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Ergonomics Biomechanics

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					Ergonomics &
Biomechanics (PSY 552)



                         1
History
   4th Century BC
       Hippocrates – Father of Medicine
           Studied lead poisoning among miners and
            metallurgists


   1st Century BC
       Pliny, a Roman historian, wrote of the dangers of
        cinnabar

                                                            2
History (cont)
   2nd Century AD
       Galen wrote about various occupational diseases.


   15th Century AD
       Ulrich Ellenborg published a treatise on toxic
        fumes and vapors and their control



                                                           3
History (cont)
   16th Century
       Phillipus Aureolous Theophratus Bombastus von
        Hohenheim (AKA Paracelsus



   16th Century
       Agricola wrote De Re Metallica


                                                        4
History (cont)
   18th Century AD
       Ramazzini published De Morbis Artificum
        Diatriba

       England – an epidemiological study revealed a
        condition called Devonshire Colic



                                                        5
History (cont)
   18th Century AD
       Percival Pott – recognized


   19th Century
       Industrial revolution
       Health & Morals of Apprentices Act
       Factory Acts in England
       Child labor laws in Massachusetts (1848)
       Federal Safety Appliance Act
                                                   6
History (cont)
   19th Century
       Germany created a social security system that
        included:



   British workers’ compensation act (1897)


                                                        7
History (cont)
   20th Century
       States in USA begin to implement workers’
        compensation programs
           Federal workers’ compensation (1908)
           New Jersey, Wisconsin (1911)


   US Social Security Act (1935)


                                                    8
History (cont)
   20th Century
       Occupational Safety & Health Act (1970)
           Creates two new government agencies




                                                  9
OSHA
   Focused primarily on acute and airborne
    safety hazards.

   In the mid 1980s back injuries accounted for
    30% of workplace injuries

   In 1993, cumulative trauma disorders
    accounted for 62% of new workplace injuries.
                                                   10
OSHA (cont)
   Ergonomics became a focus in the 1990’s

   Has attempted several times to implement
    ergonomic standards.

   Recent standards implemented by President
    Clinton were repealed by President Bush.

                                                11
OSHA (cont)
   OSHA’s new program (see
    http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/ergonomics/) relies   on a 4-
    pronged approach:
       Guidelines
       Enforcement
       Outreach & assistance
       National Advisory Committee
   Individual states have ergonomic standards
    (e.g., CA, WA).
                                                             12
NIOSH
   Has published research based lifting
    guidelines, among other things, to reduce
    back injuries.

   The new limit is 51 lbs in the under the best
    conditions (1993).


                                                    13
Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD)
Today
   Are difficult to define


   Are affected by a variety of factors
       Mechanical
       Physiological
       Psychological
       Contextual
                                           14
Mechanical




             15
Physiological




                16
Psychological




                17
Contextual




             18
Scope of MSDs
   Difficult to define the scope because:




   What is known



                                             19
Workers’ Compensation
   Master-Servant Relationship




   Master-Stranger Relationship



                                   20

				
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posted:11/27/2011
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