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The Expansion of Industry A


									                  October 8, 2010

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The Expansion American Industry

            Chapter 6
           U.S. History
     Chapter 6
Thursday, October 14th
The Machine Age

• From 1860 to 1900 a shift from
  farm economy to industry based
• Inventions and Changes
The Machine Age
• A remarkable inventor
     Thomas Edison
     1,309 patents
     1879 electric light bulb
    • Changed life in cities
Important Industry
• Oil
        Began in 1840
        • Titusville, PA
        • “black gold”
        1859 first oil well drilled
        • Just like the gold rush
        Many uses
        • Light lamps
        • Oil machinery
Important Industry
• Steel
     Bessemer Process (1850’s)
     • Allowed steel to be made cheaply
     • Iron rusted out, steel did not
     • Began to use in construction when the prices
       came down
• Owners made $$$$
     Paid their workers poorly
     Pollution begins
The Rise of Big Business
• Power & Wealth
     Big businesses buy up small ones
     Become Corporations
     • A large company formed by a group of investors
     • Owners make lots of money
     Robber Barons
     • Owners who became rich at the expense of their
       poorly paid workers
The Rise of Big Business
• Leaders of Big Business
    Andrew Carnegie
    • Controlled most of the steel business
    • Pittsburgh, PA
    John D. Rockefeller
    • Controlled most of the oil industry
    • Standard Oil Company
  The Rise of Big Business
• Controlling Big Business
    • Complete control of an industry by one
      company or person
    • 1880’s laws were passed to control
    • Difficult to enforce against the wealthy
      business owners
The Work Force
 By 1880 there was a big supply of workers
     Faced terrible working conditions
 Poor Working Conditions
     12 hour shifts (no overtime)
     Unsafe work areas
     Little fresh air
     Poor lighting
     Unsafe machinery
     Few rights
     No sick leave or vacation time
 The Work Force
• Company Towns
    A community set up and run by the
   • Especially coal mining areas
   • Workers gave some of their wages for rent
   • Could shop ONLY at the company stores
   • Scrip pay that could only be used in these stores
   • Often ended up owing money to the company
  The Work Force
• New Workers on the Job
    Low wages could be paid to those in
   need of a job
    Women & children paid lowest wages
    Faced the same working conditions as
   men, but at a lower pay
  The Work Force
• Workers Join Unions
    Labor unions
    • A group of workers that tries to help its members
    • Seek better pay & better working conditions
    Knights of Labor 1896
    • Skilled & unskilled workers
    American Federation of Labor (AF of L)
    • Samuel Gompers
    • Skilled workers
        Carpenters, cigar makers
    The Work Force
 Violence Breaks Out
       – Stop working until demands were met
       The Haymarket Square Riot
       – 1886 Chicago
       – 8 hour work day
       – Violence broke out, people hurt & killed
 The Homestead Strike
       1892 at one of Carnegie’s steel mills
       – Manager demanded workers accept lower wages
       – Went on strike
       – People were hurt & killed
The Work Force
 The Pullman Strike 1894
     Made railway cars
     Decided to cut workers pay, but did not cut rents or
    cost of goods in the company town
     Works went on strike
     – Railroads joined in, trains stopped running
     – Government sends in troops to deal with the striking workers
     – People hurt & killed
 By 1900 all of the violence hurt union membership
     Violence continued for years
     Unions continued to grow stronger until the 1980’s
             Triangle Shirtwaist Factory

 Women’s shirt factory in New York city
 March 25 1911
 Fire breaks out in the Factory
 146 workers died
 Result
   Must have an emergency exit plan

   Fire exits can not be blocked or locked

   Fire drills must be scheduled

   Fire alert system

   Indoor sprinkle systems
                 Describe “robber barons”

 “Robber barons” implies that the business leaders
   built their fortunes by stealing from the public.

   they drained the country of its natural resources

   persuaded public officials to interpret laws in their favor

   ruthlessly drove their competitors to ruin

   paid their workers meager wages

   Forced workers to toil under dangerous and unhealthful
           Describe “captains of industry”

 The term “captains of industry,” suggests that the
 business leaders:
    served their nation in a positive way
    increased the supply of goods by building factories, raising
     productivity, and expanding markets
    created the jobs that enabled many Americans to buy new
    raised Americans standard of living
    established outstanding museums, libraries, and universities
                     Vocabulary list

1. Patent                     10. Trust
2. Transcontinental           11. Sherman Antitrust Act
     railroad                 12. Piecework
3.   Bessemer process         13. Sweatshop
4.   Mass production          14. Division of labor
5.   Oligopoly                15. Socialism
6.   Monopoly                 16. Scab
7.   Cartel                   17. Anarchist
8.   Vertical consolidation   18. Craft union
9.   Horizontal
Child Labor
Child Labor
Child Labor

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