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					                     Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering

Title: The Studies of Novel All-fiber Active and Passive Devices
Principal Investigator: Sien Chi
Sponsor: National Science Council
Keywords: Side-polishing Technology, Evanescent-field Coupling, Fiber combiner,
             Gain-flattened Filter, Variable Optical Attenuator, Fused-polished Fiber
             Coupler, OADM, Fiber Amplifier, Fiber Laser, Acoustic-optical Filter.


      Using the precision fiber side-polishing technology we developed, we have
successfully fabricated the best side-polished fiber devices with the longest effective
length (~2.5 cm), negligible insertion losses (<0.1 dB) and the highest extinction ratio
(>200 dB @1550 nm), to date.
      Inspected under Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), the surface roughness can
be as low as between 10~15 nm range, which has been substantially smaller than the
communication wavelength we used. Another deserving to be mentioned is that the
polishing depth and length are the key issues in determining the performance for such
kind of fiber devices. According to the critical factors mentioned above, our polished
fiber devices are on fairly outstanding behavior in optics and are now second to none
in the world.
       Through this three-year research project, we plan to employ this side-polishing
technology, a simple platform, for the studies and developments on all-fiber active
and passive devices. In accordance with the demands for current
wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) communication system, we have
successfully observed the extra-high feasibility for the side-polished fiber devices
with a long effective interaction length to be capable of being used in fiber active and
 passive devices applications. Therefore, we propose 1310/1550 and 1480/1550 fiber
 combiners, gain-flattened filters, variable optical attenuators, fused-polished fiber
 couplers, OADM, fiber amplifier, fiber laser and acoustic-optical filters as our
 three-year research topics. Compared with other fabrication methods on fiber devices,
 our methods are expected to show stronger superiority in competition on account of
 the lower losses, miniature size, low channel crosstalk, low polarization dependent
 effect and easy fabrication.
NSC91-2215-E009-062 (91R460)
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Title: Multi-wavelength Photoelastic Modulation Ellipsometry
Principal Investigator: Yu-Faye Chao
Sponsor: National Science Council
Keywords: Ellipsometry, Polarimetry, Spectroscopy, Photoelastic Modulation

       Spectroscopic ellipsometry has recently emerged as a powerful optical
technique to study the optical properties of materials.    Spectroscopic ellipsometry
can measure the dielectric constant for varies materials under varies structure such as
layer medium and powders. The single wavelength and fixed incident angle
ellipsometer has long been employed in the semiconductor industry for the film
thickness measurement.      The photoelastic modulation ellipsometry can measure
the ellipsometric parameters in situ, thus forming an important tool for monitoring the
etching and deposition processes. It is our interest to develop a multi-wavelength
photoelastic modulation ellipsometry to calibrate a specific model for the
measurement of spectroscopic ellipsometry. In ellipsometric technique, physical
modeling is another important part of the whole industry. For simplicity, normally it
only design for single wavelength and fixed incident angle. We like to establish
such laboratory to analyze the model in a special wavelength and incident angle. A
KrAr tunable laser is used as the light source for this purpose. We have already
used two-wavelengths to align the azimuthal angles of every optical elements of the
 system at a single incident angle. A single wavelength and incident angle PEM
 ellipsometry designed by us has already been installed in NTHU and worked as
 expected. The next step is to calibrate the wavelength dependent properties of the
 photoelastic modulator itself. By so doing, we will be able to design a full spectral
 ellipsometry for varies materials.
NSC 91-2215-E009-055 (91R453)
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Title: The Study of Broadband/Gain-flattened Raman Amplifiers and Using in the
            Ultra-high WDM Transmission Systems
Principal Investigator: Jeng-Cherng Dung
Sponsor: National Science Council
Keywords: Effect Raman Amplifier, Gain Flatten, Wavelength Division Multiplexing,
            Dispersion Compensation, Four Wave Mixxing


      This project is mainly to study the Raman amplifiers theoretically and
experimentally. We will design the broadband and gain-flattened Raman amplifier
and erect the ultra-high bitrate fiber transmission systems by using the Raman
amplifiers. In the first year, we will build up the simulation program of the Raman
amplifier which considers the multi-wavelength pumping unit with the
multi-longitude mode spectrum. The Raman amplifiers with single wavelength
pumping are set up in different media such as single-mode fiber, dispersion shift fiber,
dispersion compensation fiber, and non-zero dispersion shift fiber. The gain
characteristic and efficiency are studied. In the second year, the gain flattened Raman
amplifiers with multi-wavelength pumping sources are studied to attain the
broadband and gain-flattened Raman amplifiers by optimized the pumping
wavelengths. We also develop the hybrid Raman/EDFA optical amplifier. In the
meantime, the positions of gain-flattened filter are analyzed to attain high gain and
low noise in the hybrid amplifier. In the third year, the main objective is to develop
new technologies for achieving ultra-high wavelength division multiplexing
transmission based on the Raman amplifier. The nonlinear effects and noise
characteristic of Raman amplifier are studied in different transmission systems. We
also set up the gain-flattened Raman amplifier with dispersion compensation in
wavelength division multiplexing transmission system.
NSC 91-2215-E009-054 (91R452)
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Title: Ultrafast Optical Manipulation and Dynamical Studies of Carrier Spin and
             Coherent Phonon Generation in Crystals
Principal Investigator: Jung Y. John Huang
Sponsor: National Science Council
Keywords: Coherent Phonon, Femtosecond Pulse Shaping, Ferroelectrics, Spin,
            Spintronics, Kinetics


      The main objective of this three-year research program is to apply femtosecond
laser technologies for the kinetic studies of electron spin in semiconductor and
coherent phonon generation in ferroelectric crystal. By employing an optical pulse
shaping apparatus, we plan to manipulate the coherence transport of the electron spin
and phonon generation. Therefore phenomena of phonon softening during phase
transition in ferroelectric crystal and spin transport through a heterojunction in
semiconductor are to be studied. Along this research direction, we also plan to
investigate the ferroelectricity and spin coherence in crystalline samples with reduced
dimension. This project should yield valuable information for facilitating the
research and development of ferroelectric and spintronic devices.
NSC 91-2112-M009-037 (91R398)
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Title: The Fundamental and Applied Research of Single-Mode, Ultrashort Pulsed, and
             High Bit-Rate Fiber Laser Technology
Principal Investigator: Gong-Ru Lin
Sponsor: National Science Council
Keywords: Erbium-Doped Fiber, Traveling-Wave Semiconductor Optical Amplifier,
            Optical Raman Amplifier, Erbium-Doped Waveguide, Fiber Laser,
            Single Mode, Wavelength Tunable, High Bit Rate, Ultrashort Pulse,
            Frequency Regenerative, Active Harmonic and Rational Harmonic
            Mode-Locking, Pulse Compression.


      It is mandatory to keep track on the progress on fiber laser techniques since
Erbium-doped fiber laser systems have been considered as alternative and strong
competitors to the laser-diode-based sources in fiber-optic communication systems.
Versatile fiber lasers with different features of such as high bit-rate carrier generation,
single-mode and wavelength tunable operation, or ultrashort pulsewidth with
transform-limit pulse shape, etc. are required to meet different demands for densed
wavelength-devision          multiplexing        or       time-devision       networks,
microwave/millimeter-wave, and ultrafast optoelectronics.
      In first year, our research goal is to design and to demonstrate fiber lasers with
single-mode, wavelength-tunable, high bit-rate and pulsed-output functions. A
novel fusion-splicing technology based on tipped fiber structure will be developed to
improve the coupling efficiency between the end-face of single-mode and
erbium-doped fibers. Both the Erbium-doped and semiconductor optical amplifiers
will be considered as gain mediums, and a simple fiber-pigtailed Fabry-Perot laser
diode will be studied to simulate as an active optical ultra-narrow band-pass filter.
These techniaues are concurrently employed to demonstrate a continuous-wave
Erbium-doped fiber ring laser with narrow linewidth (quasi single-mode), wavelength
tunable, and polarization-controlled characteristics. In addition, we propose to
construct a delay-time-tunable, high-bit-rate actively harmonic-mode-locked or
rationally harmonic-mode-locked fiber laser by using a home-made, 10GHz
optoelectronic phase-locked-loop based phase shifter circuit. Such a pulsed laser
system will be used to build up a high-speed electrooptic sampling system for
time-resolved characterization of long-wavelength photodetectors or other devices.
      In second year, the research interests will be focused on the development of
versatile mode-locking techniques. Several typed ultrafast fiber lasers such as
wavelength-tunable, optical-pulse-injection, frequency-regenerative, and rationally
harmonic-mode-locked fiber lasers with repetition rate of up to 40 GHz will be
demonstrated by optical-feedback controlling the intracavity FPLD with
phase-locking technology. The study of optoelectronic generation, processing, and
measurement of microwave/millimeter-wave free-running signals will be initialized
by using these lasers as optical clocks.                      Fiber-bragg-grating or
dispersion-compensated(-shifted) fiber based pulse compressing setup will be
considered to reshape the temporal waveform and shorten the width of pulses for
development femtosecond fiber laser systems.
      In third year, the power stability, side-band phase noise, and timing jitter of the
delay-time-tunable, optical-pulse-injection, frequency-regenerative, and rationally
harmonic-mode-locked fiber lasers will be analyzed and optimized by adjusting the
modules and parameters of the phase-locking circuitry. In addition, several new
class of fiber lasers including multi-wavelength Er-doped fiber lasers, compact
Er-doped waveguide lasers, S-band short-pulsed fiber raman laser systems will be
fabricated. Furthermore, the study of using an ultra-broadband semiconductor
optical laser amplifier as either a sub-picosecond mode-locked laser source or an
active optical ultra-narrow band-pass filter will be initiated.
      This project further aims to directly open the dialog with relevant institutions in
the international academic society, to evaluate the possibility and bottle-neck of
technical transferring to industrial manufacturers, to practically enhance research
potentials and communicate the persistent progress with local researchers in different
universities, and to find the viable applications in other research areas such as fiber
sensor networks and microwave photonic links, etc. Thus, an international
workshop on the high-speed fiber lasers and communication networks will be
organized, several famous experts and active researchers in this society will be
invited to have short courses and oral presentations. The advancement in tight link
among the international faculties, the local academic institutes, and some industrial
companies through the execution of this project is thus straightforward.
NSC 91-2215-E009-039 91R437)
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Title: All-Fiber Quantum Squeezed Ligt Generator and the Applications
Principal Investigator: Yin-Chieh Lai
Sponsor: National Science Council
Keywords: Squeezed State, Quantum Measurement, Quantum Cryptography,
              Quantum Communication


        Thanks to the technology advance of fiber lasers and fiber devices, it is now
feasible to generate new optical quantum states with an all-fiber setup. These optical
quantum states includes quantum squeezed states and quantum entangled states,
which have many potential applications in the area of quantum measurement,
quantum communication, quantum cryptography, and quantum teleportation. All-fiber
type implementation has several advantages including more compact and stable setup,
and the possibility of using fibers for longer distance transmission. In view of this
trend, the aim of this project is to develop an all-fiber type quantum squeezed state
generator and use it as the basis to produce quantum entangled state and to study the
possible applications of these quantum lights in the new research area mentioned
above. In the past few years our lab has accumulated a lot of experience on the
development of modelocked lasers and fiber devices, we will be based on these
achievements to develop a high power modelocked fiber laser source with small
noise and then generate squeezed states of optical pulses by utilizing Kerr
nonlinearity in the fiber. We will also setup a quantum noise measurement system to
determine the degree of squeezing and entanglement and try to demonstrate new
applications of these quantum states in quantum measurement, quantum cryptography,
and quantum teleportation.
NSC 91-2215-E009-025 (91R148)
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Title: A software for the computer-aided design and analysis of hybrid lens building
Principal Investigator: Mao-Hong Liu
Sponsor: Mechanical Industry Research Laboratories of IRTI.
Key words: hybrid lens, Seidel aberration, chromatic aberration, field curvature

      In this projection we try to build a software for the computer-aided design and
analysis of hybrid lens. In this software we create a program, and combined with
ZEMAX to design an air-spaced two hybrid lens system, and correct the Seidel
aberrations of it to achieve the required imaging quality. In test, we measure the
three-dimension profile and MTF curve by using the available testing system in our
lab. And we will also set up a system to measure the chromatic aberration and the
field curvature. The designed hybrid lens will be made with diamond turning by
Mechanical Industry Research Laboratories of IRTI.

C91035(91.4.1-91.11.30)

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Title: Optoelectronic Generationof Coherent CW THz Beam and Applications
Principal Investigator: Ci-Ling Pan
Sponsor: National Science Council
Keywords: Optoelctronic CW THz Generation, 2-λ-LD, LTG-GaAs, GaAs:As+,
               Photomixing, Photoconductive Antenna, MSM                         Traveling      Wave
               Photodetector, Electro-optic Sensing, Phased Array.


      The potential applications of electromagnetic waves at millimeter-wave or THz
frequencies in remote sensing, imaging, and communication are widely recognized.
In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in the development of Terahertz
optoelectronic sources and detectors. With the development of simple solid-state
femtosecond lasers and integrated optoelectronic THz-devices, a new area of
fundamental and applied THz science is opening up. THz studies ranging from
investigations of problems in fundamental physics, e.g., ultrafast dynamics in
materials to ranging, medical and environmental imaging, are actively explored.
Common to these diverse activities is the use of nearly single-cycle THz-pulses
generated by coherent optical techniques with femtosecond lasers. In this project,
an alternative optical route to terahertz sensing, imaging, and communication by
using the mixing of narrow-band cw lasers, will be pursued. Specifically, we will
develop a novel THz emitter system, which is compact, capable of generating high
power coherent CW THz beam with high quantum efficiency, and beam steering.
This module will be realized by integration of the THz photomixers [LTG-GaAs and
GaAs:As+ based photoconductive antennas or MSM traveling wave photodetectors]
with the proprietary tunable two-wavelength semiconductor laser (2-λ-LD) developed
at NCTU.        Potentially the present study will result in the realization of a
centimeter-sized, room-temperature coherent THz source with output exceeding 1
mW. Currently available 800nm band material and devices will be employed for
fabrication of THz photomixers. At a later stage, efforts will be directed toward the
technology-important 1550nm band to take advantage of the rapidly developing
material and devices in this wavelength range and the possibility of utilizing the fiber
 optical link for distributed sensing and other applications. Photomixing THz
 emitters/detecters/transceivers thus developed can be the test bed for next generation
 of satellite and wireless communication as well as broad-band data communication
 links. Array of this type of THz emitters can generate a frequency-agile THz beam,
 which can be steered remotely using photonic means. For sensing and imaging
 applications, we will use the electro-optic and photoconductive sensing schemes
 already developed in our laboratory.
NSC 91-2215-E009-063 (91R461)
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Title: Mesoscopic GaN Structures for Controlled Photon Emission
Principal Investigator: Shing-Chung Wang
Sponsor: National Science Council
Keywords:

      In this study, our goal is an optical micro cavity with quantum-confine structure
as the gain medium on gallium nitride material. The study contains the growth
dynamics of quantum dots and quantum confined structure of GaN-based material.
By applying laser spectroscopy, surface analysis, electric properties measurement, we
will study the pieoze-elcectric , Coulumb Blockade effect, electron tunneling and
sub-band transitions in Mesoscopic GaN quantum confine structure. We will compare
our experiment with theory of band structure, quantum optics, and quantum
electrodynamics model. From these study, the controllability of photon radiation in
mesoscopic scale will be explored.
       The major work is using MOCVD to fabricate quantum dot vertical surface
emitting device and PIN structure. The analysis instruments contain PL, X-ray, Hall
measurement, SEM/TEM, SIMS/AES, AFM, and Scanning Near-Field Optical
Microscopy (SNOM) for the microcavity and GaN Quantum dot material study. The
micro cavity structure and device will study with the Professor Y. Yamamoto in
Stanford University.
NSC 91-2215-E009-030 (91R153)
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