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AP BIOLOGY NAME:_______________________ DATE:_____________PER:_____ CH. 1 Beginning Our Exploration of Life Lecture Notes What Does Biology Study? ~Introduction~ The study of life spans from the tiny ___________________ scale to the larger _____________ scale of the entire LIVING PLANET. -it’s too hard to study on so many levels, so a division of levels is needed for organization: [“camera zoom”/REDUCTIONISM view or building blocks view] HIERARCHY of BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION: The “sphere of life” containing all life _________________________ and all its ecosystems. _________________________ “system”- a complex organization with many parts that work together & interact; non- _________________________ living with living, and living with other _________________________ living. _________________________ Balance- affecting one relationship may affect others! _________________________ As the levels increase in complexity, new _________________________ properties emerge (emergent properties) ~Ex:_______________________________________ _________________________ ___________________________________________ _________________________ Smallest unit of LIFE, because it can _________________________ perform all life __________________. Looking just at the process of photosynthesis, or a single cell, or a ladybug or a tree or a horse, is NOT enough! Looking at the BIG picture with all life’s connections and interactions is what AP Biology is all about! -1- Do you recall what makes something living??!! [Fig.1.3;8th] 1. ALL living things are made of ______________ 2. ALL require __________________; metabolism; ENERGY TRANSFER 3. maintain stable internal conditions; ______________________; REGULATION 4. _____________ & ___________________ 5. _______________________ 6. have ____________; genetic code; ORDER 7. respond to the ______________________ 8. _____________ over ____________; EVOLUTIONARY ADAPATATION CONNECTING THEMES!!! ______________________: The Overarching Theme of Biology! New properties emerge at each level of ___________________ at each level of the BIOLOGICAL _____________________ o EMERGENT PROPERTIES o REDUCTIONISM o SYSTEMS BIOLOGY INTERACTIONS with ENVIRONMENT ~ (exchanging _______________ & ______________) o ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS o ENERGY TRANSFER/CONVERSION STRUCTURE & FUNCTION CORRELATION CELLS as BASIC UNIT of __________________ & _________________ CONTINUITY of LIFE based on __________ REGULATION through FEEDBACK MECHANISMS o NEGATIVE FEEDBACK o POSITIVE FEEDBACK SCIENCE as a ________________; The __________________ ________________ SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY -2- BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS - “The whole is greater than the sum of its _____________” ~ Ex: a CELL is made of many parts (__________________), BUT all those parts combined TOGETHER make something even greater than just a bunch of parts together; together, they make a CELL function as a whole, enabling it to do more as a whole than each function of each individual part combined. ~ all the parts combined create a _______________ that can do many more functions as a ____________ than as individuals. ~ ______________________________________________________________________________ EMERGENT PROPERTIES: New properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of ___________, due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as ____________________ increases. - the more complex systems get as they combine parts, the more properties _______________ as a result. ~ Ex: your nerve cells alone can pass signals, but when combined with other nerve cells & other organs with similar functions (such as the spine) to form a _________________ (spec. the _________________ system), then the system as a whole has unique properties that the lower levels did not, resulting in __________________ & the ability to ________________. REDUCTIONISM: when complex systems are reduced into their smaller, simpler parts, it makes it easier to study. - Try studying ALL of life on the planet without having a system of smaller units or categories! ~ Ex: when scientists studied began studying the DNA molecule (a microscopic ______________________), it gave insights into the whole system of genetics for ALL of ____________, as a greater whole! ~ ______________________________________________________________________ -3- SYSTEMS BIOLOGY: attempts to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems. HOW EVERYTHING IS _______________________!!! - Enables scientists to _________________ how a change in one or more variables will affect other components and the whole system. ~ Ex: ________________________________________________________________ ~ Ex: ________________________________________________________________ ~ Ex: ________________________________________________________________ ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS: - ALL organisms interact continuously with its ____________________ (nonliving & living). ~ Ex: When you breathe, how are you are interacting with your environment? __________________________________________________________________________ ~ Ex: When you eat a steak, how are you are interacting with your environment? ____________________________________________________________ ~ Ex: When you die, how are you interacting with your environment? __________________________________________________________________________ - 2 major processes of Ecosystem Dynamics: o CYCLING __________________ [ex: dead, decomposing bodies] o FLOW of _________________! [“E”] ~ from the ___________ to ___________________ to _____________________! - PRODUCERS: convert ____________ energy to chemical ______________/________________ compounds. ~ Ex: _______________ - CONSUMERS: organisms that feed on _______________ [herbivores/_____________________] and other ________________ [carnivores___________________]. -4- ENERGY TRANSFER: - EVERYTHANG!, EVERY process, action, movement are “___________ “ for the cell, which all requires a source of [E]! PLANTS convert E from the __________ SUGAR (chemical E) ANIMALS convert E from SUGARS (chemical E) _____________ E SUN some is lost some is lost CELLS: EVERY movement you make, every ounce and inch of your body, even every thought is based on ___CELLS___ and their activities! ALL living things are composed of __CELLS__!!! 2 types: _PROKARYOTE_ cell: lack membrane-bound _ORGANELLES_ or nucleus. DNA present but not separated from the rest of the cell. _EUKARYOTE_ cell: contains many membrane-enclosed organelles including a _NUCLEUS_ which contains the cell’s _GENETIC_ info in the form of _DNA_. GENETIC CODE: ALL cells have heritable information in the form of a substance called _DNA_ (_DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID_), which compose your __GENES_, which make up _CHROMOSOME_ structures. __DNA__ carries information that gives instructions for EVERYTHING and is responsible for ALL cell processes, protein synthesis, development, reproduction, natural selection, diversity and evolution, among many many other things! FEEDBACK REGULATION in Biological Systems - The concept of SUPPLY-&-DEMAND is often displayed in biological systems. ~ Ex: If your body is exerting a lot of energy (_________________), your body will consume ____________ energy (sugar/__________ molecules); & if your body is resting, it will ____________ energy. - Biological processes self-regulate by a mechanism called FEEDBACK. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK: the most common form of regulation. - When the output/product of a process regulates that very process. - The more product that is produced, the process begins to ______________. ~Ex: the more you eat, the __________ food your body needs, and so you will ___________ down the process of eating. POSITIVE FEEDBACK: as the output/product is produced by a process, it ______________ up the process. ~ Ex: when you have a cut and you start to bleed, platelets begin to collect around the wound; the collecting platelets attract more platelets, creating a blood ___________ to seal the wound.. Which feedback mechanism is represented during labor/giving birth? _____________________________________________________________________________ HOW Do We Study Biology? ~The ___________________ Method~ What has led to science? What has led to ANY discoveries EVER?! ____________________ leading to ___________________/CURIOUSITY!!! Curious people with curious minds like you! INQUIRY: at the heart of science, inquiry is a search for information and explanation. Making observations, seeing something, hearing something and wondering WHY?! OBSERVATIONS: the use of the ______________ to gather ____________________. DATA: evidence or information gathered from ____________________. HYPOTHESIS: a possible __________________ for a set of observations; a prediction attempting to explain things that have been observed. Based on ____________________. MUST be __________________!!! If you can’t “prove” it right or wrong, it can’t be a hypothesis! (“SUPPORT” is a better word) ~BAD HYPOTHESIS: “My hypothesis: The best color ever is blue!” Can you test it? _NO_! Therefore, it is __NOT__ a hypothesis! ~Good HYPOTHESIS: “My hypothesis: Students achieve better grades when they are organized.” Is it testable? _YES_, therefore it _IS__ a hypothesis! How do you know if a hypothesis is “correct” (supported) or not? __TEST IT__/__EXPERIMENTS_, research or field studies. EXPERIMENTATION: a design to prove a hypothesis correct or incorrect by supporting or _REJECTING_ the hypothesis based on __DATA__ collected. Controlled experiment: an experimental design that attempts to isolate only ___1__ changed variable. An _EXPERIMENTAL_ group (manipulated variable) is compared to a ___CONTROL__ group (controlled variable). THEORY: a well-supported and _TESTES__ explanation that unifies a broad range of observations. Began as a _HYPOTHESIS__! LIMITATIONS of SCIENCE: “science” is limited to only what can be _______________, and either supported or _REJECTED_, and also __REPEATABLE__. EVOLUTION is NATURAL LAW! Diversity of Life: 3 Domains of Life: _BACTERIA__ Archaea __EUKARYA__ Even though LIFE is very diverse, still UNIFIED! [Main Themes?] EVOLUTION: explains the wide __DIVERSITY__ among life. Ex. of a unifying characteristic in ALL living things: __DNA, EVOLUTION, CELLS, NEED E/METABOLIZE, REPRODUCE, MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS, GROW/DEVELOP, & RESPOND TO ENVIRONMENT__ The Tree of __LIFE_ shows how all organisms are similar and connected in ways, but still have unique characteristics that make them different.
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