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Study worksheet for Examination One. Anatomical Kinesiology Dr. Leo D’Acquisto, Professor A. Match the following: a. carpals g. phalanges b. femur h. radius c. fibula i. tarsals d. humerus j. tibia e. metacarpals k. ulna f. metatarsals 1. Forms the palm of the hand 2. The fingers have three of these, but the thumb has only two. 3. Sports the linea aspera and greater trochanter. 4. Pronation causes the distal end of this bone to cross over another. 5. Forms the medial aspect of the ankle 6. Forearm bone that articulates with the carpals 7. Bones of the wrist 8. Bones of the ankle 9. Articulates with the glenoid fossa 10. Articulates with the trochles B. Match the following structures with the correct descriptions: a. atlas e. lumbar vertebrae b. axis f. sacrum c. cervical vertebrae g. thoracic vertebrae d. coccyx 1. Contains foramina in the transverse processes 2. Have articular facets for the ribs 3. A circle of bone that articulates superiorly with the occipital bone of the skull 4. Typically, 5 fused bones which are part of vertebrae column. 5. Thickest bodies with short blunt spinous processes 6. Bears a peg-shaped dens that acts as a pivot. 7. Fused rudimentary vertebrae also called the tailbone. C. Match the following bones with their markings: a. femur f. ulna b. tibia g. fibula c. humerus h. radius d. scapula i. talus e. clavicle j. hipbone 1. Greater trochanter 2. Lateral malleolus 3. patellar surface 4. Articulates with the tibia at its distal end (two answers) 5. Trochlea 6. Greater sciatic notch 7. Olecranon process 8. Acromion process 9. Deltoid tuberosity D. Distinguish among the following: 1. ball-and-socket joint, 2. hinge joint, & 3. pivot joint E. Match the following: a. bursitis c. osteoarthritis b. gout d. rheumatoid arthritis 1. A consequence of “wear and tear” on joints; chiefly affects the large weight bearing joints; involves erosion of articular cartilage, and formation of bony spurs. 2. Examples are housemaid’s knee and tennis elbow 3. Painful condition reflecting elevated levels of uric acid in the blood and joints. 4. Autoimmune disorder; joints affected bilaterally; involves pannus formation and gradual joint immobilization. F. Draw out a load-deformation curve and indicate and define the following: load axis, strain axis, elastic region, plastic region, failure point, yield point. G. Discuss the impact of diet and exercise on bone health. Illustrate the consequences of an osteoporotic bone via a load-deformation curve. (compare a normal curve to a bone which has osteoporosis) H. Match the following forces to the best description below. 1. Tension 2. Compression 3. Shear 4. Bending A. load is applied parallel to the surface of the bone B. pulling force on the bone C. this forces results in shortening and widening of the bone D. this force can result in a “boot top” fracture in skiing I. Muscle plays an important role in locomotion. In addition, muscle can neutralize the stresses imposed on bone. Explain how muscle is able to minimize bone fracture. Incorporate in your discussion the theory of muscle fatigue as a cause of fatigue fracture. J. You are delivering a message regarding healthy bones to a high school senior class. Outline the messages you would be conveying to such a class. K. Draw a sketch of a synovial joint. Include all components (general anatomy) of a synovial joint). L. Why is synovial fluid important? M. What helps to maintain articular (joint) surface contact when you perform movements? N. Match the following joints with the example below: 1. Plane 2. Hinge 3. Pivot 4. Condyloid 5. Saddle 6. Ball and Socket a. head of radius articulating with proximal end of ulna b. shoulder joint c. proximal end of ulna (trochlear notch or semilunar notch) articulating with distal end of humerus d. articulations among the tarsal bones e. articulation between the carpals and distal end of radius f. articulation of trapezium with metacarpal #1 O. Describe a lever system. Illustrate the importance of muscle (s) and joint (s) in the lever system. P. What impact would an injured joint have on performing a particular motor skill. Q. Name and describe disorders (i.e. scoliosis, lordosis, kyphosis, herniated disc) of the vertebral column. R. List the functions of the skeletal system. S. Define the following disorders,.. Osteoporosis, Osteomalacia, Rickets, and Giantism T. Why is calcium so important for the body? Draw out a schematic illustrating how the body attempts to maintain normal blood calcium levels when blood calcium is high and low (Blood Calcium Homeostasis). U. Discuss different types of fractures and the steps in healing a fracture. V. What factors impact bony growth? W. Define the following forces, Tension, Compression, Torsional, Bending, Shear X. Identify the different planes and axes and give example motions (actions) for each plane and axis. Y. Define the following: tendinitis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, lyme disease. Anatomical Kinesiology In class practice examination - Skeleton Professor: Dr. Leo D’Acquisto **Pick the best answer** 1. The shaft of a long bone is also called a. the epiphysis b. the diaphysis c. the periosteum 2. In a long bone, spongy bone is found predominantly a. in the diaphysis b. in the epiphyses c. between the periosteum and diaphysis 3. The articular cartilage (also known as hyaline cartilage) is found a. on the diaphysis b. inside the epiphyses c. covering the ends of long bones (outside the epiphyses) 4. The layer of the periosteum contains . a. outer / osteoblasts b. inner / osteoclasts c. inner / osteoblasts e. inner / osteoblasts & osteoclasts 5. Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) plays a role in a. increasing friction b. shock absorption c. decreasing friction d. a and c e. b and c Match the following with the best statement or description below a. osteocyte b. osteoblast c. osteoprogenitor d. osteoclast e. chondroblast 6. Produces bony matrix (bony ground substance) 7. An undifferentiated (un-specialized) cell 8. A cell which breaks down bone 9. A cell which makes cartilage cells 10. Long bones are made up of predominantly (Compact / Spongy) bone, while flat irregular bones are made up of predominantly of (Compact / Spongy) bone. (Write in best answer) 11. Appositional bone growth: a. is the process by which bones increase in thickness b. involves osteoblasts secreting bony matrix on the external surface of the bone c. makes reference to vertical bone growth d. all of the above are correct e. a and B are both correct Match the following to the statements below (you may use an answer more than once) A. Long Bone B. Short Bone C. Flat Bone D. Irregular Bone 12. The fifth metacarpal is a _____ 13. The calcaneus is considered a _____ 14. The fibula is classified as a _____ 15. The scapula is classified as a _____ 16. A vertebra is considered a _____ 17. Which of the following vitamins is sometimes call the “sunshine vitamin” a. Vitamin K b. Vitamin D c. Vitamin C 18. Calcium is important in the following: a. muscle action b. cell division c. bone and teeth formation d. nerve transmission e. blood coagulation e. all the above (a through e) are correct 19. Growth hormone, estrogen and testosterone all play important roles in healthy bone (True / False) 20. The patella is a special type of short bone called a. a sesamoid bone b. a tendanoid bone c. a flat bone 21.. This tissue connects the ribs of the thorax to the sternum _____________________ 22.. Name the structure which is the most inferior part of the sternum _______________ 23. This bone contains medial and lateral condyles, and serves as an attachment site for the patellar tendon ____________________ 24. A bone which articulates with the pubic symphysis ________________ 25. A bone sporting a tuberosity, makes up part of the pelvis, and serves as an attachment site for the hamstring muscles ____________ ___ 26. Long bones, each in line with a digit, and help form the sole of the foot ________ __ 27.. Which of the following is true about the pectoral girdle? 1. It consists of the clavicle and scapula. 2. It provides insertion points for muscles that move the arm. 3. It is attached to the axial skeleton only by the acromioclavicular joint. a. 1 only d. 2 and 3 b. 1 and 2 E. 1 and 3 c. 1,2, and 3 28. Name the functions of the human skeleton 29.Draw out a load-deformation curve for a healthy bone and a osteoporotic bone (clearly label and define all components of the curves). Match the anatomical terms below with the appropriate description of long bone. A. Articular Cartilage E. Epiphyseal line B. Compact bone F. Epiphysis C. Diaphysis G. Spongy bone D. Endosteum H. Periosteum 30. Also called the shaft __________ 31. Outer covering of bone __________ 32. The expanded end of a long bone __________ 33. Covers bone surface that articulate with other bones and absorbs shock __________ 34. Delicate lining found in the inside of bone (lining the medullary cavity) __________ 35. Bone type found inside the epiphyses __________ 36. Primary bone type that forms a good part of the shaft __________ 37. A remnant of the growth plate __________ Match the following bones with there markings. (May use an answer twice) A. Femur D. Scapula G. Fibula B. Tibia E. Clavicle H. Radius C. Humerus F. Ulna J. Pelvis 38. Greater trochanter __________ 41. Olecranon Process __________ 39. Lateral Malleolus __________ 42. Linea Aspera ____________ 40. Trochlea __________ 43. Specifically, a sprain is an injury to a. tendon b. ligament c. muscle 44. Bursitis is due to a. bacterial infection b. mechanical pressure on bursa c. a and b are both potential causes of bursitis 45. Osteoarthritis is considered an autoimmune disease. (True / False) 46. Ankylosis refers to a condition in which bone ends fuse with one another. (True / False) 47. The following is true about synovial fluid except 1. helps reduce friction 2. involved in the regeneration of new articular cartilage 3. semi-thick (viscous) consistency 4. contains special cells (called phagocytic cells) which clean up the joint of any foreign debri a. 4 b. 1,3,4 c. 1, 2, 3 d. 2 e. 1,3 48. Which statement (s) is (are) true about a synovial joint 1. Contains a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid 2. Articular bones do not contain hyaline cartilage 3. Contains an articular capsule 4. Allows for a variety of movements including flexion, extension, abduction, & adduction, to name a few 5. Shoulder (a ball & socket joint) and knee (a hinge joint) are considered synovial joints a. 1, 2, 3, 4,5 b. 1,3,4,5 c. all of the above are correct (1,2,3,4, & 5). d. 1 49. Name the basic anatomical components of an intervertebral disc and highlight the function of a disc __________________________________________________________________ 50. The inner membrane of a joint capsule secretes into the joint cavity. 51. The following structure provides a cushion between bones and tendons, ligaments and bones, ________________ 52. The help enhance stability of the knee joint, and are described as ring shaped structures.
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