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Structure and Function of DNA Study Guide Vocabulary DNA Genome by wanghonghx


									                Structure and Function of DNA Study Guide

     DNA                                  Genome
     Replication                          Cloning
     RNA                                  Amino Acid
     Mutation                             Double Helix
     Pedigree                             Gene
     Selective Breeding                   Genetic Code
     Genetic Engineering

Main Ideas:
  1. DNA is the information molecule.
       DNA stores the information necessary for a cell to put together the
        correct sequence of amino acids needed to produce specific proteins.
       DNA is a spiral molecule made up of nucleotide bases: adenine,
        thymine, cytosine and guanine. It is the sequence of these bases that
        forms to code for making proteins.
       When a cell divides, DNA replicates itself. The DNA molecule
        separates and free nucleotides match up to each open strand.
  2. RNA is needed to make proteins.
       There are 3 kinds of RNA; messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and
        ribosomal RNA and they are used to make proteins. Transferring
        information from DNA to RNA is known as transcription. During this
        process, a strand of DNA is used to make a single strand of mRNA.
       The assembly of amino acids in their proper sequence to form a
        protein molecule is known as translation. Proteins are made on
  3. DNA sequences can change.
       Variations in DNA are what give organisms different characteristics.
        Any change to DNA is a mutation. Mutations can cause no effect, have
        a minor effect, or a great effect. Some mutations are harmful, such as
        those that result in genetic disorders. Other mutations can be
        beneficial if they improve and organism’s ability to survive or resist
  4. Mutations can cause genetic disorders.
       Mutations that affect the normal functioning of a cell can result in
        genetic diseases that are passed from parent to offspring.
       Pedigrees are diagrams of family relationships that include two or
        more generations. Genetic diseases can be traced through a pedigree.
  5. Changes in DNA can change an organism.
       Selective Breeding is controlled by crossing two organisms with
        desirable traits to produce those traits.
     Genetic Engineering is a process that allows humans to change the
      DNA of an organism by isolating it, changing it, and returning it to the
      organism or a different organism. The genetically modified organisms
      have the desired traits.
6. There are risks and benefits associated with genetic engineering and
   selective breeding.
    Genetic engineering allows scientists to produce organisms such as
      plants that produce more food, or are resistant to certain diseases or
      insects, or animals that are modified to grow faster. Scientists are
      uncertain how the genetically modified organisms might affect natural
      populations if they are interbred.
    Benefits of Selective Breeding
          a. No complicated techniques/equipment, just need knowledge of
             the crop
          b. Can be used to produce new crop varieties
          c. Does not involve danger of ill effects that may result from
             transferring genes across species
    Risks of selective breeding
          a. Lowers genetic diversity of a crop and weakens the crop if the
             environmental conditions change
          b. It is limited to related species
    Benefits of Genetic Engineering
          a. Allows scientists to extract single genes from one species and
             transfer it to another
          b. It is more precise than selective breeding because the gene that
             carries the desired trait is specifically targeted
          c. Can be used to produce crops that are intended for certain
             conditions such as salty soils, or reduced water availability
    Risks of Genetic Engineering
          a. Requires complicated techniques and equipment
          b. There is a possibility that selected traits might move from a
             genetically modified population into a natural population
          c. The added genes could have unknown ill effects on the
             environment, people or other organisms
7. DNA technology has many applications.
    DNA technology can be used to make foods more nutritious, produce
      better drugs for treating diseases, or screen for genetic disorders.
    DNA profiles, or fingerprints, are now being used to solve crimes.
      These profiles are unique and are based on about ten regions of DNA
      known to vary among individuals.
    Scientists studying genomes have been working toward sequencing all
      the nucleotide pairs in human DNA and have identified about 30,000
      genes within the human genome.
         Cloning is a technology that makes copies of DNA. It has been used
          to produce drugs to fight disease, as well as to affect the birth of
          animals that are genetically identical to each other.

Questions to think about:
  1. Who are/were James Watson and Francis Crick and how did they impact
      They are/were Scientists that made the first accurate model of DNA.
  2. Describe the shape of a DNA molecule and how nucleotide bases fit into
     that structure.
      DNA is a double spiral strand. The strands are held together by
         specific pairs of nucleotides.
  3. What is a mutation?
      Any change to the DNA of a cell.
  4. What are the four bases in a DNA molecule and which ones fit together?
      Adenine and Thymine
      Cytosine and Guanine
  5. What is a genetically modified organism?
      An organism that has had a gene from another species transferred to
         its DNA.
  6. What is the difference between selective breeding and genetic
    Selective Breeding – selecting parent organisms to pass their traits on to
       their offspring
    Genetic Engineering- isolating specific DNA, inserting it into another
  7. What are genes made up of?
      Nucleotides
  8. What is the genetic code?
      A sequence of bases in a strand of DNA
  9. What is a genome?
      All of the genetic material found within an organism.
  10.        What happens during replication?
      DNA is copied
  11.        What does a pedigree show?
      How genes are passed down from two or more generations.
  12.        What information does a DNA molecule carry?
      DNA carries instructions for making proteins.
   13.     What are the names of the four bases in a DNA molecule and
     which ones fit together?
      AdenineThymine
      Cytosine Guanine
   14.    What information does a DNA molecule carry?
   The genetic material found in all living cells that contains the
     information needed for an organism to grow, maintain itself and
15.     What does DNA stand for? Spelling counts.
      Deoxyribonucleic Acid
16.     Describe the shape of a DNA molecule and how bases fit into
  that structure. Draw a picture to illustrate this.
      A twisted ladder
      Sugars and phosphates on outside of double helix
         Bases in the middle (rungs) AdenineThymine, Cytosine
      Sugars connect to bases on outside
      Phosphates separate the sugars
17.     Who are the only people with the exact same genes?
      Identical Twins
18.     What information is contained in DNA?
      The genetic material found in all living cells that contains the
        information needed for an organism to grow, maintain itself
        and reproduce
19.     Where can genes be found?
      In a chromosome on a strand of DNA
20.     What is DNA made of?
      Sugars, Phosphates and nitrogen bases
21.     The outside of a DNA double helix is made up of what 2
      Sugars and Phosphates
22.     A protein is made of _____ consecutive bases. What is an
  example of this?
      3
23.     If you were given the letters,
24.     What are 4 combinations (or proteins) that could be made?
25.     What makes up the parts of a DNA molecule (rungs and
      Sides sugars and phosphates
      Rungs Nitrogen bases
  26.        Replication takes place during which phase of the cell cycle?
            Interphase
   27.       Why is replication important?
           To ensure that each new daughter cell has the correct genetic
             information to carry on all life activities.
Part 4Fill in the Blank:
1. Genetic Code: Scientists describe DNA as containing a code. A code is
a set of rules and symbols used to carry information.
2. Over the years, horses have become faster, corn has become sweeter,
and pigs have become leaner. These are all examples of Selective
3. A genetic disorder or disease is an example of a mutation.
4. Replication: The process by which DNA is copied before it condenses
into chromosomes.
5. Making plants more insect resistant is due to Genetic Engineering.
6. Dolly the sheep is an example of Cloning.
7. Deoxyribonucleic Acid: The genetic material found in all living cells
that contains the information needed for an organism to grow, maintain
itself and reproduce.
8. A family tree is an example of a Pedigree.
9. RNA: A molecule that carries genetic information from DNA to a
ribosome, where the genetic information is used to bring together amino
acids to form a protein.
10. Gene: The basic unit of heredity that consists of a segment of DNA on
a chromosome.
11. Proteins are made up of Amino Acids. Your body gets Amino Acids
from protein in food such as meat, eggs, cheese and some beans. After
taking in Amino Acids your body can use them to build proteins needed
for proper cell functioning. There are in fact 20 different Amino Acids. *
* The same vocab word is used throughout this sentence.
12. A double helix can be described as a Twisted Ladder.

Helpful Websites

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