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AP BIOLOGY

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 7

									AP BIOLOGY                                                   NAME:_______________________
                                                             DATE:_____________PER:_____

                              CH. 1
                 Beginning Our Exploration of Life
                                    Lecture Notes

 What Does Biology Study?
  ~Introduction~
      The study of life spans from the tiny ___________________ scale to the larger
        _____________ scale of the entire LIVING PLANET.
        -it’s too hard to study on so many levels, so a division of levels is needed for
        organization: [“camera zoom”/REDUCTIONISM view or building blocks view]


                HIERARCHY of BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION:

                                        The “sphere of life” containing all life
  _________________________              and all its ecosystems.
  _________________________
                                        “system”- a complex organization with many
                                         parts that work together & interact; non-
  _________________________
                                         living with living, and living with other
  _________________________              living.

  _________________________             Balance- affecting one relationship may
                                         affect others!
  _________________________
                                        As the levels increase in complexity, new
  _________________________              properties emerge (emergent properties)
                                         ~Ex:_______________________________________
  _________________________
                                         ___________________________________________
  _________________________
                                        Smallest unit of LIFE, because it can
  _________________________
                                         perform all life __________________.


                     Looking just at the process of
                      photosynthesis, or a single cell, or a
                      ladybug or a tree or a horse, is NOT
                      enough! Looking at the BIG picture with
                      all life’s connections and interactions is
                      what AP Biology is all about!

                                          -1-
  Do you recall what makes something living??!! [Fig.1.3;8th]
   1. ALL living things are made of ______________
   2. ALL require __________________; metabolism; ENERGY TRANSFER
   3. maintain stable internal conditions; ______________________; REGULATION
   4. _____________ & ___________________
   5. _______________________
   6. have ____________; genetic code; ORDER
   7. respond to the ______________________
   8. _____________ over ____________; EVOLUTIONARY ADAPATATION




 CONNECTING THEMES!!!
    ______________________: The Overarching Theme of Biology!
    New properties emerge at each level of ___________________ at each level
      of the BIOLOGICAL _____________________
         o EMERGENT PROPERTIES
         o REDUCTIONISM
         o SYSTEMS BIOLOGY
    INTERACTIONS with ENVIRONMENT
      ~ (exchanging _______________ & ______________)
         o ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS
         o ENERGY TRANSFER/CONVERSION
    STRUCTURE & FUNCTION CORRELATION
    CELLS as BASIC UNIT of __________________ & _________________
    CONTINUITY of LIFE based on __________
    REGULATION through FEEDBACK MECHANISMS
         o NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
         o POSITIVE FEEDBACK
    SCIENCE as a ________________; The __________________ ________________
    SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY

                                      -2-
   BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
     - “The whole is greater than the sum of its _____________”
     ~ Ex: a CELL is made of many parts (__________________), BUT all those parts
         combined TOGETHER make something even greater than just a bunch of parts
         together; together, they make a CELL function as a whole, enabling it to do more
         as a whole than each function of each individual part combined.
     ~ all the parts combined create a _______________ that can do many more functions
         as a ____________ than as individuals.
     ~ ______________________________________________________________________________


         EMERGENT PROPERTIES: New properties that emerge with each step
          upward in the hierarchy of ___________, due to the arrangement and
          interactions of parts as ____________________ increases.
             - the more complex systems get as they combine parts, the more properties
              _______________ as a result.
             ~ Ex: your nerve cells alone can pass signals, but when combined with other
              nerve cells & other organs with similar functions (such as the spine) to
              form a _________________ (spec. the _________________ system), then the
              system as a whole has unique properties that the lower levels did not,
             resulting in __________________ & the ability to ________________.


         REDUCTIONISM: when complex systems are reduced into their smaller,
          simpler parts, it makes it easier to study.
             - Try studying ALL of life on the planet without having a system of smaller
              units or categories!
             ~ Ex: when scientists studied began studying the DNA molecule (a
             microscopic ______________________), it gave insights into the whole system
             of genetics for ALL of ____________, as a greater whole!
             ~ ______________________________________________________________________


                                             -3-
   SYSTEMS BIOLOGY: attempts to model the dynamic behavior of whole
    biological systems. HOW EVERYTHING IS _______________________!!!
          - Enables scientists to _________________ how a change in one or more
            variables will affect other components and the whole system.
          ~ Ex: ________________________________________________________________
          ~ Ex: ________________________________________________________________
          ~ Ex: ________________________________________________________________


 ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS:
    - ALL organisms interact continuously with its ____________________ (nonliving
     & living).
    ~ Ex: When you breathe, how are you are interacting with your environment?
     __________________________________________________________________________
    ~ Ex: When you eat a steak, how are you are interacting with your
     environment? ____________________________________________________________
    ~ Ex: When you die, how are you interacting with your environment?
     __________________________________________________________________________
    - 2 major processes of Ecosystem Dynamics:
       o CYCLING __________________ [ex: dead, decomposing bodies]
       o FLOW of _________________! [“E”]
          ~ from the ___________ to ___________________ to _____________________!
                                  - PRODUCERS: convert ____________ energy to
                                  chemical ______________/________________
                                  compounds.
                                          ~ Ex: _______________
                                  - CONSUMERS: organisms that feed on
                                  _______________
                                  [herbivores/_____________________] and
                                  other ________________
                                  [carnivores___________________].




                                    -4-
 ENERGY TRANSFER:
 - EVERYTHANG!, EVERY process, action, movement are “___________ “ for the cell,
  which all requires a source of [E]!


      PLANTS convert E from the __________              SUGAR (chemical E)

      ANIMALS convert E from SUGARS (chemical E)                  _____________ E



        SUN

                       some is lost                      some is lost




 CELLS:
      EVERY movement you make, every ounce and inch of your body, even every
       thought is based on ___CELLS___ and their activities!
      ALL living things are composed of __CELLS__!!!
      2 types:
             _PROKARYOTE_ cell: lack membrane-bound _ORGANELLES_ or nucleus.
          DNA present but not separated from the rest of the cell.
             _EUKARYOTE_ cell: contains many membrane-enclosed organelles
          including a _NUCLEUS_ which contains the cell’s _GENETIC_ info in the
          form of _DNA_.


      GENETIC CODE: ALL cells have heritable information in the form of a
       substance called _DNA_ (_DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID_), which compose your
       __GENES_, which make up _CHROMOSOME_ structures.
      __DNA__ carries information that gives instructions for EVERYTHING and is
       responsible for ALL cell processes, protein synthesis, development,
       reproduction, natural selection, diversity and evolution, among many many
       other things!
 FEEDBACK REGULATION in Biological Systems
      - The concept of SUPPLY-&-DEMAND is often displayed in biological systems.
      ~ Ex: If your body is exerting a lot of energy (_________________), your body will
        consume ____________ energy (sugar/__________ molecules); & if your body is
        resting, it will ____________ energy.
      - Biological processes self-regulate by a mechanism called FEEDBACK.
     NEGATIVE FEEDBACK: the most common form of regulation.
      - When the output/product of a process regulates that very process.
      - The more product that is produced, the process begins to ______________.
      ~Ex: the more you eat, the __________ food your body needs, and so you will
       ___________ down the process of eating.
     POSITIVE FEEDBACK: as the output/product is produced by a process, it
      ______________ up the process.
      ~ Ex: when you have a cut and you start to bleed, platelets begin to collect around
        the wound; the collecting platelets attract more platelets, creating a blood
        ___________ to seal the wound..
   Which feedback mechanism is represented during labor/giving birth?

      _____________________________________________________________________________



 HOW Do We Study Biology?
 ~The ___________________ Method~
       What has led to science? What has led to ANY discoveries EVER?!
         ____________________ leading to ___________________/CURIOUSITY!!! Curious
         people with curious minds like you!
            INQUIRY: at the heart of science, inquiry is a search for information and
             explanation. Making observations, seeing something, hearing something and
             wondering WHY?!
            OBSERVATIONS: the use of the ______________ to gather ____________________.
            DATA: evidence or information gathered from ____________________.
            HYPOTHESIS: a possible __________________ for a set of observations; a
             prediction attempting to explain things that have been observed.
                Based on ____________________.
               MUST be __________________!!! If you can’t “prove” it right or wrong, it can’t
                be a hypothesis! (“SUPPORT” is a better word)
                ~BAD HYPOTHESIS: “My hypothesis: The best color ever is blue!” Can you
                test it? _NO_! Therefore, it is __NOT__ a hypothesis!
                ~Good HYPOTHESIS: “My hypothesis: Students achieve better grades when
                they are organized.” Is it testable? _YES_, therefore it _IS__ a hypothesis!
               How do you know if a hypothesis is “correct” (supported) or not?
                 __TEST IT__/__EXPERIMENTS_, research or field studies.
           EXPERIMENTATION: a design to prove a hypothesis correct or incorrect by
            supporting or _REJECTING_ the hypothesis based on __DATA__ collected.
               Controlled experiment: an experimental design that attempts to isolate
                 only ___1__ changed variable. An _EXPERIMENTAL_ group (manipulated
                 variable) is compared to a ___CONTROL__ group (controlled variable).
           THEORY: a well-supported and _TESTES__ explanation that unifies a broad
            range of observations. Began as a _HYPOTHESIS__!
           LIMITATIONS of SCIENCE: “science” is limited to only what can be
            _______________, and either supported or _REJECTED_, and also
            __REPEATABLE__.
           EVOLUTION is NATURAL LAW!


 Diversity of Life:
   3 Domains of Life:
       _BACTERIA__
       Archaea
       __EUKARYA__
   Even though LIFE is very diverse, still UNIFIED! [Main Themes?]
       EVOLUTION: explains the wide __DIVERSITY__ among life.
         Ex. of a unifying characteristic in ALL living things: __DNA, EVOLUTION,
    CELLS, NEED E/METABOLIZE, REPRODUCE, MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS,
    GROW/DEVELOP, & RESPOND TO ENVIRONMENT__
         The Tree of __LIFE_ shows how all organisms are similar and connected in
            ways, but still have unique characteristics that make them different.

								
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