WHY AD? “Between 35-55
billion injections are
year throughout the
world. Up to half
“Reuse of syringes is one of the major problems “One child dies every
facing preventive and curative healthcare in the
world. Many countries have syringe reuse rates of ﬁfteen seconds from an
50% and more. Whether unintentional due to poor unsafe injection............”
understanding of risks, or intentional due to greed
or supply shortages, the practice of reusing syringes
causes signiﬁcant transmission of diseases such
as HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. People being
treated for one disease may be inadvertently given
another, more harmful disease”
“Each year 22 million
Dr. Michael Free, VP senior Advisor for people are infected with
Technologies, PATH (Program for Appropriate
Technology in Health)
Hepatitis and HIV as a
result of syringe reuse
and 1.3 million
“In addition to the loss
of human life, there is a
‘hidden’ monetary cost to
treat the diseases caused
by syringe reuse: $0.125
per injection, equivalent to
nearly twice the cost of a
AD Syringes are disposable syringes that Auto Disable. They can only be used once.
WHAT IS K1?
K1 Key Facts
MADE ON THE SAME MACHINERY MADE FOR THE SAME COST USED IN THE SAME WAY
K1 is a genuine Auto Disable (AD)
syringe with a proven track record in
both immunisation and curative injection
practices. The design is WHO PQS
compliant and is supplied to UNICEF.
The K1 design is unique. An existing
manufacturing line can be converted
to produce K1s under licence following
a simple patented mould conversion.
The cost of converting production is
substantially below that for any alternative
AD syringe. No new machines are K1 is a syringe with
needed as existing equipment can be a locking / breaking
simply modiﬁed. A manufacturer can be mechanism in the
The K1 mechanism prevents over-filling & reuse: barrel so that it can
producing K1s within 12 weeks of
signing a licence. only be used once
K1 is a ﬂexible low cost product with
an established market. It is currently
manufactured in plants all across the
developing world and K1 licensees sell It is a unique product
directly to more than 40 countries. manufactured and sold
The vaccine-saving mechanism prevents over-filling in an innovative way
K1 has a patented
design and a patented
2 additional manufacturing process
Using the syringe activates the mechanism
to produce K1
How does K1
Attempts to reuse the syringe cause it to Auto Disable
WHY K1? MADE ON THE SAME EQUIPMENT: Global manufacturing
Licensed by Star Syringe Ltd. of the UK, K1 is now
K1 in the ﬁeld
manufactured in nine independent plants across the
developing world, with more coming on stream every year.
Standard syringe factories can be updated to manufacture
K1s with a simple conversion to existing moulds, so capital
investment requirements and lead times to production for K1
are low. Star is the hub of this global manufacturing network
Curative syringes ﬁght These are a direct result of the successful
and provides marketing materials in addition to technical
know-how to licensees. Competing products require new
HIV in Africa Making Medical Injections Safer programme
plant tooling, a heavy capital expense, and can incur long
(MMIS) which since 2004 has replaced normal
lead times to production.
disposable syringes with K1 and other ADs
across the spectrum of medical applications,
and provided education to nurses and patients MADE FOR THE SAME COST: Safer products, same price
alike on safe injection practice.
K1 is a simple design. It has the same three parts as a
Star was functional in bringing the key players standard disposable syringe. It is suitable for any syringe
for this growing success story together at the barrel size, and for integrated, ﬁxed or detachable needles.
ground-breaking Injection Safety Solutions for K1 can be used for any application. The unit cost of K1
Africa conference in Mombassa, Kenya, in 2003, is broadly the same as a standard disposable syringe.
part of an annual series of global meetings run Competing designs are often complex and incorporate
by Star. additional parts. This adds to manufacturing cost,
meaning that unit costs often exceed standard
Star is proud to be the key curative syringe disposable alternatives.
provider in the global ﬁght against AIDS.
USED IN THE SAME WAY: Excellence in design
The United States President’s Emergency Plan K1 is designed to be used in the same way as a standard
for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is a ﬁve year, $15 disposable syringe, in immunisation and general healthcare.
billion, multifaceted approach to combating the Little additional training is required and positive user
“K1 AD syringes are our ﬁrst choice feedback means that deployment costs are further reduced.
disease in more than 120 countries around
the world. Delivering every day drugs with AD because it is a wonderful product.” The complexity of competing designs often increases failure
syringes to prevent cross-infection between The Ha’erbin, CDC, China
and rejection rates and implies longer training times,
patients has been a key part of the preventative adding costs.
aspect of the programme.
“This AD syringe can fulﬁl all practical uses in K1 is the world leader in AD syringes for general healthcare.
PEPFAR is the largest procurer of AD syringes
the clinic. It’s easy to use, causes hardly any It is WHO approved, supplied globally to UNICEF, and a
for general healthcare in the world. Since its
change in normal nursing practice and it prevents preferred product for the National Health Service in the UK.
inception in 2003 K1 syringes have provided
cross infection. We strongly suggest using K1 AD However there are a number of alternative AD technologies
over 90% of their demand. Close to 100 million
syringes in healthcare.” available. Only Codan, Terumo, Univec and Becton
people have beneﬁted from safer healthcare as
Dickinson are WHO approved. For a full list visit:
a result. Each represents a potential life saved. Disinfection Supply Division, PLA General Hospital, China
The positive spillover effect has been huge. In
July 2006 the Ugandan Ministry of Health made
the landmark decision to ban all future imports “K1 AD syringes are very practical. Over the
past few years using them, we ﬁnd that K1 None of these technologies presently combine the
of normal disposable syringes. From 2007
AD syringes are safe, convenient, and have effectiveness and functionality of the Star K1 design with its
they will procure and use only auto disable or
nice ﬂexibility for usage.” ease of manufacture and cost effectiveness.
reuse prevention devices. In Kenya, Rwanda
and other countries PEPFAR has prompted Disinfection Supply Division, BJ Hospital, China
Ministries of Health to purchase K1 syringes
beyond the basic programme requirement.
Star Syringe Ltd.
Star House Pippingford
Tel: +44 (0)1825 713 888
Fax: +44 (0)1825 713 838