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					                       COMBINING FORMS FOR THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


DEFINTION                COMBINING            TERMS
                         FORM
Anatomy & Systems
Lung Greek               PNEUM(ON)/O          pneumonectomy excision of a lung
(or pulmonary artery)                         pneumectomy excision of a lung
                                              pneumonocentesis surgical puncture of a lung
                                              pneumonorrhaphy suture of a lung
Lung Latin               PULM(ON)/O           pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
                                              pulmonologist specialist in the diseases and disorders of the
                                              lungs
                                              pulmogram a radiograph of the lung
(Windpipe) bronchus      BRONCH/O             bronchus, pl. bronchi
Greek & Latin            BRONCHI/O            bronchogenic originating in the bronchi
                                              bronchorrhagia a bronchial hemorrhage
                         BRONCH/I             bronchial pertaining to a bronchus
                                              bronchiectasis dilation of the bronchi
Bronchiole               BRONCHIOL/O          bronchiolar pertaining to the bronchioles
                         bronch/i + -olus     bronciolectasis dilation of the bronchioles
                         “little”             bronchiolitis inflammation of the bronchioles
Hollow, cavity           ALVE/O               alveobronchiolitis inflammation of the brochioles and the
                                              alveoli.
Air sac of the lungs     ALVEOL/O             alveolus, pl. alveoli
“a small hollow”                              alveolar pertaining to an alveolus
                                              alveolitis inflammation of the alveoli
(Side) pleura            PLEUR/O              pleurocentesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the
                                              pleural space
                                              pleuritis (pleurisy) inflammation of the pleura
Diaphragm                PHREN/O              phrenogastric pert. to the diaphragm and the stomach
                                              phrenospasm spasm of the diaphragm
Diaphragm                DIAPHRAGM/O          diaphragmatic pert. to the diaphragm
                                              diaphragmitis inflammation of the diaphragm
Chest cavity, pleural    THORAX,              hemothorax blood in the chest
cavity, thorax           THORAC/O             thoracic pertaining to the chest or thorax
                                              thoracocentesis (thoracentesis) surgical puncture of the chest
                                              wall for removal or instillation of fluids
*Chest, breast Greek     STETH/O              stethoscope an instrument used to transmit to the examiner's
                                              ears sounds produced in the body
                                              stethomyitis (stethomyositis) inflammation of the muscles of
                                              the chest
*Chest, breast,          STERN/O              sternal relating to the sternum or breastbone
breastbone Greek                              sternotracheal concerning the sternum and trachea
*Chest, breast Latin     PECTOR/O             pectoral concerning the chest
                                              pectoralgia pain in the chest
                                              expectoration the act or process of spitting out saliva or
                                              coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the
                                              lungs
(Rough) trachea          TRACH(E)/O,          sternotracheal concerning the sternum and trachea.
                         TRACHY/O             tracheitis inflammation of the trachea
                         not trachel/o neck   tracheotome an instrument used to open the trachea


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                    COMBINING FORMS FOR THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


Throat, pharynx       PHARYNX,         hypopharynx the lower portion of pharynx
                      PHARYNG/O        pharygitis inflammation of the pharynx
                                       pharyngospasm (pharyngismus) spasm of the muscles in the
                                       pharynx
                                       pharyngomycosis fungal disease of the pharynx
Voice box, larynx     LARYNX,          laryngoscopy visual examination of the larynx
                      LARYNG/O         laryngostenosis narrowing of the larynx
                                       laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
                                       laryngectomy surgical removal of all or part of the larynx
Adenoids              ADENOID/O        adenoidectomy surgical excision of the adenoids
                                       adenoiditis inflammation of the adenoids
Nose Greek            RHIN/O           rhinal pertaining to the nose
                                       rhinitis inflammation of the nose
                                       rhinorrhea discharge from the nose
                                       rhinorrhagia bleeding from the nose
Nose Latin            NAS/O            nasal pertaining to the nose
                                       nasogastric pertaining to the nasal passages and the stomach
                                       (used with intubation)
                                       paranasal around the nose
Sinus                 SIN/O, SINUS/O   sinusitis inflammation of the sinuses
                                       sinogram a radiograph of a sinus tract
                                       sinusoid resembling a sinus
Tonsils               TONSILL/O        tonsillar pertaining to a tonsil
                                       tonsillitis inflammation of a tonsil
                                       tonsillectomy excision of a tonsil
                                       tonsillopathy any disease of a tonsil
* (Almond) tonsil     AMYGDAL/O        amygdaline tonsillar
                                       amygdalopathy any disease of a tonsil
                                       amygdalotome an instrument for excision of a tonsil
Epiglottis            EPIGLOTT/O       epiglottitis inflammation of the epiglottis
                                       epiglottoplasty surgical repair of the epiglottis

Processes or
Conditions
Breathe Greek         -pnea            apnea without breathing, a temporary cessation of breathing
                                       eupnea normal breathing
                                       orthopnea literally, “breathing upright”
                                       tachypnea rapid breathing
                                       dyspnea difficult, painful breathing
Breathe Latin         SPIR(AT)/O       spirometry the measurement of the lung’s breathing capacity
                                       aspiration drawing (fluid/foreign material) in or out of the
                                       respiratory system by breathing/suction
                                       respiration the act of breathing
                                       inspiration the process of breathing air into the lungs,
                                       inhalation
                                       expiration the process of breathing air out of the lungs,
                                       exhalation
Smell                 -osmia           anosmia loss or impairment of the sense of smell
                                       hyposmia decreased sensitivity to odors
                                       hyperosmia increased sensitivity to odors


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                      COMBINING FORMS FOR THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


Form, produce, origin GEN/O                      gene the basic unit of heredity, lit. “something that forms, the
                                                 origin”
                                                 carcinogenic lit. “producing cancer”
-----------------       -----------------        -----------------
                        -genesis                 genesis the act of reproducing; generation or the origin of
                                                 anything
                                                 pathogenesis the origin and development of a disease
Narrow                  STEN/O                   stenothorax an unusually narrow thorax
-----------------       -----------------        -----------------
Narrowing, stricture    -stenosis (adj. –otic)   stenosis the constriction or narrowing of a passage or orifice
                                                 stenotic pertaining to a constriction
                                                 pharyngostenosis
Dilation, expansion     -ectasis                 atelectasis incomplete expansion of the lung
                                                 bronchiectasis dilation of the bronchi
Incomplete              ATEL/O a (not) +         atelocardia incomplete development of the heart
                        tel/o (complete)         atelocephaly incomplete development of the head
Examine                 SCOP/O                   scopophobia an abnormal fear of being seen
-----------------       -----------------        -----------------
visual examination      -scopy                   laryngoscopy visual inspection of the larynx
-----------------       -----------------        -----------------
instrument for visual   -scope                   laryngoscope instrument used for visual examination of the
examination                                      larynx
Suture                  -rrhaphy                 pneumonorrhaphy suture of a lung
                                                 myorrhaphy suture of a muscle
Puncture                -centesis                i.e. amniocentesis
                                                 pleurocentesis surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the
                                                 pleural space
                                                 thoracocentesis surgical puncture of the thoracic cavity
Mouth, opening          STOM[AT]/O               stomatic pertaining to the mouth
                                                 anastomosis a natural or surgical connection or opening
                                                 between two vessels or organs
                        -----------------        -----------------
                        -stomy                   tracheostomy the creation of an opening into the trachea
                                                 laryngostomy establishing a permanent opening through the
                                                 neck into the larynx
Spasm                   -spasm                   laryngospasm spasm of the larynx
                                                 pharyngospasm spasm of the muscles in the pharynx
*Spasm                  -ismus; -ism             laryngismus spasm of the larynx
                                                 pharyngismus spasm of the muscles in the pharynx
Paralysis               -plegia                  pharyngoplegia paralysis of the muscles of the pharynx
                                                 hemiplegia paralysis of one side of the body
                                                 gastroplegia paralysis of the stomach
*Slackening of          -paresis                 paresis partial or incomplete paralysis
strength, paralysis                              hemiparesis paralysis of one side of the body
                                                 gastroparesis paralysis of the stomach
*Paralysis              -paralysis               pharyngoparalysis paralysis of the muscles of the pharynx
                                                 hemiparalysis paralysis of one side of the body
                                                 gastroparalysis paralysis of the stomach




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                     COMBINING FORMS FOR THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


General
*Cough                 TUSS/O              tussive/tussal pertaining to a cough
                                           pertussis whooping cough, lit. a “a cough that goes through,
                                           an intense cough”
                                           antitussive preventing or relieving coughing
Pain Greek             ALG/O               algometer an instrument for measuring senstivity to pain
                                           algophobia morbid fear of pain
                       -----------------   -----------------
                       -algia              analgia state of being without pain
                                           cephalagia headache
                                           hemialgia pain in half of the body
                                           myalgia muscle pain
Pain Greek             -odynia             cephalodynia headache
                                           myodynia muscle pain
Small                  MICR/O              microscope
                                           microcephalia abnormal smallness of the head
                                           microcyst a very small cyst
                                           microlaryngoscopy examination of the interior of the larynx
                                           with a laryngoscope with binocular magnification
Large                  MACR/O              macrodactylia excessive size of one or more digits
                                           macrocephalia unusually large size of the head
                                           macrocyst a very large cyst
                                           macroscopy examination with the naked eye
New                    NEO                 neopharynx a surgically reconstructed pharynx
                                           neoplasty surgical formation or restoration of parts
Straight, upright,     ORTH/O              orthosis any device added to the body to stabilize or
correct                                    immobilize it, lit. “a straightening”
                                           orthodontia division of dentistry dealing with the prevention
                                           and correction of abnormally positioned teeth
                                           orthogenics eugenics
Muscle                 MY/O                myolipoma muscle tissue tumor containing fatty elements
                                           myopathy any disease of the muscle
                                           myectomy surgical excision of muscle
Gland                  ADEN/O              adenectomy surgical excision of a gland
                                           hidradenitis inflammation of a sweat gland
Cancer                 CARCIN/O            carcinoma a malignant tumor
                                           carcinogenesis transformation of normal cells to cancer cells
Oxygen                 OX(Y)/I             oximetry measurement of oxygen saturation in the blood
                                           oximeter device for measuring oxygen saturation of the blood
                                           hypoxemia deficiency of oxygen in the blood
                       -----------------   -----------------
                       -oxia               anoxia absence of oxygen in the blood
                                           hyperoxia increased oxygen in the blood
                                           hypoxia decreased oxygen in the blood
Air                    AER/O               aerophagia swallowing air
                                           aerotherapy treatment of disease by the use of air
                                           aerohydrotherapy treatment by use of air and water
*Air, gas              PHYS/O              emphysema pathological distention of interstitial tissues by
                                           gas or air [en + phys + -ema, condition]
                                           emphysematous characterized by emphysema


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                    COMBINING FORMS FOR THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


(Breath) air, gas     PNEUM(AT)/O      pneumatosis the presence of air or gas in an abnormal location
                                       in the body
                                       hydropneumothorax gas and serous effusion in the pleural
                                       cavity
Mucus Latin           MUC/O            muciform appearing similar to mucus
                                       mucoid similar to mucous
*Mucus Greek          MYX/O            myxoid similar to or resembling mucus
*Mucus Greek          BLENN/O          blennoid similar to or resembling mucus
*Coal, anthrax        ANTHRAX-,        anthracosis Accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due
                      ANTHRAC/O        to inhalation of smoke or coal dust
* (Smoke) carbon      CAPN/O           acapnia literally, the absence of carbon dioxide
dioxide                                hypercapnia an increased amount of carbon dioxide in the
                                       blood
                                       hypocapnia a decreased amount of carbon dioxide in the
                                       blood
*Dust                 CONI/O, KONI/O   coniosis any condition caused by inhalation of dust
                                       koniometer a device for estimating amount of dust in the air
*Iron                 SIDER/O          siderofibrosis fibrosis associated with iron deposits
                                       siderogenous producing or forming iron




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