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October 8, 2010 Do Now WHY DO YOU THINK MOST PEOPLE MOVE TO THE UNITED STATES DURING THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION? The Expansion American Industry Chapter 6 U.S. History Test Chapter 6 Thursday, October 14th The Machine Age • From 1860 to 1900 a shift from farm economy to industry based economy • Inventions and Changes Patents The Machine Age • A remarkable inventor Thomas Edison 1,309 patents 1879 electric light bulb • Changed life in cities Important Industry • Oil Began in 1840 • Titusville, PA • “black gold” 1859 first oil well drilled • Just like the gold rush Many uses • Light lamps • Oil machinery Important Industry • Steel Bessemer Process (1850’s) • Allowed steel to be made cheaply • Iron rusted out, steel did not • Began to use in construction when the prices came down • Owners made $$$$ Paid their workers poorly Pollution begins The Rise of Big Business • Power & Wealth Big businesses buy up small ones Become Corporations • A large company formed by a group of investors • Owners make lots of money Robber Barons • Owners who became rich at the expense of their poorly paid workers The Rise of Big Business • Leaders of Big Business Andrew Carnegie • Controlled most of the steel business • Pittsburgh, PA John D. Rockefeller • Controlled most of the oil industry • Standard Oil Company The Rise of Big Business • Controlling Big Business Monopoly • Complete control of an industry by one company or person • 1880’s laws were passed to control monopolies • Difficult to enforce against the wealthy business owners The Work Force By 1880 there was a big supply of workers Faced terrible working conditions Poor Working Conditions 12 hour shifts (no overtime) Unsafe work areas Little fresh air Poor lighting Unsafe machinery Few rights No sick leave or vacation time The Work Force • Company Towns A community set up and run by the company • Especially coal mining areas • Workers gave some of their wages for rent • Could shop ONLY at the company stores • Scrip pay that could only be used in these stores • Often ended up owing money to the company The Work Force • New Workers on the Job Low wages could be paid to those in need of a job Women & children paid lowest wages Faced the same working conditions as men, but at a lower pay The Work Force • Workers Join Unions Labor unions • A group of workers that tries to help its members • Seek better pay & better working conditions Knights of Labor 1896 • Skilled & unskilled workers American Federation of Labor (AF of L) • Samuel Gompers • Skilled workers Carpenters, cigar makers The Work Force Violence Breaks Out STRIKE! – Stop working until demands were met The Haymarket Square Riot – 1886 Chicago – 8 hour work day – Violence broke out, people hurt & killed The Homestead Strike 1892 at one of Carnegie’s steel mills – Manager demanded workers accept lower wages – Went on strike – People were hurt & killed The Work Force The Pullman Strike 1894 Made railway cars Decided to cut workers pay, but did not cut rents or cost of goods in the company town Works went on strike – Railroads joined in, trains stopped running – Government sends in troops to deal with the striking workers – People hurt & killed By 1900 all of the violence hurt union membership Violence continued for years Unions continued to grow stronger until the 1980’s Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Women’s shirt factory in New York city March 25 1911 Fire breaks out in the Factory 146 workers died Result Must have an emergency exit plan Fire exits can not be blocked or locked Fire drills must be scheduled Fire alert system Indoor sprinkle systems Describe “robber barons” “Robber barons” implies that the business leaders built their fortunes by stealing from the public. they drained the country of its natural resources persuaded public officials to interpret laws in their favor ruthlessly drove their competitors to ruin paid their workers meager wages Forced workers to toil under dangerous and unhealthful conditions. Describe “captains of industry” The term “captains of industry,” suggests that the business leaders: served their nation in a positive way increased the supply of goods by building factories, raising productivity, and expanding markets created the jobs that enabled many Americans to buy new goods raised Americans standard of living established outstanding museums, libraries, and universities Vocabulary list 1. Patent 10. Trust 2. Transcontinental 11. Sherman Antitrust Act railroad 12. Piecework 3. Bessemer process 13. Sweatshop 4. Mass production 14. Division of labor 5. Oligopoly 15. Socialism 6. Monopoly 16. Scab 7. Cartel 17. Anarchist 8. Vertical consolidation 18. Craft union 9. Horizontal consolidation Child Labor Child Labor Child Labor
"The Expansion of Industry A"