpowerand          oraroundlocal/regionalgovernments)havebeenor
     havehadalong,constructiverelationshipwithits           arebeingsetupinanincreasingnumberofcoun-
     actors require less time for acquiring familiarity      tries.Mostoftensuchorganisationsbuildtheirown
     andcontrolandforachievingtrust,providedthere           expertise and influence the implementer’s work.
     iswillingnesstoallowthemsomecontinuedforms             Theycollect,processanddisseminateinformation
     ofinfluence.                                                 onthefacilityanditsimpacts,monitorotherplayers’
                                                                    performanceandadviselocalgovernments.They
        Theidealsiteselectionprocessshouldbestep-
                                                                    alsohelpidentifysocio-economicbenefitsaimedat
     wise,combiningproceduresforexcludingsitesthat
                                                                    compensatingforpotentiallossesandgenerallysup-
     do not meet pre-identified criteria with those for
                                                                    portingthewell-beingofthehostcommunities.The
     identifying sites where nearby and more distant
                                                                    resultofcollaborationbuildssocialcapital,whichis
     residentsarewillingtodiscussacceptanceofthe
                                                                    goodforthequalityandsustainabilityofdecisions.
     facility.Theregionalauthoritiesarejustasimpor-
                                                                    Thewholeprocesstakestimeandmaybeseenas
     tantasthelocalauthorities.
                                                                    overly lengthy by some. Time is, however, neces-
         Before approaching a potential siting region         sary for the non-technical parties to understand
     or community, there should be clear results of         theirinterestsandbuildtherelevantcompetences.
     national(andstate)debatesestablishingtheroleof
     nuclearpowerintheenergymix,aswellasinfor-
     mation on the magnitude of the ensuing waste
     commitmentanditsmanagementend-points,and
     theallocationofthefinancialandlegalresponsi-
     bilities until the closure of the project (and even   * Dr. Claudio Pescatore (claudio.pescatore@oecd.org) is
     beyond, as the closure of the repository does not     Principal Administrator for Radioactive Waste Management
     necessarily equate to the closure of the issue).      and Decommissioning at the NEA.



30                                                                                    News briefs, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
Notrushingtoatechnicalsolutionisalsocapitalfor           The 2004 report Stepwise Approach to Decision-
ensuringasafesolution.Respectofthetimedimen-           Making for Long-term Radioactive Waste Management
sion,bothtechnicalandsocietal,isfundamentalfor         reviewsthelargeaccumulatedexperienceandthe
sustainable decision-making. Decision-making in            resultsoftheacademicstudiesinthefieldofsiting,
discrete,well-identifiedstepsisrecommendedto             bothwithinandoutsidethenuclearfield,overthe
helpdealwiththetimedimension.Duringthewhole           previous20years.Itdistilsthebasicrecommenda-
process openness, transparency, technical competence and       tionsforsustainabledecision-makingthattheFSC
procedural equityarekeyconditionsforcredibledis-         stillsponsorstoday.
courseandforpublicacceptanceofwastemanage-
                                                                   The2004reportLearning and Adapting to Societal
mentprogrammes.
                                                               Requirements for Radioactive Waste Management synthe-
                                                               sisescountries’experienceofrelationship-building.
                                                               In this report the partnership approach is high-
                                                               lightedasapracticalmethodforeffectivecollabora-
NEA literature                                                 tionwithlocalcommunitiesandinformedconsent.
National radioactive waste management pro-                     The 2007 study Fostering a Durable Relationship
grammesareinvariousphasesofsitingfinalman-             between a Waste Management Facility and its Host
agement facilities and rely on different technical      Community summarises the expectations for sus-
approachesfordifferentcategoriesofwaste.Inall          tained improvements to the quality of life of the
cases, it is necessary for institutional actors and    affectedcommunitiesandhostregions,beyondthe
thepotentialoractualhostcommunitiestobuilda           endowmentofimmediateeconomicbenefits.The
meaningful,workablerelationship.TheNEAcreated            studyhighlightsinnovationsinsitingprocessesand
itsForumonStakeholderConfidence(FSC)in2000             infacilitydesignthataddvaluetothefacilityboth
toexploremeansofensuringaneffectivedialogue            intheshortandinthelongterm.
amongstallstakeholdersandtostrengthenconfi-
                                                                   Finally, the 2010 study Partnering for Long-Term
denceindecision-makingandgovernancepro esses.c
                                                               Management of Radioactive Waste(basedona2008-09
TheFSCpromotesthesharingofinternationalexpe-
                                                               survey),documentstheapproachtakenin13coun-
rience through topical sessions and studies and
                                                               triesandtheevolutionofpartnershiparrangements.
throughnationalworkshopsandcommunityvisits.
                                                               Thestudydefinesthebasiccomponentsofthepart-
Lessonshavebeendistilledwiththeconcourseof
                                                               nershipapproach:variousadministrativeformatsof
practitioners,theinvolvedstakeholdersandsocial/
                                                               collaborationwithcommunities,communitybenefits,
politicalscienceexperts.TheFSC’smanypublica-
                                                               volunteerismandvetoarrangements.
tions are all germane to the subject of siting and
sustainabledecision-making,andareavailableon                Two-pageFSCflyers,availableonline,summa-
theFSCwebpagewww.oecd-nea.org/fsc.FourFSC               risethemainfindingsofeachoftheabovestudies
studies,inparticular,warrantspecialattention.             (www.oecd-nea.org/fsc,seerubric“FSCflyers”).




The Blue Ribbon Commission and siting radioactive waste disposal facilities, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                       31
     NEA joint projects:
     nuclear safety, radioactive waste management,
     NEA joint projects and information exchange programmes enable interested countries, on a cost-sharing basis, to pursue
     research or the sharing of data with respect to particular areas or issues in the nuclear energy field. The projects are car-
     ried out under the auspices, and with the support, of the NEA. All NEA joint projects currently under way are listed below.




                               Project                                               Participants                        Budget

      Behaviour of Iodine Project (BIP)                              Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany,         ≈ € 350 K
      Contact: jean.gauvain@oecd.org                                 Japan, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Spain,        /year
                                                                     Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United
      Current mandate: July 2007-March 2011                          States.




      Cabri Water Loop Project                                       Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Japan,     ≈ € 74
      Contact: radomir.rehacek@oecd.org                              Republic of Korea, Slovak Republic, Spain,           million
                                                                     Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United
      Current mandate: 2000-2015                                     States.

      Computer-based Systems Important to Safety                     Chinese Taipei, Finland, Germany, Hungary,          € 80 K
      (COMPSIS) Project                                              Republic of Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United      /year
      Contact: jean.gauvain@oecd.org                                 States.

      Current mandate: January 2008-June 2011




      Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning (CPD)                Belgium, Canada, Chinese Taipei, European           ≈ € 70 K
      Contact: wei-whua.loa@oecd.org                                 Commission, France, Germany, Italy, Japan,            /year
                                                                     Republic of Korea, Slovak Republic, Spain,
      Current mandate: January 2009-December 2013                    Sweden, United Kingdom.

      Fire Incidents Records Exchange (FIRE) Project                 Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, France,            ≈ € 84 K
      Contact: alejandro.huerta@oecd.org                             Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Republic of Korea,       /year
                                                                     Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States.
      Current mandate: January 2010-December 2013




      Fire Propagation in Elementary, Multi-room Scenarios           Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany,            €7
      (PRISME) Project                                               Japan, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Spain,        million
      Contact: greg.lamarre@oecd.org                                 Sweden, United Kingdom, United States.

      Current mandate: January 2006-June 2011

      Halden Reactor Project                                         Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland,           ≈ € 43
      Contact: radomir.rehacek@oecd.org                              France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Kazakhstan,         million
                                                                     Norway, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation,
      Halden contact: Fridtjov.owre@hrp.no                           Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
      Current mandate: 2009-2011                                     United Kingdom, United States.




32                                                                                  News briefs, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
radiological protection
At present, 15 joint projects are being conducted in relation to nuclear safety, two in support of radioactive waste
management, and one in the field of radiological protection. These projects complement the NEA programme of
work and contribute to achieving excellence in each of the respective areas of research.




                                                         Objectives

• Provide separate effects and modelling studies of iodine behaviour in a nuclear reactor containment building following a severe
  accident.
• Provide data and interpretation from three radioiodine test facility (RTF) experiments to participants for use in collaborative model
  development and validation.
• Achieve a common understanding of the behaviour of iodine and other fission products in post-accident reactor containment
  buildings.

• Extend the database for high burn-up fuel performance in reactivity-induced accident (RIA) conditions.
• Perform relevant tests under coolant conditions representative of pressurised water reactors (PWRs).
• Extend the database to include tests done in the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (Japan) on BWR and PWR fuel.

• Define a format and collect software and hardware fault experience in computer-based, safety-critical NPP systems in a structured,
  quality-assured and consistent database.
• Collect and analyse COMPSIS events over a long period so as to better understand such events, their causes and their prevention.
• Generate insights into the root causes of and contributors to COMPSIS events, which can then be used to derive approaches or
  mechanisms for their prevention or for mitigating their consequences.
• Establish a mechanism for efficient feedback of experience gained in connection with COMPSIS events, including the development
  of defences against their occurrence, such as diagnostics, tests and inspections.
• Record event attributes and dominant contributors so that a basis for national risk analysis for computerised systems is established.

• Exchange scientific and technical information amongst decommissioning projects for nuclear facilities.




• Collect fire event experience (by international exchange) in the appropriate format and in a quality-assured and consistent database.
• Collect and analyse fire events data over the long term with the aim to better understand such events, their causes and their
  prevention.
• Generate qualitative insights into the root causes of fire events which can then be used to derive approaches or mechanisms for
  their prevention or for mitigating their consequences.
• Establish a mechanism for the efficient feedback of experience gained in connection with fire including the development of
  defences against their occurrence, such as indicators for risk-based inspections.
• Record characteristics of fire events in order to facilitate fire risk analysis, including quantification of fire frequencies.

• Answer questions concerning smoke and heat propagation inside a plant, by means of experiments tailored for code validation
  purposes.
• Provide information on heat transfer to cables and on cable damage.


Generate key information for safety and licensing assessments and aim at providing:
• extended fuel utilisation: basic data on how the fuel performs, both under normal operation and transient conditions, with emphasis
  on extended fuel utilisation in commercial reactors;
• degradation of core materials: knowledge of plant materials behaviour under the combined deteriorating effects of water chemistry
  and nuclear environment, also relevant for plant lifetime assessments;
• man-machine systems: advances in computerised surveillance systems, virtual reality, digital information, human factors and
  man-machine interaction in support of control room upgradings.




        NEA joint projects, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                                                                      33
     NEA joint projects

                              Project                                     Participants                         Budget

     Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE)   Armenia, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada,          ≈ € 450 K
     Contact: halilburcin.okyar@oecd.org                  China, Czech Republic, Finland, France,                /year
                                                          Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Lithuania,
     Current mandate: 2008-2011                           Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, Republic of
                                                          Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovak
                                                          Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden,
                                                          Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States.

     International Common-cause Failure Data Exchange     Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan,             ≈ € 110 K
     (ICDE) Project                                       Republic of Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,         /year
     Contact: jean.gauvain@oecd.org                       United Kingdom, United States.

     Current mandate: April 2008-March 2011




     Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI)     Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, France,             € 3.4
     Project                                              Germany, Hungary, Japan, Norway, Republic             million
     Contact: jean.gauvain@oecd.org                       of Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United
                                                          States.
     Current mandate: April 2006-December 2010



     Piping Failure Data Exchange (OPDE) Project          Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, France,             ≈ € 50 K
     Contact: alejandro.huerta@oecd.org                   Germany, Japan, Republic of Korea, Spain,              /year
                                                          Sweden, Switzerland, United States.
     Current mandate: June 2008-May 2011




     Primary Coolant Loop Test Facility (PLK-2) Project   Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, France,             € 3.9
     Contact: jean.gauvain@oecd.org                       Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea,    million
                                                          Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom,
     Current mandate: April 2008-September 2011           United States.

     Rig of Safety Assessment (ROSA-2) Project            Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, France,             € 2.7
     Contact: abdallah.amri@oecd.org                      Germany, Hungary, Japan, Republic of Korea,           million
                                                          Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United
     Current mandate: April 2009-March 2012               Kingdom, United States.



     Sandia Fuel Project (SFP)                            Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy,       €4
     Contact: radomir.rehacek@oecd.org                    Japan, Norway, Republic of Korea, Spain, Sweden,      million
                                                          Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States.
     Current mandate: July 2009-June 2012




34                                                                        News briefs, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
                                                          Objectives

• Collect, analyse and exchange occupational exposure data and experience from all participants.
• Provide broad and regularly updated information on methods to improve the protection of workers and on occupational exposure
  in nuclear power plants.
• Provide a mechanism for dissemination of information on these issues, including evaluation and analysis of the data assembled
  and experience exchanged, as a contribution to the optimisation of radiation protection.


• Provide a framework for multinational co-operation.
• Collect and analyse common-cause failure (CCF) events over the long term so as to better understand such events, their causes
  and their prevention.
• Generate qualitative insights into the root causes of CCF events which can then be used to derive approaches or mechanisms
  for their prevention or for mitigating their consequences.
• Establish a mechanism for the efficient feedback of experience gained in connection with CCF phenomena, including the
  development of defences against their occurrence, such as indicators for risk-based inspections.
• Generate quantitative insights and record event attributes to facilitate the quantification of CCF frequencies in member countries.
• Use the ICDE data to estimate CCF parameters.

• Provide experimental data on melt coolability and concrete interaction (MCCI) severe accident phenomena.
• Resolve two important accident management issues:
– the verification that molten debris that has spread on the base of the containment can be stabilised and cooled by water flooding
   from the top;
– the two-dimensional, long-term interaction of the molten mass with the concrete structure of the containment, as the kinetics of
   such interaction is essential for assessing the consequences of a severe accident.

• Collect and analyse piping failure event data to promote a better understanding of underlying causes, impact on operations and
  safety, and prevention.
• Generate qualitative insights into the root causes of piping failure events.
• Establish a mechanism for efficient feedback of experience gained in connection with piping failure phenomena, including the
  development of defence against their occurrence.
• Collect information on piping reliability attributes and influence factors to facilitate estimation of piping failure frequencies, when
  so decided by the Project Review Group.

• Investigate safety issues relevant for current PWR plants as well as for new PWR design concepts.
• Focus on complex heat transfer mechanisms in the steam generators and boron precipitation processes under postulated accident
  situations.


• Provide an integral and separate-effect experimental database to validate code predictive capability and accuracy of models. In
  particular, phenomena coupled with multi-dimensional mixing, stratification, parallel flows, oscillatory flows and non-condensable
  gas flows are to be studied.
• Clarify the predictability of codes currently used for thermal-hydraulic safety analyses as well as of advanced codes presently under
  development, thus creating a group among OECD/NEA member countries who share the need to maintain or improve technical
  competence in thermal-hydraulics for nuclear reactor safety evaluations.

• Address potential accident conditions and perform a highly detailed thermal-hydraulic characterisation of full-length, commercial
  pressurised water reactor (PWR) fuel assembly mock-ups.
• Provide data for the direct validation of appropriate codes.
• Address applicability to other fuel designs, also considering that BWR data will be made available to project participants.




        NEA joint projects, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                                                                        35
     NEA joint projects

                              Project                                      Participants                        Budget

     SESAR Thermal-hydraulics (SETH-2) Project             Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Japan,     € 2.5
     Contact: jean.gauvain@oecd.org                        Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland.    million

     Current mandate: March 2007-December 2010




     Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications   Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan,             € 2.6
     (SERENA) Project                                      Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland,    million
     Contact: jean.gauvain@oecd.org                        United States.

     Current mandate: October 2007-September 2011


     Studsvik Cladding Integrity Project (SCIP-2)          Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Japan,     € 1.5
     Contact: radomir.rehacek@oecd.org                     Republic of Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,       million
                                                           United Kingdom, United States.                       /year
     Current mandate: July 2009-June 2014



     Thermochemical Database (TDB) Project                 Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland,           ≈ € 441 K
     Contact: mireille.defranceschi@oecd.org               France, Germany, Japan, Republic of Korea,            /year
                                                           Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom,
     Current mandate: 2008-2012                            United States.




36                                                                        News briefs, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
                                                             Objectives

• Generate high-quality experimental data that will be used for improving the modelling and validation of computational fluid dynamics
  (CFD) and lumped parameter (LP) computer codes designed to predict post-accident containment thermal-hydraulic conditions for
  current and advanced reactor designs.
• Address a variety of measured parameters, configurations and scales in order to enhance the value of the data for code applications.
• Study relevant containment phenomena and separate effects, including effects of jets, natural convection, containment coolers
  and sprays.

• Provide experimental data to clarify the explosion behaviour of prototypic corium melts.
• Provide experimental data for validation of explosion models for prototypic materials, including spatial distribution of fuel and void
  during the pre-mixing and at the time of explosion, and explosion dynamics.
• Provide experimental data for steam explosions in more realistic, reactor-like situations to verify the geometrical extrapolation
  capabilities of the codes.

• Generate high-quality experimental data to improve the understanding of the dominant failure mechanisms for water reactor fuels
  and devise means for reducing fuel failures.
• Achieve results of general applicability (i.e. not restricted to a particular fuel design, fabrication specification or operating condition).
• Achieve experimental efficiency through the judicious use of a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques and
  approaches.

Produce a database that:
• contains data for elements of interest in radioactive waste disposal systems;
• documents why and how the data were selected;
• gives recommendations based on original experimental data, rather than on compilations and estimates;
• documents the sources of experimental data used;
• is internally consistent;
• treats all solids and aqueous species of the elements of interest for nuclear waste storage performance assessment calculations.




        NEA joint projects, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                                                                              37
                                        New publications



     General interest
     The Strategic Plan of the Nuclear Energy Agency – 2011-2016
     ISBN 978-92-64-99135-4. 40 pages. Free: paper or web.

     Nuclear Energy Technology Roadmap
     48 pages. Free: paper or web.
     This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the OECD
     Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature tech-
     nology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this
     experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few
     years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for
     the first time. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to
     enhance the role of nuclear power in a sustainable energy future.



     Economic and technical aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle
     Comparing Nuclear Accident Risks with Those from Other Energy Sources
     ISBN 978-92-64-99122-4. 52 pages. Free: paper or web.
     Nuclear accident risks are raised frequently in discussions of the acceptability of nuclear power generation,
     often framed in the context of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. In reality, the safety record of
     nuclear power plants, by comparison with other electricity generation sources, is very good. This report describes
     how safety has been enhanced in nuclear power plants over the years, as the designs have progressed from
     Generation I to Generation III, and why it is important that safety remain the highest priority. This is illustrated by
     considering core damage frequencies and large radioactive release frequencies for each generation of nuclear
     power plants. It also compares severe accident data (those resulting in five or more fatalities) between differ-
     ent energy sources, both for immediate fatalities and for delayed (latent) fatalities, recognising that the latter
     data are often more difficult to estimate. Finally, it uses results of opinion surveys to analyse public confidence
     in nuclear operations and how this is correlated with trust in legislation and regulatory systems. It has been
     written for a general audience.

     The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes
     An Economic Study of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain
     ISBN 978-92-64-99149-1. 128 pages. Free: paper or web.

     An Economic Study of the Molybdenum-99 Supply Chain: Summary
     ISBN 978-92-64-99150-7. 36 pages. Free: paper or web.
     The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital compo-
     nent of modern medical diagnostic practices. Disruptions in the supply chain of these radioisotopes – which
     cannot be effectively stored – can suspend important medical testing services. Unfortunately, supply reliability
     has declined over the past decade, due to unexpected or extended shutdowns at the few ageing, 99Mo producing,
     research reactors and processing facilities. These shutdowns have created global supply shortages. This study
     offers a unique analysis of the economic structure and present state of the 99Mo/99mTc supply chain. It finds
     that the shortages are a symptom of a longer-term problem linked to insufficient capital investment, which has
     been brought about by an economic structure that does not provide sufficient remuneration for producing 99Mo
     or support for developing additional production and processing infrastructure. To assist governments and other
     decision makers in their efforts to ensure long-term, reliable supply of these important medical isotopes, the
     study presents options for creating a sustainable economic structure. The study will also enhance understanding
     amongst stakeholders of the costs of supplying 99Mo and ultimately contribute to a better functioning market.


38                                                                             New publications, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
Uranium 2009: Resources, Production and Demand
ISBN 978-92-64-04789-1. 456 pages. Price: € 130, US$ 182, £ 117, ¥ 16 900.
With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet
long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable
interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium
industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and develop-
ing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger
the investments required to meet projected demand. The “Red Book”, jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear
Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is
based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of
uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January
2009, as well as data on global uranium exploration, resources, production and reactor-related requirements.
It provides substantive new information from major uranium production centres around the world, as well as
from countries developing production centres for the first time. Projections of nuclear generating capacity and
reactor-related uranium requirements through 2035 are also featured, along with an analysis of long-term
uranium supply and demand issues.




Radioactive waste management
Geoscientific Information in the Radioactive Waste Management Safety Case
Main Messages from the AMIGO Project
ISBN 978-92-64-99138-5. 56 pages. Free: paper or web.
Radioactive waste is associated with all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the use of radioactive
materials in medicine, research and industry. For the most hazardous and long-lived waste, the solution being
investigated worldwide is disposal in engineered repositories deep underground. The importance of geoscientific
information in selecting a site for geological disposal has long been recognised, but there has been growing
acknowledgement of the broader role of this information in assessing and documenting the safety of disposal.
The OECD/NEA Approaches and Methods for Integrating Geological Information in the Safety Case (AMIGO)
project has demonstrated that geological data and understanding serve numerous roles in safety cases. The
project, which ran from 2002 to 2008, underscored the importance of integrating geoscientific information in
the development of a disposal safety case and increasingly in the overall process of repository development,
including, for example, siting decisions and ensuring the practical feasibility of repository layout and engineering.

Radioactive Waste in Perspective
ISBN 978-92-64-09261-7. 204 pages. Price: € 48, US$ 67, £ 43, ¥ 6 200.
Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radio-
active. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well-established, some types of hazardous
waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The
objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrast-
ing features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies,
and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil
fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities
and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies.




Radiological protection
Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection
Implementing the 2007 ICRP Recommendations – Fifth Asian Regional Conference, Chiba,
Japan, 3-4 September 2009
ISBN 978-92-64-99147-7. 28 pages. Free: paper or web.
Since 2002, the NEA has been actively facilitating the detailed discussion of the evolving system of radiological
protection in an Asian context. Its work in this area has included four previous conferences to discuss various
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) draft general recommendations. The Fifth Asian
Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection was the first in this series to be
focused directly on the implementation of the new ICRP recommendations. This conference report provides very
useful, practical insight into the Asian approach to implementing this new radiological protection philosophy.


New publications, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                                                               39
     Occupational Radiological Protection Principles and Criteria for
     Designing New Nuclear Power Plants
     ISBN 978-92-64-99142-2. 112 pages. Free: paper or web.
     Global demand for electricity continues to grow and numerous new nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being
     planned or constructed in NEA member countries. Most of these new NPPs will be of the third generation, and
     will be designed for as long as 80 years of operation. The successful design, construction and operation of
     these plants will depend broadly on appropriately implementing the lessons from experience accumulated to
     date. This case study introduces a policy and technical framework that may be used when formulating technical
     assistance and guidance for senior managers of NPPs, designers, manufacturers, contractors and authorities
     responsible for regulating occupational radiation exposure. It is aimed in particular at assisting design and
     license assessments of new NPPs. Although not targeting the needs of countries introducing nuclear power for
     the first time, this case study can also provide valuable input on occupational radiological protection issues for
     the implementation of new nuclear energy programmes.


     Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management
     Planning for Effective Decision Making; Consequence Management and Transition to Recovery
     ISBN 978-92-64-99146-0. 72 pages. Free: paper or web.
     The collective experience of the NEA Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM), and in particular,
     the experience from the International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX) series, has shown that it is important
     to plan and to implement emergency response actions based on a guiding strategic vision. Within this context,
     Strategic Aspects of Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Management presents a framework of strategic plan-
     ning elements to be considered by national emergency management authorities when establishing or enhancing
     processes for decision making, and when developing or implementing protection strategies. The focus is on
     nuclear or radiological emergency situations leading to complex preparedness and response conditions, involv-
     ing multiple jurisdictions and significant international interfaces. The report is aimed at national emergency
     management authorities, international organisations and those who are seeking to improve the effectiveness of
     emergency management. Its goal is to provide insights into decision-making processes within existing emergency
     planning arrangements. It also highlights common areas of good practice in decision making. Specific areas
     for improvement, identified during the INEX-3 consequence management exercise, are included, particularly in
     support of decision making for countermeasures for consequence management and the transition to recovery.




     Nuclear law
     International Nuclear Law: History, Evolution and Outlook
     10th Anniversary of the International School of Nuclear Law
     ISBN 978-92-64-99143-9. 424 pages. Free: paper or web.
     This publication commemorates the International School of Nuclear Law which is celebrating its 10 th anniversary
     in 2010. The purpose of the publication is to provide an overview of the international nuclear law instruments,
     their background, content and development over the years and to present an outlook on future needs in the
     field of international nuclear law. Renowned experts in the nuclear law field have contributed scholarly papers on
     the various aspects of international nuclear law, including international institutions, protection against ionising
     radiation, nuclear safety, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and safeguards, nuclear security, transport of
     nuclear material and fuel, management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, liability, compensation and insur-
     ance for nuclear damages, environmental protection and international trade in nuclear material and equipment.
     This publication is dedicated to the school’s 500+ alumni from all around the world.


     Nuclear Law Bulletin, No. 85
     Volume 2010/1
     ISSN 0304-341X. 164 pages. 2010 subscription (2 issues): € 114, US$ 150, £ 91, ¥ 16 500.
     The Nuclear Law Bulletin is a unique international publication for both professionals and academics in the field
     of nuclear law. It provides subscribers with authoritative and comprehensive information on nuclear law devel-
     opments. Published twice a year in both English and French, it features topical articles written by renowned
     legal experts, covers nuclear legislative developments worldwide and reports on relevant case law, bilateral
     and international agreements and regulatory activities of international organisations. Feature articles in this
     issue address the independence of the nuclear regulator, the European nuclear safety directive, the nuclear
     renaissance in Italy and the Temelín case in the European Court of Justice.


40                                                                           New publications, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
Nuclear science and the Data Bank
Boiling Water Reactor Turbine Trip (TT) Benchmark
Volume IV: Summary Results of Exercise 3
ISBN 978-92-64-99137-8. 276 pages. Free: paper or web.
In the field of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics computation there is a need to enhance scientific knowl-
edge in order to develop advanced modelling techniques for new nuclear technologies and concepts, as well as
for current applications. Recently developed “best-estimate” computer code systems for modelling 3-D coupled
neutronics/thermal-hydraulics transients in nuclear cores and for coupling of the core phenomena and system
dynamics (PWR, BWR, VVER) need to be compared against each other and validated against results from
experiments. International benchmark studies have been set up for that purpose. The present volume is the
last in a series of four and summarises the results of the third benchmark exercise, which analyses a turbine
trip (TT) in a BWR in its entirety, involving pressurisation events in which the coupling between core phenomena
and system dynamics plays an important role. Exercise 3 also analyses four extreme scenarios which allowed
participants to test the capabilities of their code(s) in terms of coupling and feedback modelling. The data made
available from experiments carried out at the plant make the present benchmark particularly valuable. The data
used are from events at the Peach Bottom 2 reactor (a GE-designed BWR/4).


JANIS 3
A Java-based Nuclear Data Display Program – 2010
DVD. Free: paper or web.


NUPEC BWR Full-size Fine-mesh Bundle Test (BFBT) Benchmark
Volume II: Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses of Void Distribution and Critical Power – Specification
ISBN 978-92-64-99124-8. 44 pages. Free: paper or web.
The government of Japan and the Japanese Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) have released
high-quality data, based on a series of void measurements using full-size mock-up tests for boiling water reac-
tors (BWRs), with the aim of assisting the scientific community to advance its understanding of the two-phase
flow (a system containing both gas and liquid) in BWR fuel bundles. An international benchmark, based on the
NUPEC data, has been defined to encourage advancement in the development of two-phase flow theory which is
of importance, for example, for the evaluation of the safety margins in a reactor. The benchmark specifications
are being designed so that it systematically assesses and compares the capability of the numerical models to
predict detailed void distributions and critical powers. This report is the second in a series and describes the
specification of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis exercises undertaken to assess the accuracy of the
results obtained when modelling basic thermal-hydraulics in a single channel relative to void fraction and critical
power. Further volumes will be published, with a synthesis showing to what extent the most recent models are
capable of predicting two-phase flow in BWR fuel bundles.


VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmark
Phase 2 (V1000CT-2) Summary Results of Exercise 1 on Vessel Mixing Simulation
ISBN 978-92-64-99152-1. 144 pages. Free: paper or web.
Recently developed best-estimate computer code systems for modelling 3-D coupled neutronics/thermal-
hydraulics transients in nuclear reactors need to be validated against results from experiments and compared
with each other to help understand how the different modelling methods adopted affect the accuracy of the
simulation. This benchmark was set up for that purpose. This report is one of a series covering benchmarks
designed to test modelling methods for a range of transient scenarios in a VVER-1000 reactor. In this case,
the transient is initiated by isolation of one steam generator causing asymmetric loop heat-up. The benchmark
is based on experiments conducted at the Kozloduy nuclear power plant.




New publications, NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                                                            41
     
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42                                                                                                           NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2
From the American Nuclear Society (ANS)




  Nuclear News
 T H E         W O R L D ’ S                 P R E M I E R                N U C L E A R                M A G A Z I N E
                                                          Nuclear News has been an integral part of the advertising plans of more
                                                          than 1000 companies and organizations since the magazine accepted its
                                                          first advertisement in 1960. The magazine covers the latest
                                                          developments in the nuclear field, a large part of which concerns nuclear
                                                          energy — in particular, the 104 operating U.S. nuclear power plants, and
                                                          more than 330 operating in the rest of the world. News reports cover
                                                          plant operations, maintenance, security, international developments, waste
                                                          management, fuel, and industry.Also covered are nonpower uses of
                                                          nuclear science and technology, including nuclear medicine, food
                                                          irradiation, and space nuclear applications. Other sections of the
                                                          magazine include calendar, calls for papers, short courses, publications,
                                                          new products and services, and literature from suppliers.

                                                          Published as a special 13th issue of the year, the mid-April Nuclear
                                                          News Buyers Guide lists nearly 1000 worldwide suppliers
                                                          throughout 470 categories of products and services for nuclear
                                                          science and technology. This annual directory is the primary
                                                          commercial reference publication the nuclear industry relies on
                                                          year-round.




  Radwaste Solutions is the magazine of radioactive waste management
  and facility remediation. In the United States, this business is centered
  on four industry subsets: (1) the Department of Energy's remediation
  of its weapons production and research facilities; (2) the DOE's civilian
  radioactive waste activities (primarily, the Yucca Mountain Project,
  which remains on hold while the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and
  the courts decide the project’s future); (3) nuclear utilities, and (4)
  nonpower, non-DOE activities.Also, other countries are cleaning up
  and decommissioning their government nuclear facilities and older
  nuclear power plants, and U.S. businesses are increasingly obtaining
  contracts and subcontracts to perform this work.

  In 2009, as part of the $800-billion American Recovery and
  Reinvestment Act, the DOE's Environmental Management Office, which
  oversees site cleanup, received an additional $6 billion for cleanup and
  decommissioning work.This large infusion of funding into the DOE
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  contracts and subcontracts over the last two years.
  A large portion of that $6 billion is still funding major cleanup projects,
  which must be completed by the end of 2011.

            ADVERTISE: 1-708-579-8226                                           SUBSCRIBE: 1-708-579-8207
            Publications of the American Nuclear Society                                                   www.ans.org



NEA News 2010 – No. 28.2                                                                                                               43
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