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					                              Ocean102 W09 Homework 3


                          Homework 3 “Origins and Paradigms”


   Deadline: 7 PM Monday, February 9th. Must be submitted via WebQ. No late
   assignments accepted.


Instructions (General Content)
To complete this homework refer to lectures materials from February 2, 3, 4, 6 & 9 and
associated readings as listed in the syllabus: http://courses.washington.edu/ocean102/
(click on ‘syllabus’ in left-hand panel).
For general instructions on using WebQ see http://courses.washington.edu/ocean102/ and
click on “Assignments” in the left-hand panel
Respond to the following questions. Character limit and point allocations are provided in
parenthesis.
If you have questions or difficulties, bring questions to your section sessions (Section A),
email your TA, or meet with any TA during office hours (listed on the Ocean102
website).

Q1. Last Name (character limit 30, 0 points) – required
Q2. First Name (character limit 30, 0 points) – required
Q3. Student Number (character limit 10, 0 points) – required
Q4. Section (character limit 2, 0 points) – required

Introduction
In Unit 3 lectures, we examine the scientific evidence and theories about origins of the
Universe, the Solar System, the Earth, the oceans, and simple and complex life. There are
many other ideas about origins, and there is controversy about which of these ideas are
truly scientific, which are non-scientific, and what is the best way to present these ideas
in schools.

Part I – Origins and Paradigm shifts (8 points)
Q5 (3 pts) Choose either the Earth, the moon or the ocean, and in your own words:

Q5 a) Describe the 1950’s paradigm for its origin (character limit, 200 1 pt)

Q5 b) Provide one “anomaly”, or an example of physical evidence that scientists
observed which didn’t fit the 1950’s paradigm for its origin (character limit 200, 1 pt)

Q5 c) Describe the existing paradigm for its origin (character limit 250, 1 pt).
Q6 (4 pts) Describe the current leading scientific theory of how life originated on Earth in
terms of:
Q6 a) The two (2) possible sources of organic matter and evidence for each (character
limit 250, 2 pt)

Q6 b) The source of energy (character limit 100, 0.5 pts)

Q6 c) The most likely location on Earth for where life originated and one (1) piece of
evidence to support the theory (character limit 250, 1 pt)

Q6 d) The earliest genetic molecule originated and why (character limit 100, 0.5 pts)

Q7 Explain the scientific evidence supporting the theory that Archaea are the oldest most
common recent ancestor of present-day higher plants and animals. (character limit 300, 1
pt)

Part II —Defining Terms (3 pts) (SECTION B ONLY)
In the U.S., there is recurring dispute about what should be taught in our public schools
in regards to the origins of the universe, the Earth, and life. There are many ideas about
the origins, and there is currently controversy about which of these ideas are truly
scientific and which are not scientific.
Q8 Using your existing knowledge and on-line dictionaries and encyclopedia entries,
define the following terms (in your own words):
Q8 a) Evolution (character limit 200, 1 pt.)
Q8 b) Creationism (character limit 200, 1 pt.)
Q8 c) Intelligent Design (character limit 200, 1 pt.)
Part III—Teaching Evolution (9 pts)
The 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is the foundation of legal rulings on the
teaching of origins and evolution in public schools.
The amendment reads as follows:
“Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the
free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of
the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of
grievances.”

Q9. In December 2004, a group of parents from Dover, Pennsylvania, filed suit in federal
court (Kitzmiller v. Dover) against a policy instituted by the town's school board that
required high school biology teachers to read a statement to their classes that presented
“Intelligent Design” (ID) as an alternative scientific theory to evolution. In December
2005, federal judge John Jones ruled that intelligent design was “creationism relabeled”
that advances “a particular version of Christianity,” so that requiring its presentation in
public school science classes was unconstitutional. What clause in the 1st Amendment to
the U.S. Constitution was violated according to this ruling, and why? (character limit
200, 1 pts.)

(General Content) In regards to the origins controversy, the National Academy of
Sciences (http://www.nationalacademies.org/evolution/) states:
“Today, many religious denominations accept that biological evolution has produced the
diversity of living things over billions of years of Earth’s history. Many have issued
statements observing that evolution and the tenets of their faiths are compatible.
Scientists and theologians have written eloquently about their awe and wonder at the
history of the universe and of life on this planet, explaining that they see no conflict
between their faith in God and the evidence for evolution. Religious denominations that
do not accept the occurrence of evolution tend to be those that believe in strictly literal
interpretations of religious texts.
Fact: In science, an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed and for all practical
purposes is accepted as "true." Truth in science, however, is never final, and what is
accepted as a fact today may be modified or even discarded tomorrow. Hypothesis: A
tentative statement about the natural world leading to deductions that can be tested. If
the deductions are verified, it becomes more probable that the hypothesis is correct. If the
deductions are incorrect, the original hypothesis can be abandoned or modified.
Hypotheses can be used to build more complex inferences and explanations. Law: A
descriptive generalization about how some aspect of the natural world behaves under
stated circumstances. Theory: In science, a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect
of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, inferences, and tested hypotheses.
In science, explanations are limited to those based on observations and experiments that
can be substantiated by other scientists. Explanations that cannot be based on empirical
evidence are not a part of science.”
The Seattle-based Discovery Institute advocates “Intelligent Design” as an alternative to
Darwinian evolution. It has created an informational web site,
http://www.intelligentdesign.org/index.php, which provides background on its positions.
Q10 Read the passage from the FAQ tab on the Discovery Institute web site
http://www.intelligentdesign.org/faq.php and describe in your own words the Institute’s
view of the difference between Creationism and Intelligent Design. (character limit 200,
1 pt.)
Q11 Describe one example of a scientific observation that The Discovery Institute uses as
an example of evidence that cannot be explained well by our present understanding of
evolution. (character limit 200, 1 pt.)
Q12 What constitutional argument is made by the Discovery Institute and other advocates
of Intelligent Design about the actions of more mainstream scientists to exclude ID from
public classrooms? See http://www.discovery.org/csc/freeSpeechEvolCampMain.php.
(character limit 200, 1 pts.)

Q13 Explain why evolution best described as a paradigm rather than a law, a theory, a
hypothesis. (character limit 200, 1 pt.)
Q14 What stage of the scientific process would this situation correspond to in Kuhn’s
model of “Scientific Revolutions,” and accordingly, how would this characterization
please the Intelligent Design advocates? (character limit 200, 1 pt.)
Q15. In citing observations that they say are not fully explained by Darwinian evolution,
advocates of Intelligent Design argue that these unexplained observations show that
classic evolution “paradigm” may not be valid. According to Kuhn’s model of scientific
revolutions, what can you say about a paradigm that does not explain all the existing
observations? (character limit 200, 1 pts.)
Q16 Read the passage from the science tab on the Discovery Institute web site
http://www.intelligentdesign.org/whatisid.php that responds to the question, “Is
Intelligent Design a Scientific Theory?” From the point of view of most adherents to
Darwinian theory, there is a fallacy in this argument. Use your understanding of scientific
method to both identify and describe the fallacy as perceived by the most of the scientific
community. (character limit 400, 2 pt.)

				
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