Fruit based beverages by liaoqinmei



6. Ayurvedic alcoholic beverages
       Sugar based beverages
           Sarkara
           Gouda/ Gauda
           Sidhu

       Fruit based beverages
           Mardvika/Kapisa
           Kharjura
           Jambava
       Cereal based beverages
           Sura/kantoli/ kohali/ Yava Sura
           Kohalah and Tusambu
       Beverages prepared from cereals and/ or fruits with herbals

           Vibhitaka sura
           Varuni
           Madhuka mady
           Aksika (aksiki)
           Maireyah (triyoni)
           Sukta (vinegar)
           Dhanyamla (dhanyasukta)
           Sauvira and Sauviraka
           Aranala
           Tusodaka
           Kanjika
           Sandaki
           Cukra and Asuta
           Madhusukta, Gaudani (gudasukta), rasasuktani
       Tonic wines

                                          Sugar based Alcoholic beverages in Ayurveda

 Name of the
                   Ingredients                                        Properties                                       Reference(s)
Sarkara         Sugar                 It is sweet smelling, sweet in taste and easily digestable. It is a cardiac   Dash and Kashyap,
                                      tonic and digestive stimulant. It cleans the urinary bladder and alleviates   1980,
                                      vata. It is sweet in transformed state of ingested substances after digestion Srikanthamurthy,
                                      (vipaka), appetizer and stimulant of senses (indrya bodhana).                 1994; Valiathan, 2003;
                                                                                                                    Sekar, 2007.
Gouda           Molasses              It causes elimination of urine, faeces and flatus and increases hunger. It is Dash and Kashyap,
                                      refreshing, pungent, bitter and sweet in taste and nourishing.                1980; Valiathan, 2003;
                                                                                                                    Sekar, 2007.
Gauda           Woodfordia            It promotes the power of digestion, complexion and strength. It eases Valiathan, 2003;
                fruiticosa (L.)       passage of flatus and faeces and improves appetite.                           Sekar, 2007.
                Kurz.](Dhataki) and
Sita rasa or    Unboiled sugarcane It improves digestion, voice and complexion, combat swelling, abdominal Dash and Kashyap,
Sita rasika     juice               disorder, piles and useful for slimming.                                    1980,
(Sidhu)                                                                                                         Srikanthamurthy,
                                                                                                                1998; Valiathan, 2003,
                                                                                                                Sharma, 2004; Sekar,
Pakvarasa       Boiled sugar cane   It is better than sita rasa. It aggravates vata and pitta and diseases of Dash and Kashyap,
sidhu (Sidhu)   juice               kapha, obesity, an excessive accumulation of fluid in any of the tissues or 1980, 2002;
                                    cavities of the body (dropsy), enlargement of abdomen and haemorrhoids Srikanthamurthy,
                                    (piles with painful swelling at the anus). It also promotes good voice, 1994, 1998; Sharma,
                                    digestive power, strength and complexion. It is a cardiac tonic, unctuous 2004; Sekar, 2007.
                                    and an appetizer. It cures constipation (vivandha), adiposity (medas),
                                    oedema ( sopha), piles (arsas), asthma (svasa), obstinate abdominal
                                    diseases including ascites (udara) and diseases caused by kapha relishing
                                    wholesome of kaphaja piles(a type of piles with increase in kapha).
Sasyaka         Flowers of                                               --                                     Sharma, 2004; Sekar,
(Sidhu)         Woodfordia                                                                                      2007.


 Name of the
                    Ingredients                                          Properties                                   Reference(s)
                fruiticosa (L.) Kurz,
                ghee and jaggery
Aksikah–sidhu   Decoction of            It alleviates anaemia and pitta, astringent, sweet and purifies blood.    Sharma, 2004; Sekar,
(Sidhu)         Terminalia bellirica                                                                              2007.
                (Gaertn.) Roxb.
                (bibhitaka), jaggery
                and Woodfordia
                fruiticosa (L.)
                Kurz.] (Dhataki)
                Glycyrrhiza glabra      It is burning, appetizer, astringent, pacifies kapha while aggravates vata Sharma, 2004; Sekar,
                L. (Madhuka)            and pitta.                                                                 2007.
                Syzygium cumini         It is anti diuretic, astringent and vata aggravating.                     Sharma, 2004; Sekar,
                (L.) Skeel (jambu)                                                                                2007.

                                         Fruit based Alcoholic beverages in Ayurveda

  Name of the
                     Ingredients                                     Properties                                         Reference(s)
Mardvika/Kapisa   Dry grapes          It is the best among the alcoholic drinks. It is unctuous, sweet, laxative,   Dash and Kashyap,
                                      appetizer, carminative (drug curing flatulence), cardiac tonic and            1980, 2002;
                                      nourishing. It promotes strength and semen. It causes acidity in stomach      Srikanthamurthy,
                                      (amlapitta) and aggravation of vata. It does not cause burning sensation      1994; Sharma, 2004;
                                      and it alleviates kapha. It cures anaemia (pandu), consumption or             Sekar, 2007.
                                      pulmonary tuberculosis (ksaya), obstinate urinary disorders including
                                      diabetes (meha), piles (arsas) and typhoid (visama jvara), hemorrhoids
                                      and intestinal parasites. Wine prepared from grapes is not
                                      contraindicated even in intrinsic hemorrhage because of its non-burning
                                      property and sweet taste.
Kharjura          Date fruits         It aggravates vata, heavy and hard for digestion. It is a cardiac tonic,      Dash and Kashyap,
                                      astringent, sweet and fragrant. It activates the senses (indriya bodhana).    1980,
                                                                                                                    1994; 2002, Sharma,
                                                                                                                    2004; Sekar, 2007.
Jambava           Juice of Syzygium   This helps in the prevention of excretion (baddha nisyanda).                  Dash and Kashyap,
                  cumini (L.) Skeel                                                                                 1980, 2002; Sekar,
                  (jambu), jaggery                                                                                  2007.
                  and honey

                                            Cereal based Alcoholic beverages in Ayurveda

   Name of the
                          Ingredients                                        Properties                                   Reference(s)
Sura                A mixture of flour of       It cures abdominal lump, enlargement of abdomen,                      Dash and Kashyap,
                    rice and jaggery            haemorrhoids, duodenal diseases and consumption (pulmonary            1980,
                                                tuberculosis). It is hard to digest, causes constipation, mitigates   Srikanthamurthy,
                                                vata and causes increase of fat, blood, milk, urine and kapha.        1994, 1998;
                                                Sura is useful for treating emaciation, gaseous abdominal             Valiathan, 2003;
                                                swelling, urinary obstruction, insufficient lactation and piles. It   Sekar, 2007.
                                                bestows strength, nourishment of breast milk and relieves dropsy
                                                and dysuria (difficulty and pain in urination).
Kantoli or Kohali   Barley (Yava) paste and                                      --                                   Dash and Kashyap,
                    Phaseolus munga L.                                                                                2002; Sekar, 2007.
Yava Sura           Barley                      It causes constipation and not easily digestable. It is pitta         Srikanthamurthy,
                                                increasing slightly induces kapha and aggravates vata.                1994; Valiathan,
                                                                                                                      2003; Sharma, 2004;
                                                                                                                      Sekar, 2007.
Kohalah             Parched barley flour        It vitiates three doshas and acts as non-aphrodisiac.                 Sharma, 2004; Sekar,
Tusambu             Uncooked and dehusked       It is an appetizer, alleviates heart diseases, anaemia (panduroga)    Dash and
                    barley                      and worms.                                                            Kashyap2002;
                                                                                                                      Sharma, 2004; Sekar,

                               Beverages prepared from cereals and/ or fruits with herbals in Ayurveda

   Name of the
                          Ingredients                                           Properties                                     Reference(s)
Vibhitaka sura     Terminalia bellirica        Easily digestible, good for health, treats wounds, anaemia, leprosy and       Srikanthamurthy,
                   (Gaertn.) Roxb.             other skin diseases.                                                          1994; Sekar, 2007.
Varuni             Boerhaavia diffusa L.       It is easily digestible, mitigates rhinitis and pain. it is light and cures   Dash and Kashyap,
                   (Punarnava) paste, rice     sinusitis (pinasa), flatulence (adhmana) and colic pain (sula).               1980;
                   and also prepared                                                                                         Srikanthamurthy,
                   using Borassus                                                                                            1998; Sekar, 2007.
                   flabellifer L. (tala) and
                   dates (kharjura) juice.
Madhuka madya      Flowers of                  It aggravates vata and pitta.                                                 Dash and Kashyap,
                   Glycyrrhiza glabra L.                                                                                     1980; Sekar, 2007.
                   (madhuka ).
Aksika (aksiki)    Bark of Terminalia          It is a promoter of strength, constipative, astringent, sweet and cooling.    Dash and Kashyap,
                   arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.)       It alleviates pitta and promotes blood formation. Aksiki improves             1980, 2002;
                   Wight & Arn. (aksa)         appetite; good for treating anaemia and worms.                                Valiathan, 2003;
                   and rice grains                                                                                           Sekar, 2007.
Maireyah (triyoni) Made by the                 It is sweet, astringent and alleviates piles, kapha, gulma (gastritis),       Dash and Kashyap,
                   refermentation of a         worms, fat and vata.                                                          2002; Sharma,
                   mix of sura and asava                                                                                     2004; Sekar, 2007.
Sukta (vinegar)    Rhizomes, roots and         It produces raktapitta (a disease characterized by bleeding from              Dash and Kashyap,
                   fruits along with fat       different parts of the body) and chedana (which takes away tissues like       1980;
                   and salt in water           cutting). It cures anaemia (pandu) and parasitic infection (krmi). It is      Srikanthamurthy,
                                               purgative, helps in the digestion of food, hot, diuretic, cardiac tonic,      1998; Sharma,
                                               alleviator of kapha and pungent in vipaka. It is a good appetizer. Sukta      2004; Sekar, 2007.
                                               causes intrinsic haemorrhage, digests foods and ama (indigestion),
                                               produces hoarseness of voice, alleviates kaphaja pandu (a type of
                                               anaemia with increase in kapha) and worms.
Dhanyamla            Rice, Paspalum            It is purgative, penetrating, hot in potency, aggravates pitta, cold to Dash and Kashyap,


   Name of the
                      Ingredients                                        Properties                                        Reference(s)
(dhanyasukta)    scrobiculatum L.        touch, relieves fatigue and exhaustion, increases appetite and hunger,          1980,
                 (Kodrava) and some      cure pain of urinary bladder, ideal for use as asthapana (decoction of          Srikanthamurthy,
                 pulses                  enema) for all patients, good to the heart, easily digestable, mitigates        1994, 1998; Sekar,
                                         vata and kapha. It is useful in anorexia and diseases caused by vata. It is     2007.
                                         satmya (whole some) for persons residing on the sea coast. Dhanyamla
                                         is satiating and best suited in loss of taste.
Sauvira          De-husked barley        It cures duodenal diseases, diseases of kapha origin, purgative, kindles        Dash and Kashyap,
                 either raw or cooked    digestive fire, beneficial in upward movement of gas and body aches. It         1980;
                 and water               cures irritable bowel syndrome (grahani) and piles (arsas). It is               Srikanthamurthy,
                                         digestive and useful in flatulence (udavarta), malaise (angamarda), pain        1998; Sharma,
                                         in bones (asthi sula) and flatulence (anaha).                                   2004; Sekar, 2007.
Sauviraka or     Wheat                                                         --                                        Dash and Kashyap,
suviramla                                                                                                                2002; Sekar, 2007.
Aranala          Either raw or cooked    It shares all the properties of sauvira.                                        Dash and Kashyap,
                 Triticum dicoccum                                                                                       1980;
                 Schubl.)                                                                                                Srikanthamurthy,
                                                                                                                         1998; Sekar, 2007.
Tusodaka         Barley flour along      It is a digestive stimulant and a cardiac tonic. It cures anaemia (pandu)       Dash and Kashyap,
                 with its husks          and parasitic infection (krmi). It is hot and carminative. It vitiates pitta,   1980,
                                         blood and cures pain in the urinary bladder.                                    Srikanthamurthy,
                                                                                                                         1998; Sekar, 2007.
                 Rhizomes, roots,        It is purgative, hot, appetizer and carminative. When applied externally,       Dash and Kashyap,
                 fruits, kulmasa (half   it cures burning syndrome (daha) and fever. When taken internally, it           2002; Sekar, 2007.
                 baked wheat) and        alleviates vayu and kapha. Scum of gruel of cereals and other grains,
                 dhanya manda            kept undisturbed for some days and allowed to ferment become sour. It
                 (fermented cereals)     is bitter in taste, penetrating, hot in potency, helps taste, digestive, easily
                 and also prepared       digestible, mitigates fever with burning sensation by touch (anointing)
                 from rice and millet    and mitigates vata and kapha by drinking.
                 Fried balls of flour    It is superior. It is easily digestible, relieves colic (severe pain in the Dash and Kashyap,
                 (Vataka) of black       abdomen), indigestion, constipation, accumulation of undigested 1980;
                 gram (masa)             materials and cleanses the urinary bladder. Persons suffering from Srikanthamurthy,


  Name of the
                     Ingredients                                        Properties                                      Reference(s)
                                          fainting, giddiness, intoxication, itching, leprosy (and other skin         1998; 2002; Sekar,
                                          diseases), bleeding diseases, anaemia, tuberculosis, emaciation, injury     2007.
                                          to lungs, exhaustion and mild fever are not suitable to drink kanjika,
                                          which shall lead to the aggravation of dosas in them.
                Kanjika mixed with        It is carminative and digestive stimulant. It alleviates rheumatism         Dash and Kashyap,
                Zingiber officinale       (amavata).                                                                  1980; Sekar, 2007.
                Rosc. (ardraka )and
                Cereals                   It is a vitalizer, removes burning sensation by external application while Sharma, 2004;
                                          intake pacifies vata, kapha and thirst. It expels mucus and by gargle Sekar, 2007.
                                          alleviates abnormal taste, foul smell, dirt and dryness of mouth and also
                Leaves of Raphanus        Purgative in action.                                                       Dash and Kashyap,
                sativus L. (mulaka),                                                                                 1980,
                mustard (rajika),                                                                                    Srikanthamurthy,
                leaves of radish                                                                                     1998; Sekar, 2007.
                (mulaka dala) and
Sandaki         dough of rice flour
                (salipistaka) and water
                Fried balls of flour      It is superior in quality. It alleviates vata. It is light, appetizer and   Dash and Kashyap,
                (Vataka) of Vigna         carminative par excellence. It cures colic pain (sula), indigestion         1980,
                mungo (L.) (mudga)        (ajirna) and constipation (vibandha). It cleanses the urinary bladder.      Srikanthamurthy,
                                          Sandaki helps taste, hard for digestion and increases pitta and kapha.      1998; Sekar, 2007.
                1 part jaggery, 2 parts                                        --                                     Dash and Kashyap,
                honey, 4 parts                                                                                        2002; Sekar, 2007.
                dhanyamla, 8 parts
                lower portion of butter
                milk (mastu) and 16
                parts water, a small
                quantity of the powder
                of trikatu (Zingiber


  Name of the
                     Ingredients                                   Properties                                  Reference(s)
                officinale Roxb., Piper
                nigrum L. and P.
                longum L.)
                Sugarcane juice,                                          --                                 Dash and Kashyap,
                madhuka flowers and                                                                          2002; Sekar, 2007.
                Coffea arabica L.
Asuta           Tubers/rhizome and      This helps taste, digestive, mitigates vata and especially light for Srikanthamurthy,
                fruits                  digestion.                                                           1998; Sekar, 2007.
Madhusukta      Fruit juice of Citrus                                     --                                 Sharma, 2004;
                limon (L.) Burm.f.                                                                           Sekar, 2007.
                (jambira) mixed with
                Piper longum L.
Gaudani         Jaggery, water, vasa                                      --                                 Sharma, 2004;
(gudasukta)     (muscle fat) and oil                                                                         Sekar, 2007.
Rasasuktani     Sugarcane juice                                           --                                 Sharma, 2004;
                                                                                                             Sekar, 2007.
Tonic wines     Medicinal herbs in                                        --                                 Dhiman, 2004;
                wine                                                                                         Sekar, 2007.

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