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					Bridging the Digital Divide

             Digital Libraries
  in Information Literacy Instruction
         in India and Germany

  by Dr. Neena Singh & Dipl.-Inform.wirt (FH) Andreas Klingenberg
                         Agenda
1.       Two conditions
2.       Information Literacy
3.       Digital Divide
4.       Case studies: Germany & India
5.       Bridging the Digital Divide




25/02/2010          Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide   2
             Accessing information




25/02/2010        Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide   3
       Germany: a big step forward

                                                                     26,6
                                        38,6
             52,5



                                                                            offline
                                                                            plan
                                                                            online
                                                                     69,1
                                        55,1

             37,0




             2001                      2005                          2009

25/02/2010          Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide                    4
             Access depends on age
                  3,0
                                            10,7




                                                                         49,9




                                                                                offline
                                                                                plan
                 94,5
                                            85,0                                online



                                                                         44,9




                 14-29                    30-49                          50+

25/02/2010              Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide                    5
             Two conditions
To use Digital Libraries one needs

1. Hardware and access
2. Skills to find and use information




25/02/2010     Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide   6
             How people search
              1 keyword                                                     37%


             2 keywords                                               32%


             3 keywords                           17%


             4 keywords               8%



             5 keywords         4%


                  more         3%



25/02/2010           Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide               7
             Low searching skills

                                 operators
                                   17%




                                    no
                                 operators
                                   83%




25/02/2010       Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide   8
             Information Literacy

     To be information literate, a person must
     be able to recognize when information is
     needed and have the ability to locate,
     evaluate, and use effectively the needed
     information.                       (ACRL 1989)




25/02/2010         Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide   9
      Germany: below the average

                      ly




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                                       en
                                     an




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                             ai
                    It a




                                                                   U
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               la




                                    ed
                           Sp




                                                                                        m
                                    m




                                                                                                nl
                                                                            la
             Po




                                                    Fr
                                  Sw




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25/02/2010                          Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide                     10
                     Digital Divide
                        young                •     old
                           men               •     women
         developed countries                 •     developing countries
                           rich              •     poor
               locals/citizens               •     immigrants
             highly educated                 •     less educated
                  info literate              •     illiterate


25/02/2010             Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide     11
             Information Literacy skills




25/02/2010          Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide   12
             India: literacy rate




                                                                    ?
                                       64,8
                52,2




               1991                   2001                     2011


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             India: internet accessibility




                                                                           ?
                                              3,7

                    0,1
                    1998                     2007                     2016


25/02/2010                Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide       14
               Education
• Libraries / Information Centres

• LIS professionals = educators:
  teaching / improving information literacy

• School    College                      University             …
  Lifelong Learning

25/02/2010     Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide       15
              Social development
Examples: electronic payment (taxes), e-booking,
online payment (insurance premium), e-banking, right to
information, Automated Unique Identification card …


        Digital Libraries: accessible 24/7
        LIS professionals = educators



25/02/2010           Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide   16
             Political participation
Information Literacy
       – decision making + problem solving
       – critical thinking
       – right to information


      Openness and Transparency
        Strengthen democracy


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               Academic Libraries
         The two most important issues are

(1) the cost of building and maintaining
    sustainable digital library systems
    and services, and

(2) achieving the required information literacy
    standards so as to exploit the full benefits of
    digital libraries.
                                                                      (Chowdhury 2002)
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             Bridging the Digital Divide


1. Technical                                  Hardware + access

2. Educational                                Information Literacy




25/02/2010           Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide   19
                        Strategies
1.   Similar to various acts.
                       Right to free & compulsory education act (2009)
                       Right to Information Act (2005) and Informational
                       self-determination in Germany (1983)
     NEED FOR “ Right to Information Skills or IL Act”

2.   Bridge Digital Divide – Systematic way
               IL programs be integrated with academic curricula,
               School to higher education – UG and PG as
               Core learning competence.


3.   Need – convince higher authorities (University Academic
              council ) UGC etc (LIS forums – Library associations)
25/02/2010              Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide   20
                  Strategies

Need for National forum on IL (India) as it exists in
 Germany since 2002 and other countries.

• To promote IL as means of
               - Individual empowerment
               - bridging digital divide
               - information Literate Society


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                     Strategies
     Need to look beyond – Simple access to
                                           Hardware and software
     Researches in IL – its role in bridging digital
     divide is still in preliminary stage.

     More discussions, – user surveys – intensive
     researches are inevitable.

     Role DL - reaching the un reached need to be
     promoted - academic, public libraries & CIC.
25/02/2010           Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide   22
                 Conclusions
Illiterates of 21st – Know to use digital information
                    and Do not know

India –      greater challenges-illiteracy (35%)
             besides teaching IL

Need –       recognize role of LIS professionals as
             educators of IL – Bridging digital divide

Improve – digital infrastructure in school – public
          libraries – college libraries
25/02/2010         Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide   23
               Conclusions
Germany – Ahead – connecting its population to
                  internet
Teaching IL   – Part of higher education

Need            – bring to younger learners
                – institutions of adult education
                – working people


25/02/2010      Singh/Klingenberg: Bridging the Digital Divide   24
                                                    http://www.sxc.hu/photo/763270              06- 01-
[03] Lusi (2007): Stock photo: reading time 1. URL: http://www.sxc.hu/photo/763270 [accessed on 06-01-2010] (left)
                                                 http://www.sxc.hu/photo/775092
     Dreamjay (2007): Stock photo: laptop. URL: http://www.sxc.hu/photo/775092 [accessed on 06-01-2010] (right)
                                                                                              06- 01-

                                                         Literacy:
[05] ACRL (1989): Presidential Committee on Information Literacy: Final Report. Chicago: Association of College and
                              http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/publications/whitepapers/presidential.cfm
     Research Libraries. URL: http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/publications/whitepapers/presidential.cfm
                     - 10-
     [accessed on 13-10-2009]
                  13

[06] + [07] Initiative D21 (2009): (N)ONLINER Atlas 2009 : Eine Topographie des digitalen Grabens durch Deutschland.
                                    http://www.initiatived21.de/wp-
      Initiative D21 (Hrsg.). URL: http://www.initiatived21.de/wp-content/uploads/2009/06/NONLINER2009.pdf
                      13- 10-
      [accessed on 13-10-2009]

                                                                   Analyse  Suchmaschinen-
[08] + [09] Google (2008): Suchverhalten in Deutschland: Eine Analyse von Suchmaschinen-Nutzern.
                           - value- of- search.de/pdf/Suchverhalten%20in%20Deutschland%20-
      URL: http://www.full-value-of-search.de/pdf/Suchverhalten%20in%20Deutschland%20-%20Eine%20Analyse
            http://www.full
      %20von%20Suchmaschinen-                                              06- 01-
      %20von%20Suchmaschinen-Nutzern.pdf?1254243288 [accessed on 06-01-2010]

                                                                               Europe:
[10] EAVI (2009): Study of the Assessment Criteria of Media Literacy Levels in Europe: Final Report.
           http://www.eavi.eu/images/stories/ML_Study/eavi_study_on_assessment_criteria_for_media_literacy_
     URL: http://www.eavi.eu/images/stories/ML_Study/eavi_study_on_assessment_criteria_for_media_literacy_
                                             08- 01-
     levels_in_europe_last.pdf [accessed on 08-01-2010]

                                                             [accessed    13- 10-
[13] Census of India (2001). URL: http://www.censusindia.net [accessed on 13-10-2009]

                                                                                  13- 10-
[14] World statistics (2009). URL: http://www.internetworldstats.com [accessed on 13-10-2009]

     Chowdhury,
[18] Chowdhury, G. (2002): Digital divide: how can digital libraries bridge the gap?
          http://www.cis.strath.ac.uk/cis/research/publications/papers/strath_cis_publication_334.pdf
     URL: http://www.cis.strath.ac.uk/cis/research/publications/papers/strath_cis_publication_334.pdf
                   13- 10-
     [accessed on 13-10-2009]


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