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aTi SekiTxva saqarTvelos politikur ganviTarebaze

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					                 aTi SekiTxva saqarTvelos politikur ganviTarebaze
                                                                                       daviT .darCiaSvili

1. saqarTvelos jerac bevri aqvs misaRwevi konsolidirebuli da, rac mTavaria, liberalur-demokratiuli
   saxelmwifos mSeneblobis gzaze. es ukanaskneli saqarTvelosaTvis ulaternativoa imitom, rom a)
   adamianis TavisuflebisaTvis yvelaze ufro Sesaferisi formaa da, vfiqrob, qarTuli sociumis
   warmomadgenlebi Tavisuflebis moyvarulni arian; b) saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrioba didadaa davalebuli
   da damokidebuli swored liberalur-demokratiuli qveynebis mxardaWeraze.

   am etapze Seqmnilia zemoT naxsenebi miznis fundamenti – mosaxleobis sagrZnobi nawili gulwrfelad
   interesdeba saxelmwifoebriobiT, aRiqvams amgvar sazogadoebriv-politikur yofas seriozulad da
   sasurvelad miaCnia sakuTari TavisaTvis. es gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCino 2003 wlis Semdeg xdeba. 2003
   wlis revolucia ar moxdeboda, an mas sxva xasiaTi da lozungebi eqneboda, saxelmwifoebriv-
   moqalaqeobrivi gancda adreve rom ar Casaxuliyo qarTuli sazogadoebis arc Tu umniSvnelo nawilSi.

   qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis aRorZineba 80-iani wlebis miwuruls, pirvel rigSi, eTnikuri nacionalizma
   ganpiroba. es gancda, ideologia latenturad, ufro sworad, saxelmwifoebrivi proeqtis gareSe, aTeuli wlebis
   manZilze Rvioda sabWour-nomenklaturul safarqveS. meoce saukunis bolo or aTwleulSi ki man
   saxelmwifoebriobisaTvis brZolis saxe miiRo. miuxedavad imisa, rom Tavdapirvelma romantikulma, Tu
   eTnikurma nacionalizmma (erTi meores ar gamoricxavs) Tavisi gulubryvilobac aCvena, Seumdgarobac
   da, xSir SemTxvevaSi, antihumanizmic, igi mogvianebiT moZlierebuli samoqalaqo nacionalizmis
   safuZveli gaxda.

   dRes samoqalaqo nacionalizmi dominirebs oficialur diskursSi da igi umyarebs poziciebs, avsebs
   patriotuli duRabiT demokratiuli da adamianis uflebaTa universaluri imperativebis damkvidrebisaken
   swrafvas. am samoqalaqo nacionalizmis gareSe korufcias, organizebul danaSauls meti gasaqani
   eqneboda. sazogadoebis nacionalisturi TviTidentifikaciis gareSe demokratiuli keTildReobisaken swrafva
   ar iqneboda sakuTari poliTeas formirebaze orientirebuli da, Sesabamisad, gansakuTrebiT ki, saqarTvelos
   rTuli geopolitikis gamo isev arademokratiul tendenciebs miscemda gasaqans. saqarTvelo
   saxlemwifoebriobis gareSe mxolod ruseTs surs, iq ki, rogorc warsulSi, demokratiisagan Sors mdgomi
   procesebi mimdinareobs.

   da mainc, saxelmwifod qmnis qarTuli proeqti sanaxevrod Tua ganxorcielebuli. erTi, rasac qarTulma
   sazogadoebam da misma politikurma elitam ver miaRwia – politikuri kulturis radikaluri Secvla, misi
   evro-atlantikur analogTan daaxlovebaa. Tumca aq pliusebic SeiZleba davinaxoT – Cveni politikuri
   kultura, Tu saerTod, Tanacxovrebis wesebi da Rirebulebebi sulac araa moklebuli Rirsebebs. magram
   mTlianobaSi es gvacilebs Cveni usafrTxoebis mTavari garantorisagan – rogorc evrokavSiris, ise amerikis
   SeerTebuli Statebisagan.

   saqme SemdegSia:

   dasavleTSi adamianebi, gansakuTrebiT, CvenTvis sayuradRebo politikosebi da sajaro moxeleni did
   mniSvnelobas aniWeben qcevis SemuSavebul wesebs, nabijebis dagegmvas, politikur koreqtulobas
   rogorc leqsikaSi, ise qmedebaSi. mTlianobaSi, esaa saukuneobrivi gamocdilebiT daRdasmuli _ egeb
   daRlilic ki _ politikuri kultura. mas aeWvebs moulodnelobebi: SemTxveviTi araa, rom avRaneTSi 2001

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wlidan Sesuli amerikuli samxedro administracia saqmis daWeras arCevda ufro winaswarmetyvelebad
“vorlordebTan” Tu “strongmenebTan”, vidre misTvis bevrad ufro ucnob da gaugebar religiur Tu
tomobriv liderebTan – im daSvebiTa da aRiarebiT, rom pirvelni, moralurad, SesaZloa bevrad ufro
saeWvoni yofiliyvnen.

meore, dasavleTma ar icis, mas ar surs samyaros Sav-TeTri xedva. relatiuroba yvelaferSia. dasavluria Ria
sazogadoebis koncefcia, romlis Tanaxmad verc erTi Teoria Tu jgufi ver daiCemebs sayovelTao
monopolias WeSmaritebaze. amas efuZneba adamianis uflebebic. garkveulwilad, amis erTgvari
miviwyebaa buSis bolodroindeli dasustebis mizezic. aq aRarafers vambob kanonis uzenaesobis, interesTa
konfliqtis gacxovelebul gancdaze dasavleTSi.

samwuxarod, es, mTlianobaSi janmrTeli principebi, romlis janmrTeloba dasavluri politikuri da
ekonomikuri sistemebis warmatebulobaSi Cans, zogjer atrofirebulad xisti, biurokratiuli saxiT vlindeba. es
adamianuri sisusteebidan Tu unarSezRudulobidanac momdinareobs. Sedegad xSiria, rom dasavluri
biurokratiis arc Tu yovelTvis warmatebuli da mowinave nawili, romelic saqarTvelos msgavs qveynebSi
axorcielebs humanitarul, ganviTarebis Tu demokratizaciis proeqtebs, adgilobriv sazogadoebriv-politikur
niuansebSi garkvevas instruqciebisadmi zedmetad xist ndobas amjobinebs. igi cdilobs, adgilobrivi
realoba moargos demokratiis, kanonis uzenaesobis, adamianis uflebebis principebs, rogoradac isini
sakuTar cnobierebaSi gardatexili instruqciebidan warmoudgenia. SesaZloa, es ar iyos yovelTvis
saukeTeso meTodi liberalur-demokratiuli sicocxlisunariani sistemis aSenebisa. sapirispiros dajereba xom
swored dasavluri relatiurobisagan, Ria sazogadoebis principebisagan gadaxveva da Sav-TeTri azrovneba
iqneboda. yovel SemTxvevaSi cxadia, rom kanonis uzenaesobisa da demokratiis damkvidrebis tempebi
erovnuli da regionuli usafrTxoebis imperativebTan misadagebiT unda gadiodes Semowmebas.

magram davubrundeT Cveni politikuri kulturis Suq-Crdilebs: CvenTan dRes Semodis dasavluri
institutebisa da politikuri kulturis gageba, magram gulubryviloba, infantilizmi, mouTmenloba daZleuli
araa. igi airekleba “kargi” da “cudi”, “swori” da “araswori” kategoriebiT operirebis popularobaSi, rasac,
nebsiT Tu uneblieT, zogierTi saerTaSoriso saagentos warmomadgenelis sixistec uwyobs xels.

saqarTveloSi jer kidev dominirebs msoflaRqma, rom kargi isaa, rac mis ganmcdel subieqts kargi da swori
hgonia. Sedegad, politikaSi viRebT xolme imis recidivebs, rasac rusuli xalxuri sibrZne Semdegi
gamoTqmiT gamoxatavs: “ia naCalnik, ti durak, ti naCalnik, ia durak”. Tumca, ruseTisas aq ar vityvi,
magram qarTuli problema (an egeb Sansic) imaSia, rom “naCalniki” pirobiTi cnebaa, uSualo
Tanamdebobriv simaRles ar ukavSirdeba da Zalian bevrs, miuxedavad statusisa, Tavi WeSmaritebis da
sibrZnis gansaxierebad miaCnia.

Sedegad, politikur wreebSi kvlavac prevalirebs gautanloba, kompromisis miRwevis usurveloba da
uunaroba, Zalis demonstrirebis, daSineba-daSantaJebis taqtika da yovelive amiT sulac araa gamorCeuli
marto xelisuflebis mavani da mavani warmomadgeneli. Tanac, xelisuflebaSi aqvT meti informacia,
ukeTesi simaRle saerTo suraTis dasanaxad da egeb metsac fiqroben dialogis saWiroebaze oponentTa
nawilTan mainc. magram, saboloo jamSi, aseTi ram metad nela da mtkivneulad Tu xdeba. undobloba
prevalirebs.




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   Sedegi ki isaa, rom dasavluri samyaros gansakuTrebulad daRlili da frTxili nawili, an isini, visac msoflio
   movlenebi zogadi instruqciebis da saxelmZRvaneloebis eniT esmis, saqarTveloSi sakuTari eWvebisa da
   urTierTobis usurvelobis gamamarTlebel argumentebs eZeben da pouloben kidec.

   sxva, geopolitikur, Tu demokratizaciis naklovanebaTagan momdinare mizezebTan erTad, es socialur-
   fsiqologiuri mizezi mniSvnelovani mgonia imis asaxsnelad, rom ar viciT, 2008 wlisaTvis nato-s kars
   mivukakunebT, Tu ruseTi warmatebiT Segvixsnis jer kidev darCenil romeliRac kars.

   gamosavali erTia: socialur antropologiaSi, istorikosTa Tu socialur dargTa sxva ganStoebebis
   warmomadgenelTa Soris cnobilia – Rirebulebebi, simboloebi, sityvebi istoriulad da kulturuladaa
   determinirebuli. erTi da igive movlenebi, faqtebi, sityvebSi gamoTqmuli cnebebi da principebi
   sxvadasxva epoqebsa da kulturebSi gansxvavebul mniSvnelobebs iZens. Sesabamisad, sazogadoebrivi
   kulturis, socialuri fsiqologiis siRrmeebia “dasalaSqri”, raTa rogorc qarTul-evropul, ise Sida qarTul
   dialogsa da urTierTgagebas soliduri safuZveli Caeyaros.


2. zviad gamsaxurdia namdvilad ar iyo gaunaTlebeli an sruliad moklebuli politikur alRosa da logikas.
   sxvagvarad igi popularuli ki SeiZleba gamxdariyo (preindustriul, da ara marto preindustriul kulturebSi
   masobrivi fsiqozebi ar gamoiricxeba), magram saarCevno blok mrgval magidas ver Seqmnida da jerac
   sabWoTa kavSiris arsebobis dros, arCevnebSi monawileobasa da mogebas ver Tu ar moaxerxebda. rigi
   mogonebebi, angariSebi Tu reportaJebi aCvenebs, rom misTvis ucxo ar iyo fiqri Semdgomi Taobis
   politikosTaTvis sanukvar evraziul energo-sakomunikacio derefanzec. man moaxerxa qarTuli
   eTnonacionalisturi energiis akumulireba da warmarTva rogorc sabWouri nomenklaturis winaaRmdeg, ise
   damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebriobis sasargeblod. samwuxarod, eTnikuri umciresobebis interesebisa Tu
   aRqmebis ignorirebam, Sidapolitikuri da socialuri dialogis usurveloba/uunarobam da sabWoTa centris
   jerac gauxunarma gavlenebma gamsaxurdias reJimi kraxiT daasrula.

   gamsaxurdias reJimma raime mkafio saxiT Camoyalibeba ver moaswro. mogvianebiT dadioda xumroba _
   kiTxva: ra gansxvavebaa gamsaxurdias da SevardnaZis mmarTvelobebs Soris? pasuxi: pirvels ar acales,
   meores ki acales. magram gamokveTili tendenciebiT igi populisturi da infantiluri, Sesabamisad, metad
   aramyari politikuri sistemis konturebs iZenda.

   gamsaxurdias ar aRmoaCnda unari, Seeqmna da gaekontrolebina loialuri da qmedunariani uSiSroebisa da
   wesrigis damcavi struqturebi. imavdroulad, eTnosocialisturi populizmis momZlavrebis fonze, man
   gaiucxova ara mxolod gviansabWouri, burJuaziulobis elementSeparuli nomenklatura da kriminaluri
   samyaro, aramed individualuri Tavisuflebis gamomxatveli akademiur-studenturi wreebic. am fonze rigi
   politikuri partiebis ganawyeneba, romelnic ufro ramdenime lideris irgvliv darazmuli klientelisagan
   Sedgeboda, vidre Camoyalibebuli eleqtoratis soliduri segmentebisagan, SedarebiT meorexarisxovan
   problemas warmoadgenda.

   mniSvnelovnad negatiuri roli Seasrula gamsaxurdias uaxloesma, ZiriTdad, arakompetenturma an/da
   angarebianma garemocvamac.

   mokled, gamsaxurdiam ramdenime TveSi moaxerxa, sakuTari socialuri dasayrdeni saxifaTod
   daeviwroebina. igi, ZiriTadad, daeyrdno mxolod “karis kamarilias” da naklebad gaTviTcnobierebuli,

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   dabali socialuri klasebis ambivalentur masas. mis winaaRmdeg ki gamovida Sida politikuri opozicia,
   liberalurad ganwyobili inteleqtualuri fenebi, komerciiT dakavebuli nairferi wre, Zveli nomenklatura,
   axalgazrda “quCis elita”, kriminaluri samyaro da erovnul umciresobaTa organizebuli nawili. am Zalebs
   arc erTmaneTTan hqondaT saerTo da arc kremlTan iyvnen dakavSirebulni. magram is, rom
   gamsaxurdias reJimi ruseTidan zurgSemagrebulma SeiaraRebulma xalxma daamxo, Tavad gamsaxurdias
   araadekvaturi saSinao politikis Sedegi ufroa, vidre konspiratorTa profesionalizmis.

   arc isaa dasaviwyebeli, rom gamsaxurdias drama TamaSdeboda qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis
   CamoyalibebisaTvis arc Tu xelsayrel garemoSi: arc evropis kavSiri da arc aSS ar iyo momarTuli imaze,
   rom ssrk-is daSlisTvis xeli Seewyo. baltiis qveynebis damoukideblobis aqtiuri mxardaWera erTgvar
   gamonakliss warmoadgenda.

3. SevardnaZis meore epoqa – saqarTveloSi misi “meored mosvla” _ romelic 1992-2003 wlebs moicavs,
   gansxvavebuli etapebiT xasiaTdeboda. dasawyisSi, daaxloebiT 1995 wlis Suaxanebamde igi Zalauflebis
   konsolidaciis problemiT iyo dakavebuli. am dros SevardnaZe aTavsebda “vorlordebTan”
   TanamSromlobisa da mravalricxovani politikuri partiebisaTvis Tanabari Sansis micemis demokratiul
   impulsebs. Sesabamisad, gamsaxurdias damamxobel nairfer ZalTaTvis igi met-naklebad misaRebi figura
   rCeboda. magram TiToeul am Zalas Tavisi interesebi da xedva hqonda, risi dabalansebac dausruleblad
   ver gagrZeldeboda. rogorc istoriam aCvena, sakuTari interesi da xedva hqonda SevardnaZesac.

   am dros SevardnaZe iTvleboda Seucvlel alternativad, radgan moqalaqeTa umetesobas arc samoqalqo
   omSi Cabmuli gamsaxurdias momxreebi da arc meore mxares mdgomi kitovanisa da jaba ioselianis
   razmebi ar exateboda gulze; arc erTi da arc meore ar iZleoda stabilurobis, demokratiis da nacionaluri
   amocanebis gadawyvetis imedebs. politikuri partiebis miriadebSi garkveva ki obieqturad iyo rTuli.
   arsebobda ramdenime met-naklebad respeqtabeluri politikuri jgufi, magram maTi profesiuli da
   eleqtolaruli SesaZleblobebi arasodes iyo damaimedebeli.

   SevardnaZes hqonda sagareo politikuri xiblic; mis mosvlas daerTo saqarTvelos aRiareba saerTaSoriso
   samarTlis subieqtad, rac ssrk-is formalur daSlas mohyva. SevardnaZes icnobdnen saerTaSoriso wreebSi,
   rogorc ssrk-is gardaqmnis droindel liberal sagareo saqmeTa ministrs. es iZleoda rogorc materialur
   dividendebs sagareo politikuri daxmarebis saxiT, ise sazogadoebriv-fsiqologiur komfortsa da daimedebas,
   rom eTnikur da samoqalaqo konfliqtebSi gaxveul qveyanas adre Tu gvian igi fons gaiyvanda.

   1995 wels es droc TiTqos dadga. marTalia afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTze kontrolis ruseTisaTvis
   gadacemis da dsT-Si Sesvlis fonze, rac rusul orbitaze nawilobriv dabrunebad aRiqmeboda, magram
   SevardnaZem moaxerxa samoqalaqo omis dasruleba da ukontrolo SeiaraRebuli formirebebis alagmva.

   axali konstitucia prezidents, anu SevardnaZes, saparlamento kontrolisagan sakmaod daculs xdida.
   magram arc mas SeeZlo parlamentis daTxova da verc politikuri speqtris srul gakontrolebasa Tu
   unificirebas axerxebda. arsebiTi iyo biznesisaTvis aqamde arnaxulad xelSemwyobi garemos formireba,
   rac rigi kanonebiT da policiisaTvis funqciis dabrunebiT iqna miRweuli.

   magram daaxloebiT 1999 wlidan qveyanaSi kidev erTi etapi daiwyo. igic ar iyo Tavisufali
   paradoqsebisagan. am wels saqarTvelo dsT-is koleqtiuri uSiSroebis xelSekrulebidan gamovida da evropis
   sabWos wevri gaxda, rasac samarTaldacvis sistemaSi rigi reformebi uZRoda win. Tavdacvis uwyebaSi

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   rusi generlebi prodasavlurma xelmZRvanelobam Caanacvla. odnav adre aRsrulda sanukvari ocnebac –
   saqarTvelo azerbaijanuli navTisa da gazis dasavleTisaken transportirebis derefnad gamocxadda.

   magram, imavdroulad daiwyo axali konstituciuri sistemis ryeva, axalgazrda qarTuli saxelmwifos
   sasicocxlo funqciebis atrofia. TvalSi sacemi gaxda parlamentis Camoyalibeba kerZo biznesisa Tu
   saxelmwifo sawarmoebis aqciaTa araformalur birJad. paralelurad, momZlavrebulma policiam Tavze aiRo
   biznesis reketisa, Tu “mfarvelobis” funqcia, rasac adre ukontrolo SeiaraRebuli formirebebi
   axorcielebdnen. reformadawyebuli sasamarTlo da advokatura agreTve gaexva korufciuli garigebebis
   qselSi. rac mTavaria, klanuri mmarTvelobis formirebis procesSi CaerTo organizebuli damnaSaveobis
   samyaroc, rac bunebrivad xdeba myife da korumpirebul politikur sistemebSi. TandaTan gaugebari
   xdeboda, policiis maralCinosnebi da gavleniani politikosebi iyenebdnen zogjer kriminaluri samyaros
   samsaxurs Tu piriqiT. 21-e saukunis damdegs biznesis ori mesamedidan oTx mexuTedamde CrdilSi
   aRmoCnda moqceuli. qveyana miuaxlovda politikur mecnierebebSi cnobil “mafiis mier dominirebuli
   saxelmwifos” models, sadac moqalaqeebi, saxelmwifo organoebis nacvlad, kriminalebs mimarTaven
   garkveuli dacvisa da garantiebisaTvis.

   paradoqsi ki savaraudod unda aixsnas Semdegi garemoebebiT:

   a) sazogadoebas saxelmwifoebrivi cxovrebis mxolod survili hqonda, gamocdileba ki ara. Tu aseT
      viTarebaSi Tavad mmarTveli elita ar aiRebda politikur pasuxismgeblobas, ar gamoiCenda uryev
      nebas Sesabamisi institutebis ara mxolod qaRaldze SenebisaTvis, yovelive iolad dabrundeboda
      qaosisa da korufciis morevSi;
   b) SevardnaZe ar aRmoCnda strategiuli xedvis mqone da xangrZlivvadiani gegmebis ganmaxorcielebeli
      politikosi. mas araferi hqonda sawinaaRmdego, Tu demokratiuli stabiluroba TavisiT aidgamda
      saqarTveloSi fexs. magram aseTi ram TavisiT ar xdeba. sakuTari Zalauflebis konsolidaciis Semdeg
      SevardnaZem TiTqos dakarga Semdgomi moRvaweobis da brZolis interesi. misi ojaxis wevrebi
      axlad formirebuli klanebis ganuyofel nawilad iqcnen.

   rCeboda kidev erTi, arsebiTi gadauwyveteli problema, romelic SevardnaZes ar aZlevda saSualebas
   Camoyalibebuliyo Tavis xedvebSi qarTuli saxelmwifos ZiriTadi momxmarebelisa da Semoqmedis –
   qarTveli eris raobis Taobaze. dauregulirebeli afxazuri da samxreT osuri konfliqtebis fonze SevardnaZe
   meryeobda rogorc eris samoqalaqo da eTnikur koncefciebs, ise prorusulsa da prodasavlur sagareo
   politikur orientaciebs Soris. ramdenadac dasavleTidan izrdeboda ukmayofileba saqarTvelos saxelmwifos
   Seumdgarobis gamo, imdenad Tavad SevardnaZe, romelsac ar aRmoaCnda negatiuri dinamikis kidev
   erTxel Semobrunebis unari, instiqturad ruseTisaken ixreboda.

   da mainc, wlebs mohqonda sazogadoebaSi samoqalaqo Segnebis zrda, problemebis gacnobierebis unari.
   amas xels uwyobda politikuri da media pluralizmi, aseve samoqalaqo organizaciebis formireba da
   gamravleba _ SevardnaZis reJimis kidev erTi, amjerad ukve dadebiTi maxasiaTebeli. Sedegad, am
   faqtorebma Tu Zalebma, romelTa formirebas Tavad SevardnaZemac Seuwyo xeli, maTive idealebisagan
   ganmdgari xadazmuli prezidenti daamxo.

4. 2003 wlis noembris movlenaTa oficialuri, ukve saerTaSorisodac, aRiarebuli definiciiT, es iyo
   mSvidobiani, demokratiuli, e.w. feradi revolucia, rogori saxeliTac zogierTi komunisturi/avtoritaruli
   reJimebis transformaciis process aRniSnaven. ra Tqma unda, arian am definiciaTa oponentebic –

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ZiriTadad, SeTqmulebaTa Teoriis mimdevarTa, an/da Zveli reJimis momxreTa Soris. arsebiTad,
Sefaseba mravalgvari SeiZleba iyos, radgan socialuri movlenebi, ZiriTadad, gonebaSi, cnobierebaSi
xdeba, an airekleba. politikuri simpaTia-antipaTiebisagan gandgomis maqsimalurad SesaZlebeli
zRvridan, me mainc revoluciad Sevafasebdi am movlenebs.

revoluciebis TeoriaTa ganmartebebis Tanaxmad, msgavsi movlenisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia masobrivi
frustracia arsebuli socialur-ekonomikuri situaciiT; revolucia dakavSirebulia socialuri sistemis
Semadgeneli nawilebis – politikuri, kulturuli da sxva qvesistemebis, resursebisa da moTxovnilebebis –
disbalansTan; revolucia niSnavs politikuri reJimis damxobas masobrivi moZraobis mier
eqstrakonstituciuri gziT; revolucia gulisxmobs ara mxolod masobriv mobilizaciasa da reJimis cvlas,
aramed Tanamdev fundamentalur socialur, ekonomikur da kulturul cvlilebebs; revolucias agreTve
akavSireben sazogadoebis saxelmwifo da klasobrivi struqturis swraf gardaqmnebTan, rac elitaTa da dabal
klasTa konfliqtebis fonze xorcieldeba. Tanamedrove mkvlevarebi gazrdil yuradRebas aqceven rvoluciebis
ideologiur-kulturul Semadgenelsac.

revoluciebi SeiZleba iyos SedarebiT mSvidobiani an sisxliani. ajanyebebi Tu gadatrialebani imiTaa
gansxvavebuli, rom es ukanasknelni ar gardaqmnian institutebs da arc cdiloben Zalauflebis Secvlis
specialur samarTlebriv-ideologiur gamarTlebas.

ra Tqma unda, arc erTi konkretul-istoriuli movlena srulad ar imeorebs romelime Teorias, abstraqtul-
idealur tips. qarTuli vardebis revolucia unikaluria rogorc saerTod, revoluciebis, ise e.w. feradi
revoluciebis rigSi. magram igi revoluciaa, radgan SevardnaZis reJimma sabolood masobrivi
ukmayofileba gamoiwvia; mis oponentebs aRmoaCndaT imis Zala da unari, rom aTeuli aTasobiT
moqalaqis mobilizacia moexdinaT dReebis ganmavlobaSi; xelisuflebis cvla ver Caetia konstituciur
farglebSi; daiwyo da grZeldeba rogorc institutebis, ise sazogadoebis socialuri struqturis transformacia:
Seicvala rogorc konstituciuri balansi saxelmwifo institutebs Soris, ise elitaTa Semadgenlobac. is faqti,
rom rogorc politikur, ise ekonomikur elitaSi arian Zveli reJimis warmomadgenlebic, am cvlilebas ar
ewinaaRmdegeba: sxva Tu araferi, am konkretul adamianTa rolebic sakmaodaa saxecvlili. dabolos,
oficialur ritorikaSi, simboloebsa Tu ganaTlebis sistemaSi momxdari cvlilebebi aSkarad mianiSnebs
kulturul-ideologiur transformaciaze.

aRsaniSnavia is, rom, garda politikuri opoziciisa, revoluciaSi mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa ramdenime
samoqalaqo organizaciam. process hyavda ara, ubralod, organizaciuli, aramed ideologiuri
xelmZRvaneloba, romelsac gaaCnda xedva da icoda, ra fundamentur gardaqmnas unda Cayroda
safuZveli qveyanaSi da rogor.

axali qarTuli politikuri reJimi, romelic samarTlianad asocirdeba, upirveles yovlisa, saakaSvilTan,
revoluciuricaa da gardamavalic. kanonis uzenaesobis principi araa uaryofili – mmarTvel elitaSi Zlieria
konsensusi liberaluri demokratiis mSeneblobasa da evroatlantikur sivrceSi integraciaze, kanonis
uzenaesoba ki amis winapirobaa. magram praqtikuli gardaqmna Seferilia revoluciuri procesebiT da
ganicdis erovnuli usafrTxoebis, kontrrevoluciasa da organizebul damnaSaveobasTan brZolis imperativTa
problemur zegavlenas. es Cans calkeul institutTa da konkretul figuraTa politikuri wonis araproporciul
zrdaSic da eqstra-samarTlebriv qmedebebSic.




                                                                                                      6
   sadavoa revoluciuri reJimis oponentTa mtkiceba, rom yovelive es axali elitis warmomadgenelTa
   Zalauflebis Tu simdidris moyvareobiT xdeba mxolod. xSir SemTxvevebSi qarTuli kanonmdebloba,
   ubralod, uZluri aRmoCnda uzrunveleyo korufciuli Tu kriminaluri garigebebiT biujetisaTvis miyenebuli
   zaralis gamosworeba _ am garigebaTa ukan arsebuli qselebis Tu “samkuTxedebis” daSla. Sedegad,
   ukanonobasTan brZolis simZime gadavida ara sasamarTlos, aramed aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis mxrebze.

   ra Tqma unda, es sariskoa. iseve rogorc riskis Semcvelia saakaSvilis opoziciis umniSvnelo
   warmomadgenloba parlamentsa da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebSi. cnobilia, Zalaufleba
   “ryvnis”. samarTlianobis dasacavad sakmarisi arasodes yofila samarTlian adamianTa mmarTveloba:
   saWiroa Sesabamisi institutebi. magram aranakleb saSiSia institutTa da politikur ZalTa iseTi balansi,
   romelic gadawyvetilebis miRebis SeuZleblobas iwvevs an kriminalur da qsenofobiur ZalTa revanSs;
   swored es Zalebi iyvnen gavlenianni SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis bolo periodSi.

   es problematika _ avtoritarizmisa da kanonis uzenaesobis, liberalizmis da demokratiis balansi –
   saakaSvilis xelisuflebis mTavari dilemaa. kidev ufro mZimdeba situacia imiT, rom es dilema
   moqmedebaSia sakmaod rTul sagareo politikur fonze. rusuli xelisufleba ar malavs saakaSvilis reJimis
   damxobis survils. isic cxadia, rom kremlis survili demokratiis uangaro erTgulebidan ar modis; da Tu
   amas miaRwia, saqarTveloSi stabiluri liberalur-demokratiuli saxelmwifos Senebis proeqti, romelic
   amJamad met-naklebad xorcieldeba, didi xniT gadaideba.

   saakaSvilis mmarTvelobis warmatebebi Semdegia: man sazogadoebas daubruna saxelmwifoebrivi
   aRmSeneblobis unarisa da SesaZleblobis rwmena. kriminali, korufcia aRaraa dausjeli da Znelia am faqtis
   ara mxolod struqturuli, aramed kulturuli mniSvnelobis gadafaseba. sarisko, magram axali
   SesaZleblobebis momtani dinamika SeiZina qarTul-afxazurma da qarTul-osurma urTierTobebma.
   moxerxa nato-sTan intensiuri dialogis dawyeba, axali, mravalmilioniani daxmarebebisa da investiciebis
   miReba. ra Tqma unda, procesi arc dasrulebulia da arc Seuqcevadi, ris mizezebzec zemoT mqonda
   saubari. imedia, rom zemoT naxsenebi dilemis saSiSi xasiaTi sworadaa gacnobierebuli mmarTvel elitaSi
   da uaxloesi ori weli kanonis uzenaesobis principis ganmtkicebasac moxmardeba.

   gansakuTrebiT xazgasasmeli ki ganaTlebasa da kulturul-ideologiur sferoSi mimdinare siaxleebia.
   pirvelad damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg, ganaTlebis saxelmwifoebrivi sistema da axlad Seqmnili
   sazogadoebrivi mauwyebeli iwyebs samoqalaqo, Ria sazogadoebis principebis danergvas. amis
   dadasturebaa axali erovnuli saswavlo gegma, sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis eTikis kodeqsi, ganaxlebuli
   fakultetebi or wamyvan universitetSi da axal gadacemaTa cikli sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis arxze.


5. opoziciis sisuste, rac saxezea, nawilobriv, Tavad revoluciis Sedegia. dauWira ra mxari revolucias da mis
   liders, sazogadoebis didma nawilma uaryo revoluciis uarismyofelebi. magram es ar da ver iqneba
   erTaderTi mizezi. Tanac revoluciidan sami weli gavida. Tavad revolucionerTa Soris Caisaxa axali
   opozicia. izrdeba ukmayofilo rigiT moqalaqeTa raodenobac, radgan arc erTi revolucia Tu Cveulebrivi
   saxelisuflo cvlileba ar da ver akmayofilebs yvelas molodinebs.

   aseT fonze, wesiT, savaraudoa opoziciis reitingis TandaTanobiTi zrda. magram qveynis politikur
   sazogadoebaSi ZalTa amJamindeli balansis seriozuli cvlileba mosalodneli ar aris, Tu Tavad xelisuflebis
   mxridan ar iqna daSvebuli dramatuli Secdomebi. amis mizezebi Semdegia:

                                                                                                         7
a) saakaSvili qarizmatul liderad Camoyalibda. miuxedavad imisa, rom mas zogjer axasiaTebs
   emociuri toni da kritikis miuRebloba, igi rCeba yvelaze popularul politikosad. mas aRmoaCnda
   unari naCqarevi nabijebisa Tu gancxadebebis Semobruneba/Secvlisa; kritikul viTarebebSi
   situaciidan minimaluri danakargebiT gamosvlisa. bolo dromde igi axerxebda populizmis,
   nacionalizmis da samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos SenebisaTvis Sesaferisi ritorikis imdagvar balanss,
   rogoric unarCunebda mxardaWeras gansxvavebuli interesebisa da msoflmxedvelobis
   sazogadoebriv wreebSi. mosalodneli araa, rom man uaxloes TvalsawierSi dakargos es unarebi.

b) qarTul sazogadoebas, Cans, surs am gardamaval etapze Zlieri da popularuli lideri. mosaxleobis
   didi nawilis socialuri SekveTa wesrigi da ekonomikuri zrdaa. miuxedavad orive sferoSi arsebuli
   problemebisa, sazogadoeba amCnevs pozitiur cvlilebebs SevardnaZis “uJamobasTan” SedarebiT.

c) amJamindeli konstituciuri modeli da saarCevno sistema xels uwyobs principis _ gamarjvebuls
   miaqvs yvelaferi _ damkvidrebas. mmarTveli partiis lideris popularobasTan erTad, demokratiuli
   arCevnebis qarTuli sistema da prezidentis uflebamosilebaTa sifarTove opoziciis Sansebs
   amcirebs.

d) opozicias uWirs Camoayalibos mkafio da mosaxleobis didi nawilis socialur-ekonomikur
   moTxovnilebebze adekvaturad mopasuxe saarCevno programis. calkeuli opoziciuri partiebi amas
   met-naklebad axerxeben, magram cal-calke maTi Zalebi metad mcirea. gaerTianebisaTvis
   saWiro platforma ki ar arsebobs. Tanac opozicia irCevs xelisuflebis ukiduresad radikaluri kritikis
   gzas. amiT igi TiTqos baZavs saakaSvils, romelic Seurigebeli iyo SevardnaZesTan dapirispirebis
   dros. magram aseTi taqtika mxolod ukiduresad warumatebeli da arapopularuli xelisuflebis dros
   Tu amarTlebs. opoziciis didi nawili Zveli, sazogadoebisaTvis kargad nacnobi saxeebisagan
   Sedgeba da naklebad savaraudoa, rom am saxeebma SeZlon imaze meti popularobis mopoveba,
   rac aqamde SeZles. axali saxeebi, romlebic opozicionerTa rigebSi dro da dro Cndebian, ver
   axerxeben seriozuli konkurencia gauwion ara mxolod xelisuflebas, aramed opoziciis tradiciul
   saxeebsac.

    opozicia sakuTar warumateblobebs, rogorc wesi, xsnis misi momxreebis (gansakuTrebiT,
    biznesis wridan) daSinebiT, saarCevno sistemiT, romelic Zlieris kidev ufro gaZlierebas
    emsaxureba, da arCevnebis gayalbebebiT. es ukanaskneli argumenti yvelaze ufro nakleb
    sarwmunoa: mas ar iziarebs revoluciis Semdgomi arCevnebis saerTaSoriso Tu adgilobrivi
    damkvirveblebis arc erTi angariSi. ra Tqma unda, calkeuli darRvevebi arCevnebis dros xdeboda
    da xdeba. magram isini namdvilad ver TamaSoben gadamwyvet rols opoziciis sisusteSi.

    rac Seexeba meore mizezs, igi gasaTvaliswinebelia. arc saparlamento arCevnebis 7%-iani barieri
    da arc Tbilisis sakrebulos arCevnebis Sereuli sistema ar uwyobs xels pluralizmis kultivirebas
    arCeviT organoebSi. magram arc imis Tqma SeiZleba, rom es sistemebi calsaxad
    arademokratiulia. rogorc iTqva, msgavsi wesebi opoziciisagan met Zalisxmevasa da
    gaerTianebas iTxovs.

    rac Seexeba opoziciis momxre biznes-wreebis daSinebas xelisuflebis mxridan, msgavsi braldeba
    udavod imsaxurebs specialur kvlevas. Tu dadasturdeba daSinebis/SantaJis konkretuli magaliTebi,

                                                                                                   8
          rasac Tavad biznesmenTa samoqalaqo gambedaoba da sasamarTlosTan TanamSromloba
          sWirdeba, xelisufleba ver aaridebs Tavs pasuxismgeblobas. magram aq saqme SeiZleba iyos ara
          mxolod samarTlebriv, aramed sistemur socialur- politikur da fsiqologiur problemasTan: qarTuli
          biznesis didi nawili Crdilovani warsulidan modis. Sesabamisad, igi instituciurad aris
          dainteresebuli xelisuflebasTan siaxloviT, loialurobiT, raTa ar dakargos arc Tu kanonieri gziT
          naSovni poziciebi. aseT viTarebaSi nebismier xelisuflebas uCndeba didi cduneba – isargeblos
          TviTmiznurad biznesis politikuri sisustiT. es qveynis liberalur-demokratiuli ganviTarebisaTvis
          seriozuli problemaa, magram saeWvoa, rom maqsimaluri mondomebis SemTxvevaSic ki, mis
          aRmofxvras wlebi ar dasWirdes.

          msgavsi problemaa samarTaldamcavi organoebisa da sasamarTlos urTierTobaSic. es ukanaskneli
          bolo dromde korumpirebuli da arakompetenturi kadrebiT iyo dakompleqtebuli. gamonaklisebi
          iyvnen, magram maTi arseboba isev kanonzomierebas adasturebda. aRmasrulebel xelisuflebaSi
          mosulma axalgazrda elitam swrafad gawminda samarTaldamcavi struqturebi da daiwyo
          organizebul kriminalTan brZola. gamovlenil iqna ramodenime damnaSave mosamarTlec.
          sasamarTlo sistemaSi aman gamoiwvia dabneuloba, SiSi da, Sedegad, politikuri xelisuflebis
          araformaluri zegavlena sasamarTlo Stoze. 2006 weli aRiniSna rogorc debatebiT am problemis
          irgvliv, ise axali sistemuri cvlilebebiT, ramac sasamarTlo xelisuflebis damoukidebloba unda
          uzrunvelyos. es cvlilebebi aCvenebs, rom xelisuflebaSi bevrs esmis sasamarTlo sistemis
          sisustidan momdinare riski liberalur-demokratiuli saqarTvelos mSeneblobisaTvis. Tumca
          viTarebis radikaluri Sesacvlelad droa saWiro da 2007 weli am mxriv gadamwyvetia.

6-7.   opoziciis gaZliereba SesaZlebelia im SemTxvevaSi, Tu xelisufleba ver aRmofxvris kanonis
       uzenaesobis principis damkvidrebaSi arsebul xarvezebs da, imavdroulad, ver aamuSavebs socialuri
       dacvis efeqtur sabazro meqanizmebs. pirveli aSfoTebs dasavleTs, adamianis uflebebis dacvaze
       orientirebul adgilobriv organizaciebs, sazogadoebis moqalaqeobrivi Segnebis mqone nawils, meore –
       mosaxleobis yvelaze daucvel fenebs, romelTa raodenoba sakmaod didia qveyanaSi. opoziciam,
       bunebrivia, am problemebze fokusireba unda ganagrZos. magram igi jerjerobiT wamgebian
       mdgomareobaSia, radgan xelisufleba aCvenebs am problemebze zrunvis magaliTebs, igi
       kvlavindeburad popularulia, opozicia ki radikaluri dapirispirebis, xelisuflebis sruli diskreditaciis
       taqtikas irCevs. msgavsi opoziciuri taqtika SeusabamobaSia missave deklarirebul RirebulebebTan,
       radgan xelisufleba – naklulad, xarvezebiT – magram swored am RirebulebaTa ganmaxorcieleblad
       miiCneva. swored mas unda SeeSalos dramatulad, man unda Tqvas uari socialuri da samarTlebrivi
       problemebis gamosworebaze da TviTmiznur, Caketil elitad Camoyalibdes, imisaTvis rom opoziciis
       xma aseul aTasebs miswvdes.

       aris sxvagvari opoziciis zrdis Teoriuli Sansic – es ukanaskneli “wiTel-yavisferi” anu nacionalur-
       socialisturi Seferilobisa unda iyos. sazogadoebis garkveul nawilSi aris amgvari politikuri jgufebis
       mxardaWeris potenciali. miT umetes, Tu am jgufebs ucxoeTidan, gnebavT, adgilobrivi kriminaluri
       samyarodan finansur-politikuri mxardaWerac eqneba. magram 2006 wlis movlenebma, giorgaZis
       momxreTa dapatimrebam aCvena, rom msgavsi politikuri opoziciis Camoyalibeba-gaZlierebis
       praqtikuli SesaZleblobebi SezRudulia: xelisuflebis siZliere da sazogadoebis didi nawilis
       pragmatulobaa nacional-socializmis mTavari mexamridi.




                                                                                                         9
            Tu politikuri procesebi moulodneli ryevebiT ar warimarTa, garda mmarTveli Zalisa, saqarTveloSi
            iqnebian SedarebiT marginaluri politikuri jgufebi. SesaZloa, TandaTanobiT Camoyalibdes meore
            seriozuli politikuri Zala – dRevandeli opoziciis nawilisa da xelisuflebaSi myofi Zalis romelime
            dajgufebis bazaze. magram momaval saparlamento da saprezidento arCevnebamde mainc, aseTi ram
            nakleb savaraudoa, radgan amas, an Tavad saakaSvilis neba da xelSewyoba dasWirdeba, an misi
            reitingis seriozuli vardna.

8-10. saqarTveloSi arsebuli politikuri sistema araa
        stabiluri, Tu stabilurobis sawindrad kanonis uzenaesobisa da liberaluri demokratiis sxva principebs
        miviCnevT. jer-jerobiT qveyana maqsimaluradaa damokidebuli liberalurad moazrovne ramdenime
        liderze, Tavad saakaSvilis meTaurobiT. maT gaaCniaT socialuri baza – gansaxuTrebiT sayuradReboa
        dinamiuri axalgazrdoba, romlis msoflxedva aTavsebs patriotizmsa da globalizaciis gardauvali
        realobisadmi gaxsnilobas. liderebis mxardamWeria msoflmxedvelobrivad ufro amorfuli saSualo Tu ufrosi
        Taobebic. Tumca axalgardebSic da mosaxleobis danarCen nawilSic arian rogorc demokratiuli
        gardaqmnebis ufro swrafi tempis momxreebi, ise nacionalistur-qsenofobiuri wreebic. am ukanasknelis
        aqtiurobas zRudavs xelisuflebis siZlierec da sakuTari, obivateluri inertulobac. magram liberalur-
        demokratiuli procesebis Seuqcevadobas sWirdeba myari institutebi: stabiluri da Zlieri liberaluri partiebi,
        rogorc samoqalaqo Segnebis mqone mosaxleobis maorganizebeli Zala; sasamarTlo; sajaro
        mosamsaxureTa profesiouli korpusi; saTemo organizaciaTa qseli; Zlieri da damoukidebeli media.

        ra Tqma unda, am mimarTulebiT bevri nabiji ukve gadadgmulia. dRes sxvagvaria policia, umaRlesi
        saswavleblebi, televiziis sazogadoebrivi mauwyebeli, skolebi. magram am Tu sxva institutebs jer ar
        CaubarebiaT gamocda – ramdenad SeuZliaT ganagrZon ganviTareba da sazogadoebis modernizaciis
        samsaxuri politikuri xelisuflebis Secvlis SemTxvevaSi.

        rogorc iTqva, uaxloes momavalSi ar Cans stabiluri mravalpartiuli sistemis Camoyalibebis perspeqtiva. Tu
        xelisuflebam SeZlo qveynis modernizebis kursis efeqturi gagrZeleba, qveyana dominanturi partiis mier
        iqneba marTuli. saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, misi mmarTveli nawili darCeba konsolidirebuli da mkafiod
        reformatoruli xedvis mqone, magram adgilebze – saSualo da dabal rgolebSi – partiaSi gza gaexsneba
        karierizmsa da favoritizms. es saSiSia da amaSia qarTuli politikuri proeqtis paradoqsi – reformebi Znelia
        dominanturi politikuri Zalis arsebobis gareSe, magram dominanturi politikuri Zalis arseboba sistemuradaa
        antireformatoruli socialuri fenis warmomSobi. gamosavali am paradoqsisa Tu dilemisagan Zlieri da
        damoukidebeli socialuri institutebis – universitetebis, mediis, arasamTavrobo organizaciebis arseboba-
        funqcioobaa. politikurma elitam ki, romelic veranairad ver da ar Seecdeba (albaT, arc unda Seecados)
        sakuTari politikuri poziciebis xelovnur Sesustebas, kanonis uzenaesobis principisa da suliskveTebis
        dasanergad mTeli yuradReba sasamarTlo sistemis reformas da damoukideblobis uzrunvelyofas unda
        Sealios. Tu es moxerxda, Tu saakaSvilis da misi gundis dominanturi mmarTveloba ar gadaizarda
        maincdamainc mravalpartiul pluralizmSi, magram moitana Zlieri da avtoritetuli sasamarTlo, samoqalaqo
        organizaciebis da kerZo biznes-struqturebis mZlavri qseli, wamyvan dasavlur akademiur wreebTan
        integrirebuli umaRlesi ganaTlebisa da kritikuli azrovnebis xelSemwyobi saSualo ganaTlebis sistemebi,
        qveyanas eqneba Sansi, darCes civilizebul erTa TanamegobrobaSi saakaSvilis mmarTvelobis Semdeg.

        amgvar, sasurvel perspeqtivas Signidan emuqreba “ZalauflebiT tkbobis” maradiuli instinqti, romelic,
        gansakuTrebiT sagrZnobi xelisuflebis dabal da saSualo safexurebzea – manamde mainc, sanam zedafena
        gulwrfelad (Tundac zedmetad Tavdajerebulad) reformatoruli rCeba. magram aranakleb saSiSi da

                                                                                                               10
angariSgasawevi safrTxe garedan momdinareobs – mravali faqti mowmobs, rom saqarTvelos kraxi rusuli
sagareo politikis erT-erTi umTavresi amocanaa. saeWvoa, rom uaxloes sam weliwadSi am mxriv raime
Seicvalos. es Zalze arTulebs qarTuli politikuri sistemis winaSe mdgom amocanebs; erTi mxriv, rusuli
safrTxis winaSe aucilebeli xdeba xelisuflebis Semdgomi konsolidacia da gavlenis zrda, meore mxriv, es
iwvevs saqarTvelos kritikas Tavad misi mokavSireebisagan demokratiuli institutebis sisustis gamo.

SeZlebs saakaSvilis xelisufleba daumtkicos sakuTar moqalaqeebsac da saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobasac,
rom Zlieri prezidenti, Zlieri samarTaldamcavi sistema, “gamarjvebuli iRebs yvelafers” principis
xelSemwyobi saarCevno sistema swored qveynis modernizacias da demokratizacias sWirdeba am rTul,
gardamaval etapze? kidev erTi paradoqsi isaa, rom am kiTxvaze pasuxi marto prezidents ar da ver eqneba
– qveynis modernizaciis etapis warmatebiT Casavlelad erTi SexedviT marginalizebuli opoziciis,
adamianis uflebaTa damcveli organizaciebis, monitoringiT da advokatirebiT dakavebuli arasamTavrobo
seqtorisa da mediis Tanadgomac saWiroa. imisaTvis, raTa qveynis modernizaciis proeqti Sedges da
liberalur-demokratiul arCevans ar gadavuxvioT, meti energiaa dasaxarji urTierTgagebisaTvis, “TamaSis
wesebze” TanxmobisaTvis Zlier xelisuflebasa da xelisuflebis gareT myof, bevrad ufro sust demokratiul
wreebs Soris. am ukanasknelTa sisuste arc ukideganoa da arc Tu maincdamainc sasurveli.




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