Introduction to Engineering (PowerPoint download)

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					Intro. to Engineering
        Part 2
            Overview of Class
 Go over Rainforest Crunch Duncker
 Problem Definition Technique (cont.)
  – #4 Statement/ Restatement
  – #5 KT Analysis (later date)
 Engineering      Design Process
  – Step 3 – Develop Solutions
        Brainstorming

                         Mr. Gorman      2
       Practice Problem:
       Rainforest Crunch
 Background:  A health food store
 owner was having trouble selling a
 product, Rainforest Crunch, that
 had been selling very, very well at
 other stores where it was priced
 about the same.

                Mr. Gorman             3
       Rainforest Crunch
    Present & Desired State
 PresentState:
 “Rainforest Crunch is selling poorly.”

 Desired State:
  “Rainforest Crunch sales increase.”

                 Mr. Gorman               4
            Rain Forest Crunch
         Duncker Diagram Exercise
Present State: Rain Forest Crunch is selling       Desired State: Increase sales of Rain Forest
poorly                                             Crunch

                                           Mr. Gorman                                             5
          Technique #4
     Statement/ Restatement
      step is to create Present &
 First
 Desired State statements.

 ThePresent State is restated
 multiple other times using specific
 language which help “unpeel” the
 problem features and lead to
 solution paths.
                Mr. Gorman             6
           Trigger 1
 Vary emphasis on different words
 Cerealnot getting to market fast
 enough to maintain freshness.
         (Do other products get there faster?)

       not getting to market fast
 Cereal
 enough to maintain freshness.
    (Can we make the distance/time shorter?)

       not getting to market fast
 Cereal
 enough to maintain freshness.
  (Can we distribute from a centralized location?)
                       Mr. Gorman                    7
               Trigger 2
        Substitute in Definitions
 OriginalStatement:
“Cereal not getting to market fast enough
          to maintain freshness.”
 Restated  Statement:
  “Breakfast food that come in a box
  not getting to the place where it sold
    fast enough to keep it from getting
(Make you think about box & staleness … improve
         the box to prevent staleness)       8
               Trigger 3
        Positives to Negatives
 OriginalStatement:
“Cereal not getting to market fast enough
          to maintain freshness.”
 RestatedStatement:
“How can we find a way to get the cereal
  to market so slowly that it will never
               be fresh?”

  (Make you think about how long we have to
   maintain freshness and what controls it.)   9
                  Trigger 4
   Change “Every” to “Some,” “always” to
  “sometimes” and “sometimes” to “never”
  OriginalStatement:
 “Cereal not getting to market fast enough
           to maintain freshness.”
  Restated Statement:
 “Cereal not getting to market fast enough
       to always maintain freshness.”

(Opens new avenue of thought. Why isn’t it always
                    fresh?)                   10
             Trigger 5
    Replace “Persuasive Words”
  Theproblem statement implies that we
  obviously want to get the cereal to
  market faster to maintain freshness.

  Thus,if we could speed up delivery
  freshness would be maintained. Maybe
  not! Maybe the store holds it too long.
  Maybe it’s stale before it gets to there.
(Helps you challenge implicit assumptions made in
             the problem statement.)         11
            Trigger 6
Express in an Equation or picutre
 Freshness is inversely proportional to
 the time since the cereal was baked.

    Freshness =
                      Time Since

 (Makes you think of other ways to attack the
freshness problem. What does the constant, k,
                depend on?)
                    Mr. Gorman               12
    Statement/ Restatement
 Takeyour Present State Statement
 from the Rainforest Crunch exercise
 and restate it.

     15 minutes and write at least 1
 Take
 example using each of the triggers.

 Pass   in for a homework grade
                  Mr. Gorman           13
End of Problem Solving

         Mr. Gorman      14
Steps to Engineering Design Process

               Mr. Gorman        15
   Step 3: Develop Solutions
 Develop   possible solutions
 –brainstorm possible solutions
 –use your knowledge of science and
 –present the solutions using:
   thumbnail sketches
   rough sketches

   working drawings

                  Mr. Gorman      16
    Some Common Blocks to
       Creative Thinking
 Defining the problem to narrowly
 Fixing the symptoms not the
 Assuming there is only one right
 Too much information

 Too anxious to finish

                Mr. Gorman           17
      Generating Solutions
 Brainstorming
  –To generate a high volume of ideas

  –Ideas of one person should
   stimulate ideas in another

  –All ideas are to be recorded
   regardless of feasibility
                  Mr. Gorman        18
       Steps to Brainstorming
1)   Silently write down a list of ideas
2)   When each team member is done
     adding to their list, share the lists
3)   Continue to write down ideas as
     they come to you
4)   Record other members ideas
5)   As a group, build on given ideas

                   Mr. Gorman            19
          Things NOT to Do
1.   Do not criticize other’s ideas
2.   Do not judge other ideas, they can
     act as triggers for new ones

                   Mr. Gorman             20
       Brainstorming Exercise
 On  a piece of paper, write the names
  of your team members
 Read the problem on the next slide
  and SILENTLY brainstorm to
  generate ideas
 Strive for 20+ ideas

 There are no limits on what you can
 You’ll have 10 minutes
                 Mr. Gorman           21
The Fulton County landfill will reach its
  maximum capacity in five years if the current
  rate of addition of waste to the land fill
  continues. In response, the Solid Waste
  Commission instituted a weekly recycling
  drop-off program at the County Fairgrounds
  six months ago, but after an enthusiastic
  initial response, the numbers of residents
  participating in the recycling program has
  steadily been dropping.
You have been asked to help the Commission:
  1) Find ways to encourage residents to recycle, or
  2) Reduce the volume of waste sent to the landfill
                       Mr. Gorman                  22

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