Getting the Software:
EndNote is a commercial, licensed software product available to VT faculty, staff, and students at no charge to
them. Download it from the VT Network Software site . You must be on campus or access the site through a VPN
in order to download the software. Latest versions: X5 for Windows and X4 for Mac.
Creating a Library:
Although you can create as many libraries as you like, it is recommended that you keep all of your references
together in one main EndNote library. Instead of making different "specialty" libraries, you will find it more useful
to create one library and use Groups to help you organize and categorize your references.
To create a library:
1. From the File menu, select New. EndNote presents a dialog prompting you to name and save the
2. Enter a name for your new library. If you include an extension, use the extension "ENL” which stands
for EndNote Library." If you do not include an extension, EndNote will add ".ENL automatically. The
default library name is My EndNote Library but you can choose something different.
3. Using the "Save in" list, select the location where you would like to save the library. In Windows the
default location is My Documents but you can choose a different location.
4. Click Save and the new library appears as an empty EndNote library, "Showing 0 out of 0 references.”
Libraries can be arranged into Groups, which are subsets of references.
Adding Records to a Library Manually:
The basic unit of a library is a reference. There are 45 defined reference types (journal article, book, thesis, etc.)
and three unused types that can be defined. A reference consists of fields containing the information required to
cite it in a bibliography. Keywords, notes, abstracts, URLs and other information can be stored in a reference as
Each reference added to a library is automatically assigned a unique record number that never changes for that
reference in that particular library. EndNote uses these numbers to format papers. You cannot change these
There is no limit to the number of references you can create in an EndNote library. It is recommended that the
number not exceed 100,000 to maintain efficient performance managing the database.
Records can be added manually or exported from an online resource.
To add a new reference to an open library:
1. Click the New Reference icon or select New Reference (Ctrl+N) from the References menu.
This opens an empty Reference window.
2. Select a reference type from the Reference Type list at the top of the window.
3. Enter bibliographic data into each of the fields in the reference.
4. With the Preview tab selected, look at how the reference displays. Initially, EndNote provides a
preview of three output styles: Annotated, Author-Date, and Numbered. To select a different style,
click on Select Another Style and scroll through the additional options and choose one. Note: If you
used the typical installation when you loaded the EndNote software you have the 100 most popular
styles. If your preferred style is not included, go to the EndNote web site and download it.
Directly Exporting Records into a Library
Many databases include a direct export option that allows you to send copies of references directly to an EndNote
library. The direct export process automatically selects an EndNote import filter to map bibliographic information
into the appropriate EndNote fields. All you need to do is select the EndNote library into which the data should be
Note: In some cases, you may be required to select an appropriate filter. When the direct export process is
started, EndNote first checks the file for tags that are specific to a common import type, such as the EndNote, Web
of Science, or RIS format. If no match is found, EndNote searches through all filters for a vendor ID and database ID
that match the file. If no match is found, you are prompted to select a filter.
The procedures vary, but in general you would search a database, mark relevant records, and then export to
EndNote. Some databases will offer an export to EndNote Web or to EndNote.
Creating In-Text Citations
Use Cite While You Write (CWYW) with Microsoft Word 2003, 2007, or 2010 to cite references, figures, and
tables, and create a paper with properly formatted citations, a bibliography, figures, and tables. CWYW gives you
access to EndNote references and formatting commands with either an EndNote X5 submenu on Word’s Tools
menu in Word 2003, or, in Word 2007 and 2010, with an EndNote tab.
When you install EndNote software the CWYW functions are installed at the same time in Word or in
Once you have selected a citation, use Insert Citation to place it in your paper. It will be formatted according to
the rules in your Citations Template. Go to Edit Output Styles.
In the examples below the "◊" character is used as a non-breaking space. The vertical bar symbol l represents a
forced separation. These characters can be important in correctly formatting a citation. In the APA Citation
example, the comma will appear only when there is data in the Cited Pages field; otherwise, it will be omitted.
Citation: (Author|◊Cited Pages)
Citation – Author (Year): Author◊ (|◊Cited Pages)
Chicago 16 , B:
Citation: (Author Year|, Cited Pages|)
Citation-Author (Year): Author◊(Year|, Cited Pages|)
APA 6 :
Citation: (Author, |Year|,◊p.^pp. ◊Cited Pages|)
Citation-Author (Year): Author◊(|Year|,◊p.^pp. ◊Cited Pages|)
Creating a Bibliography (Works Cited, References)
If you use EndNote to insert in-text citations into your paper, a list of references will start forming at the bottom of
You can also create an “independent bibliography” without an associated paper. EndNote calls this an
"independent bibliography" because EndNote does not generate the bibliography based on citations
found in a paper. There are several ways to create an independent bibliography including drag and
drop, copy formatted, and export. Each has its own advantages, so look for the option that best suits
Linking to Full Text
Use the Find Full Text command or the OpenURL Link command to see if EndNote can find the text of a document.
Set Find Full Text Preferences and Open URL Path and OpenURL Arguments. Use Attach File to locate documents
that have been previously downloaded and to store a copy in the DATA folder of your EndNote Library.
Authenticate with: https://login.ezproxy.lib.vt.edu:2443/login?qurl=http://www.lib.vt.edu/
OpenURL Path: http://ezproxy.lib.vt.edu:8080/login?url=http://su8bj7jh4j.search.serialssolutions.com/
OpenURL Arguements: Set the ?sid setting to sersol. Then use the OpenURL Link command to invoke
Get VText functionality. This command has no relation to the URL field found in EndNote references or
to the URL > Open Link command on the References menu.
Getting the software
Zotero: Download from Zotero site.
URL: http://www.zotero.org. Latest version is 2.1.8.
Creating a Library
After you download the Zotero plugin-and click on the Zotero icon in the lower right corner of the browser, you
will see a My Library icon display.
The basic unit of a library is an item, which can be organized into collections. Collections appear as
folders underneath the library.
Click on the New Collection button and you are prompted
to give the collection a title. You can then add items to this
collection by dragging them from the center column over to the new
collection or by uploading the item to Zotero while the collection is open
(highlighted). You can also add a subcollection within another collection
either by creating a new collection and dragging it into an existing collection
or by right-clicking on an existing collection and choosing “New
Adding Records to a Library Manually
Items appear in the center column of the Zotero screen. Click the small icon underneath the Search
(magnifying glass) to change the fields’ order and to add or delete fields from the display of items.
The + symbol at the far right indicates the number of additional related elements such as Notes or
Attachments. Clicking the + symbol at the far left (green ball) lets you add a new item.
Click the New Item button to bring up the list of the most popular items:
book, book section, document, journal article, magazine article, newspaper
article. Click More to display additional item types.
Every item contains different metadata depending on its type. In this example
showing journal article you see title, author, abstract, publication, volume,
issue, pages, etc.
Fill in all relevant information.
There are numerous item types. They are listed below.
Item Type Item Type Item Type
Artwork E-Mail Map
Audio recording Encyclopedia Article Newspaper Article
Bill Film Patent
Blog Post Forum Post Podcast
Book Hearing Presentation
Book Section Instant Message Radio Broadcast
Case Interview Report
Computer Program Journal Article Statute
Conference Paper Letter Thesis
Dictionary Entry Magazine Article TV Broadcast
Document Video Recording
Directly Exporting Records into a Library
In many circumstances Zotero can detect what type of item or items are displaying on a web page and
can directly load the relevant bibliographic information into your
Look for an icon at the far right of the address bar. A folder icon
indicates there are multiple items. An individual item might display as
a book, a document, a film, etc.
The star icon is a Firefox bookmark icon. In the example below (a search for
the keywords global warning predictions), there is a folder icon. Click it to display the individual items
and then check those of interest.
Zotero senses information through site translators. Zotero's translators should work with most library
catalogs, some popular websites, and many subscription databases. Look for icons in the location bar.
Creating In-Text Citations
To add in-text citations to a document using Zotero, download the word processor plugins, which are distributed
as Firefox extensions. Plugins are available for Microsoft Word and OpenOffice/NeoOffice.
In Word, you will see an Add-Ins tab with icons to insert citations, edit citations, and insert a
bibliography. For Mac 2008 and 2011 users, Zotero functionality is located under the Word script menu.
To insert an in-text citation click the insert citation icon, locate the item or items to add, and click OK. Click
Multiple Sources button to add more than one item. Click the Show editor button to see a preview of the citation.
You can also include pages or suppress the author.
Creating a Bibliography
After you have inserted citations into a document you can insert a bibliography by clicking on the
Insert Bibliography icon.
Alternatively, you can use Zotero's drag-and-drop Quick Copy to create a bibliography. Select items in
the center column and drag them into any text field. Zotero will automatically create a numbered and
alphabetized bibliography for you. To copy citations instead of references, hold down Shift before
To configure your
preferences, click the
Actions menu (the
gear icon) and select
the Preferences pop-
up window, select
Export to set the
default export format.
Or, you can choose Create Bibliography from Selected Items by highlighting items and right-clicking.
Choose Citation Style and Output Format options. Copy to Clipboard is one easy method.
Linking to Full Text
Use Locate to see if Zotero can find the text of a document. Set Zotero Preferences to:
Automatically recognize proxied resources. If using the Virginia Tech library’s proxy server you will be
able to obtain Get VText functionality by clicking on Library Lookup.
When Zotero detects that you are
using an institutional proxy to access a
particular site, it will ask if you want
to remember it in the future. If you
agree, from then on, Zotero will then
automatically use the proxy for
matching URLs. You should be routed
through the proxy login site if you're
not already logged in, then you can
access the database as you normally
Zotero users should be able to make
complete use of the proxies feature
without editing any preferences. By
default, Zotero will prompt you to
store the proxy and then route you through the proxy automatically and without further input. The
default behavior can be changed, though. You can set whether Zotero automatically prompts you to
store proxies it detects and whether it should request permission to route requests through any stored
Proxies can be added manually by clicking on the + button in the Proxies preference tab. From there,
you can specify the URL of the database being accessed under hostname and the URL scheme of the
proxy. By selecting the Multi-Site option, you can redirect multiple sites/databases through a single
You can also drop and drag already downloaded files into your library.
APA 6th. Section 7.01.1 (p. 198):
Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill
patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi: 10.1037/0278-622.214.171.124
APA 6th. Section 7.01.6 (p. 200):
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status, The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Chicago 16th. Section 15.9 (p. 792):
Novak, William J. 2008. "The Myth of the 'Weak' American State." American Historical Review 113:752-72. doi:
Chicago 16th. Section 15.9 (p. 790):
Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. 2007. The War: An Intimate History, 1941-1945. New York: Knopf.
MLA Handbook, 7th. Section 5.5.13 (p. 167):
Baker, Nancy L., and Nancy Huling. A Research Guide for Undergraduate Students: English and American Literature.
6th ed. New York: MLA, 2006. Print.
MLA Style Manual, 6th. Section 6.5.5 (p. 179):
Rosenberg, Geanne. "Electronic Discovery Proves an Effective Legal Weapon." New York Times 31 Mar. 1997, late
ed.: D5. Print.
Purdue OWL: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
Chicago Manual of Style:
MLA Style: http://www.mla.org/style
APA Style: http://apastyle.org/
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